Border Management of Nepal (Book)

 

 

Border Management of Nepal

 

 

 

 

 

    Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

 

 

 

Publisher                       :    Bhumichitra Co. P. Ltd

                                            P.O. Box: 6769

                                            Kathmandu, Nepal

                                            Tel.: 4254-181

                                            E-mail: bhumap@ccsl.com.np

 

                                           

First Edition                :       2003

 

Number of Copies      :       1,100

 

 

ISBN  99933 – 57 – 42 – 1

 

 

Copyright                    :       © Reserved with the Author

                                                           No part of this publication may be reproduced                    without the prior permission of the author.

 

Price                            :       US$  20 

 

 

Cover Design and                  

Computer Lay-out      :       Gyanu Maharjan

                                            Horizon Computer Service, Putalisadak                                    Kathmandu, Tel : 4268-811

 

Printed At                   :       United Graphic Printers P. Ltd.

                                            Newplaza, Ramshahpath, Kathmandu

                                            Tel: 4421-410

 

 

 

 

Before I built a wall I’d ask to know

What I was walling in or walling out

And to whom I was likely to give offense.

GOOD FENCES MAKE GOOD NEIGHBORS

                                                                       

 ­- Robert Frost

“Mending Wall” Collected Poems.  New York- 1923 

 

 

  

In Memory of

 

Late Mr. J.R.G. Harrop,

former Director of Land Survey Department of Nepal

for his contribution to develop

surveying and mapping activities in Nepal

 

 

and

 

 

Late Prof. Jagat Bahadur Singh Burathokey,

former Head of the Department of Geography,

Tribhuvan University for the development of

geography education in Nepal

 

 

and

 

 

my late father

Hasta Bahadur Shrestha,

who passed away in the context of

Democratic Movement of Nepal-1950

 

 

 

 

Publisher’s Note

 

All citizens of a sovereign nation have an inalienable right to live in peace, security and harmony as independent people of a sovereign country. This right can best be enjoyed only if the country’s internal as well as external situation is stable. Nepal shares its borders with two Asian giants, and compared to its border on the north, its border with the southern neighbour remains porous and unregulated. This has brought both hindrances and benefits to Nepal from time immemorial.

 

            Managing borders is an issue related to the country’s internal security system in toto along with its political, economic and social dimensions. The country has to face numerous problems and challenges on several fronts, and especially a serious crisis in respect of peace and security, if there is no effective border management system. Nepal has been suffering from such problems for long because of the open, unregulated border with India. Be it the cross-border activities against India by Pakistani agents, or the safe shelter enjoyed by Nepal’s Maoist rebels into Indian soil during insurgency, or just an issue of maintaining peace and security between all these neighbours, the existing open border between India and Nepal has mainly been responsible for causing trouble. It is for this reason that the well-wishers of both the countries have long been voicing their concern for the scientific demarcation and proper management of their borders.

 

vi

            The author of the present book, Border Management of Nepal, has had a long practical experience and expertise in the field of mapping activities and Nepal’s border management. The book deals with the burning issues of managing and regulating the country’s border with its neighbours. This is a sequel to his earlier books, Boundary of Nepal and Border Management in the context of National Security in vernacular, which we had the privilege of publishing. Boundary of Nepal became very popular among intellectuals, as it received the prestigious Madan Puraskar (Prize) for 2057 B.S. We congratulate the author for the prize, and express our pride and joy for the opportunity to publish such an important book, which will contribute to preserving and promoting Nepal’s nationality, territorial integrity and sovereign security.

            The present book supplements the position taken by the earlier books. Here the author has carefully analyzed the emerging issues of border management, together with its history, present status and problems, keeping in mind the fact that national well-being is impossible without national security, which again, is beyond imagination without effective border management. This has helped to answer questions as to the exact nature of controversy surrounding our border points, along with its history as well as its advantages and disadvantages of the present system for the nation. Obviously, the book has brought to light the benefits a nation can acquire by managing its boundary skillfully.

 

            It may be noted that the books published earlier provided a complete picture of Nepal’s boundary, while the present book explains serious security implications when the borders are not competently regulated. This presents a lot of information and evidences, significant in themselves, pertaining to border management. We believe that it will help the readers who are interested to know Nepal’s border management system as well as the students, teachers and researchers in areas of bilateral relations and security by equipping them with the knowledge of the country’s history, geography and politics on the boundary of Nepal. Therefore, we are once again grateful to the author for providing us this opportunity to publish his book, and cherish every hope and confidence that this book will also gain readers’ appreciation like the earlier publications, Boundary of Nepal and Border Management in the context of National Security.  Lastly, we would like to thank all those involved in the publication of the book.

 

 

                                                       Bhumichitra Co. Pvt. Ltd.

