Violated Nepal-India Border

 Border Encroachment


Locations of Violated Nepal-India Border

(At how many places has the Nepal-India border been  violated ? )

Altogether 26 out of 75 districts of Nepal have border linkages with India, of which 21 are undergoing the violation of their territory by India. There are 54 such border points within those 21 districts where Nepal’s territory seems to be encroached upon. The total area under encroachment is estimated at around 59,970 hectare, of which Kalapani-Limpiyadhura alone covers 37,840 ha, Susta area 14,860 ha, various places in Jhapa district cover around 1,630 ha, and other places in other districts occupy around 5,640 ha. Taken together, the following locations of the Nepalese territory have frequently been reported as encroached upon by India:

1.   Darchula District

1.      Kalapani-Limpiyadhura:

2.      Kanchanpur District

2.   Bramhadevmandi-Purnagiri:

3.   Tanakpur Barrage and Inundated Area:

4.   Banbasa-Gaddachauki:

5.   Sharada Barrage Area:

6.   Shuklaphanta:

7.   Parasan-Khuddakankad:

3.   Kailali District

8.   Sati-Birnala-Bhadanala:

4.    Bardiya District

9.  Manau, Khairi and Tapara:

10. Murtiya:

11. Manpur-Bhimapur:

5.     Banke District

12. Santalia:

13.  Holia, Nainapur (Laxmanpur Barrage):

6.     Dang District

14. Koilabas:

7.   Kapilvastu District

15. Krishnanagar, Thanda River Coast:

8.    Rupandehi District

16.    Danab River Basin (Rasiyawal-Khurdalotan Barrage):

17.    Sunauli Border Point:

9.    Nawalparasi District

18.    Susta Narsahi Area:

10.    Chitwan District

19.    Balmiki Ashram Area:

20. Daranala-Darichure:

11.    Parsa District

21.    Thori:

22.    Laxmipur-Pipara:

23.    Birganj-Sirsiyama-Alau:

12.    Rautahat District

24.    Gaur-Jamuna:

13.     Sarlahi District

25.    Tribhuvannagar:

26.     Sangrampur-Hathiaul:

14.    Siraha District

27.     Madar-Chandraganj:

28. Tandi:

15.    Saptari District

29.     Subarnapatti:

30.     Sakhada-Chhinnamasta:

31.     Lalapatti-Gobindapur:

32.         Kunauli:

33.         Bishnupur-Shivanagar:

34.       Gobargadha:

16.    Sunsari District

35.        Kataiya-Bhantabari:

36.         Harinagariya-Shivaganj:

37.          Sahebganj:

17.    Morang District

38.       Buddhanagar-Jogbani:

39.       Rangeli-Chopraha:

40.        Bakraha (Luna) River-Chunimadi:

18.     Jhapa District

41.       Pathamari:

42.         Maheshpur:

43.         Bhadrapur:

44.         Kakadbhitta-Mechi Bridge:

45.         Nakalbanda:

46.          Bahundangi:

19.     Ilam District

47.         Pashupatinagar-Hile:

48.         Mane Bhanjyang:

49.         Sandakpur:

20.    Panchthar District

50.         Chyangthapu-Singhalila:

51.         Chiwabhanjyang-Singhalila:

21.    Taplejung District:

52.         Timbapokhari:

53.         Megna Tumling:

54.         Kabeli-Kabru:

There are some more places of encroachment in recent times. These are Parasan Pyaratal of Kanchanpur, Lalbojhi (Kauakheda) and Bhajani (Kusumghat) of Kailali, Bardiya Municipality Ward- 4 (Chaugurchi) of Bardiya, Korobari of Jhapa and Bhantabari (1.5 km East-West Highway) of Sunsari District.


Kalapani and Susta Border Encroachment

Kalapani and Susta Border Encroachment

-Buddhi N Shrestha

Nepal-India Joint Technical Level Boundary Committee’s 30th meeting

was held in Kathmandu on September 24 and 25, 2007. In the joint meeting, progress of the border strip-mapping and its printing was reviewed. It was stated that strip-mapping work was completed except Susta Narsahi area and Kalapani-Limpiyadhura sector of Mahakali riverian segment. It is to mention that decision, during the talk of working group officials, was taken place to press print 19 strip-maps out of 82.


Here lies a question, what is the outcome of Susta and Kalapani area encroachment during the joint meeting? In answer, nothing is circulated to the media and general public on these disputed and encroachment area.


In fact, the north-western border of Nepal extends not only to Kalapani, but up to Limpiyadhura, as depicted on the historical maps. Limpiyadhura is located 17 Km west of Kalapani, where there is an Indian military camp. Some of these maps are Map of Gurhwal Kumaon prepared on 1st February 1827

Map of Kalapani Limpiyadhura

Map of Nipal and the adjoining countries- 24 April 1856 etc.

Map of Kalapani

According to these maps, Kalapani totally belongs to Nepal and Nepal’s territory is extends further west, up to Limpiyadhura. Because Limpiyadhura is the origination of the River Kali (Mahakali), as drawn on these maps. As the Treaty of Sugauli (4 March 1816 says:  all the land, east of the River Kali belongs to Nepal.


According to the spirit of the treaty, there is no point to retard Nepal on the issue of Kalapani, It must be followed as the historical maps and the documents tell us.


So far as the Susta disputed area is concerned, it must be followed the original course of the River Narayani flown during the time of Sugauli Treaty- 1816. The original river course must be delineated and demarcated accordingly. This is the dispute of 24 km of the river course, as there are no Junge Pillars on either side of the river. When there is a big flood, the river usually changes its course cutting Nepalese frontier, shifting towards Nepalese territory. And the Indian farmers and interest vested people intends to regard the new river course as the border line between two countries. But it is just beyond the adopted principle.


There were flood hazards during the monsoon period of 1845, 1954, 1972, 1980 and 1989. And the River Narayani changed its course in each and every heavy flood, leaving the Nepalese land on the east of the river.  

Map of Susta

It is to be understood that Nepal and India have jointly adopted the ‘Fixed Boundary Principle’ (not the Fluid Boundary Principle) on the river courses. But India has ignored the fixed boundary principle for the case of the River Narayani. This is the main issue of Susta resulting 14, 000 hectares of encroached land.


Nepal must insist on the adopted principle and the issue must be resolved delineating the original river course of the time of Sugauli Treaty.     

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