                                                                         Mapping and Land Development

Adwait Marg

P.O. Box 6769

Kathmandu, Nepal

Phone:  977 1 4254-181

 

 

 

 

Foreword

 

The Kingdom of Nepal is a small, largely mountainous nation lying between the huge heavily populated nation of India on its southern side, and very sparsely populated China / Tibet to the north.  Astride this northern border lies Mount Everest, at an altitude of 29,035 feet (8850 m), the highest mountain anywhere in the world.  My wife and I have visited Nepal several times, always related to the mapping and determination of Everest’s precise position and altitude.

 

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, the author of this book was, for so many years, the Director General of Nepal’s Survey Department with the long experience in the land survey and mapping activities of Nepal and therefore the most ideal person who could possibly have been chosen to write it. He has made serious efforts to analyze the borders of Nepal and brought out an interesting and informative book on the topic.

 

Between its covers he reviews in detail both the issue and the management of these borders.  In several of these pages he is critical in his description of certain real weaknesses in the present border management of Nepal, for as a distinguished Nepali he wants Nepal’s border with India to its South, in particular, to be clearly demarcated as well as excellently managed.  This is more important than ever in an era when poorly known borders are often even the basis of confrontation- conflict-warfare!

 

It has been a real pleasure as well as an honor to have been asked to write the “Foreword” for this book. I am indeed happy that a Nepali researcher has made efforts to discuss on national border issues of his nation and its management in a comprehensive manner.  I am sure that it is destined to be of as much interest to the citizens of Nepal itself as it will be to the many thousands of others who love and respect Nepal worldwide and wish to know more on the boundary business of Nepal.

 

Bradford Washburn

Founding Director

Boston’s Museum of Science

April 7, 2003                                                        Science Park, Boston, USA


Few Words

 

It has been my pleasure to read the typescript of this book by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha who made a painstaking effort to bring out this immensely significant and timely piece of work entitled Border Management of Nepal. Upon a thorough perusal of its text, I found it a very important reading for all Nepali citizens who need to be well aware of the status of their national frontiers. The book has presented facts on Nepal’s border management issues after their extensive and in-depth study and analysis. Readers would notice that it has not only covered Nepal’s geographical and historical aspects of border issues at great length but also incorporated the relevant opinions of the political leaders and intellectuals of Nepal and its neighbours on the border management of the nation.

 

            Indeed, when we look for answers as to why we Nepalis need to be well informed of the country’s border management issues, it becomes clear that the root of the major problems that Nepal is facing today lies in the open, unregulated border between herself and India. It is extremely essential for all Nepalis to be fully sensitive to this crucial fact.

 

            Even the rebels had been finding it easier to transport arms, ammunitions and explosives into Nepal from across the southern border during insurgency. They were also frequently seen receiving medical treatment at the Indian hospitals along the Nepalese border. This has become possible exclusively because of Nepal’s open border with India, though, lately, the latter seems to have taken some steps in controlling the rebel’s movement. Likewise, crimes such as armed robbery, drugs trafficking, girls trafficking, and smuggling of arms, machinery equipment and foodstuff are also caused by the open border. This book has taken into account all these relevant details, and therefore, proves its significance to the readers very effectively.

 

ix

            So, the question arises, what is to be done now? The answer is: if we love our motherland exactly the way we love our home, and also want to protect it the way we do our home by provisioning security doors and windows and watchmen, we need to regulate the open border between Nepal and its friendly neighbour, India. The regulation should manage movements of goods or people on either side of the border to the designated entry and exit points only. However, those residing along the border should be provided with facilities for cross-border movement in a secure and transparent manner. If we can have a regulated border with our northern neighbour, why can’t we have the same with the southern one? We have to think coolly if we are to consolidate our national security system and make it more efficient. It is against this background that the present book demands a compulsive reading, as it has thrown light on these points very convincingly.

 

            India, of late, has deployed special security personnel to look after and protect her side of the border with us. Nepal should respond to this move, and should very urgently set up its own Border Security Force. Although the author has mentioned this matter in the book, it would have been better had he put it in some more detail. But he probably left it to the readers.

 

            To conclude, the author, who happens to be a former Director General of Survey Department of Nepal with a long involvement in research and writings on Nepal’s boundary, deserves our heartiest congratulations for writing this book, which is extremely useful for native as well as foreign researchers. He has no doubt done a great service to the nation. I pray to Lord Pashupatinath for his success in writing further books in future and bringing out the fact and truth on nation’s boundary issues to the general public.

 

                                                                                                    Satchit Shumsher J.B.Rana

 Member, State Council Standing Committee,

                                                                                            Honourable Retired General

                                                                                       and

Asha Dweep,                                                                                           Former Commander-in-Chief

Jorpati,                                                                                                        Royal Nepal Army

                                                                                                                    Kathmandu, Nepal

                                                                                                                         

  

Preface

 

We Nepalese love Dal-Bhat-Tarkari (lentil soup, rice and curry), as it is our staple food. We look forward to eating that every day. Peace and security like Dal-Bhat-Tarkari, are indispensable to Nepalese society and its citizens. Personal freedom is at stake whenever there is lapse of peace, security and tranquility in the society. National security, an essential element for society and its members, is closely related to the management of the country’s border. Even a minor irritant at any given international border-point of a small sized country like Nepal will create a serious impact on the other side of the border-point as well. The friction thus created would not only limit itself to the two frontiers, it will rather affect the countries hinterland on both sides entirely and directly.

 

            Now Nepalese are conscious and educated enough to understand that Nepal’s internal peace, security, law and order and overall development of the nation are intimately linked with the management of border. Illegal immigrants of all sorts enter Nepal from its southern border without any obstacle. There is also an unchecked and incessant influx of the neighbouring citizens and mischievous persons inside Nepal. After a lapse of some time, a number of innocent, common Nepalis, including at intervals, poor children and women, are found dead for no fault of theirs. Thus, these immigrants create terror and bloodshed in the country. Those who are killed are gone forever. Those who survive go hiding. Those who are injured flee secretly to the other side of the border and rest there until recovery, but only to return and stage another series of killings.  Some of them being criminals victimize innocent Nepalese including children and women. Besides creating terror in Nepal, crossing the border becomes a safe haven for them with total freedom of movement. No one can deny the fact that such unwarranted incidents that shake the foundation of a nation are caused by the weak, inefficient border management system, and incomplete border demarcation.

 

xi

            The land of Nepal is being used as an open passage/corridor to access the third country from the north too.  Normally a case of this nature should have been rare. The porosity at the international border points should not have prevailed at another point. Such situations can be anticipated since documents of any sort are required for travelling across the border.  Even the policemen from the foreign country take advantage of such unrestricted border and do their ‘ job ‘ by raiding the residences of the Kathmandu metropolitan capital of Nepal. Ironically, only when there is uproar, our security personnel come to know about it. Such security lapses and loopholes in the security mechanisms are the direct result of ineffective border management system of this country.

 

            This book is an outcome of my attempt to collect, arrange and analyze the information in areas of border management, along with an assessment of the social and economic impact due to the mismanagement of the border security system. In this perspective, I have suggested some alternative measures to the existing border management system of Nepal. Besides, I have included the historical boundary and some border issues of Nepal with both neighouring countries, China and India. This book is in no way may be complete, for there are some more minor issues uncovered and I did not want to make the volume look unattractive. However, those relevant and interesting materials related to the main subject are included as appendices.

 

            My earlier book, Boundary of Nepal, in vernacular was much appreciated by readers who seemed sensitive to the current border issues. All the copies of the first edition sold within two years encouraged me to embark on this book. The second book, Border Management in the context of National Security has also been admired by the readers and more than sixty percent of the total printed copies have been sold within a period of six months. I remain grateful to all respected readers of my earlier books, and now request them heartily to accept this book in English. It would greatly encourage me with your constructive responses, criticisms and comments. I express my sincere gratitude to the Madan Puraskar Guthi (Trust) for awarding my earlier book, Boundary of Nepal with the revered Madan Puraskar (Prize)-2057 B.S. which further motivated me to undertake this study. As a result, you have this book in your hand.

 

            This book contains some of the relevant chapters of my earlier books; Boundary of Nepal and Border Management in the context of National Security, printed in vernacular and many new chapters in English indeed. I would like to thank Krishna Gyawali and Sunil KC for their profession in translating some of the chapters.

            Likewise, I am obliged to all my well-wishers who encouraged and energized me for embarking on this book. Most notably, General Satchit Shumsher J.B.Rana: honorable member of the State Council Standing Committee and the Retired Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Nepal Army, deserves my deep appreciation for writing Few Words after reading the manuscript. I actually felt honoured. I am grateful to Dr. Bradford Washburn, Founding Director of the Boston Museum of Science, USA, for writing Foreword to this book with great interest. Similarly, I am indebted to Dr. Mohan Prasad Lohani, an eminent scholar for editing and fine-tuning the grammatical portion of this book. Without cooperation of the Bhumichitra Mapping Co., the painstaking process of publication of this book would not have been possible.

 

            Lastly, my wife Lily Shrestha deserves my heartiest thanks for always inspiring and encouraging me to work on the book, by freeing me from domestic preoccupations. My brother Hari Govinda Shrestha and daughter Dr. Kanchana Shrestha also share a large chunk of thanks for making necessary arrangements for printing and publishing the book.

                                                                                                                                   

– Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Okhaldhunga, Rambazar-5

Presently:

449/69 Ghattekulo Height

Kathmandu, Nepal

Tel: 977 1 4417-450

E-mail: border@wlink.com.np

Website: bordernepal.com

14 April 2003 (1st Baisakh 2060 BS)


 

 

Table of Contents

 

Publisher’s Note                                                                               vi

Foreword                                                                                        viii

Few Words                                                                                        ix

Preface                                                                                             xi

 

Chapter- I: Historical Boundary of Nepal

1.       Border Management and National Security                                     1

2.       Historical Boundary of Nepal                                                         2

3.       The Birth of Nepal                                                                        6

4.       Boundary of Greater Nepal                                                          10

5.       Boundary of Present Nepal                                                          24

6.       Boundary in the Constitution of Nepal                                           48

7.       Indian Military Check-posts in Nepal                                             50

8.       International Border Management                                                 55

 

Chapter- II: Nepal-China Border Management

    9.   Nepal-China Border Management                                                 62

 10.    No Hassle on Nepal-China Demarcation                                       63

 11.    Northern Borderline: Beyond the Himalayas                                  66

 12.    Shape of Northern Border before 1961                                         68

 13.    Himalayan Range is no longer Obstacle now                                 72

 

Chapter- III : Nepal-India Border Management

 14.     Nepal-India Border Management System                                     74

·         Origin of open border system                                                 76

·         Motive behind open border system                                          77

·         Acceleration of open border system                                        77

·         Border blockade by India                                                       78

15. Existing Southern Customs Points of Nepal                                    80

16. Implications of Open Border System                                              81

·        Positive implications                                                               82

·        Negative implications                                                             84

17.     Current Status of the Southern Border                                          97

·       Indian army at the border                                                       97

·       Nepalese army at the border customs                                   101

18.   Open Border System Needs Change                                          102

19.   Alternative Border Management System                                    106

·         Enforcing passport / ID card                                               107

·         Fencing the frontier                                                            109

·         Guarding the border                                                            113

·         Constructing roads on no-man’s land                                    118

 

Chapter- IV: Border Issues of Nepal

20.   Issue of Kalapani / Limpiyadhura                                              124

21.      The Western Border                                                                 135

22.      Status of Masonry Junge Pillar                                                 137

23.      Kalapani: A Motionless Move                                                   147

24.      What is Mechi Border Dispute?                                                151

25.      Debate on Susta Area                                                              160

26.      Locations of Violated Nepal-India Border                                  165

27.      Mount Everest was Claimed by China                                       176

28.      Rebels: Beyond the Border                                                       186

 

Chapter- V: Published Relevant Articles

29.       Army Mobilization at Border-points: How Meaningful?               194

30.       Impact of Army Mobilization on Customs Patrolling                    197

31.       Motive Behind: Indian Army at the Border                                 201

32.       Border is Extended even to the Sky                                           206

33.       Nepal-India Border Demarcation: Two Decades                        209

34.       Nepal-China Border Demarcation: Token of Friendship              215

 

Chapter- VI: Miscellaneous

35.       Who said What about the Open Border System?                        222

36.       Who said What on Kalapani Border Issue?                                232

37.       Statistics on Kalapani Border Area                                            242

38.       Glossary on Border / Boundary                                                 244

 

Chapter – VII: Appendices

39.    List of Appendices :                                                          249-301           

                 1.        Customs points of Nepal                                                    249

                 2.        Northern Border points of Nepal                                        252

                 3.        A Letter from Sardar Patel to Jawaharlal Nehru                 253

                 4.        Indian Check-posts at Nepal’s Northern Frontier                 259

                 5.        Northern Areas recently opened for Tourists                       260

                 6.        Passport Regulation / Sample of passport/Visa-1862            261

                 7.       

xv

Cost Estimate of Fencing at the border                               264

                 8.        Nepal-India Peace and Friendship Treaty -1950                  265

                 9.        Nepal-India Joint Comminuquè-1990                                   269

             10.        Nepal-India Joint Press Statement -2000                             273

             11.        Nepal-India Joint Press Statement -2002                             281

             12.        Treaty of Sugauli-1816                                                       288

             13.        Supplementary Boundary Treaty-1816                                291

             14.        Boundary Treaty 1860                                                       295

             15.        Boundary Agreement-1875                                                297

             16.        Sino-Nepal Boundary Agreement-1960                               298

             17.        Nepal-China Boundary Treaty-1961 (with Protocols)           301

 

Chapter- VIII : Maps

40.    List of Maps :                                                                              

                1         Map of Nepal-India-China                                                      3           

                2         Map of Greater Nepal 1760-1816                                          13

                3         Northern Border-points of Nepal to be Opened                      53

                4         Customs Check-points of Nepal                                            69

                5         Nepal-India Border Encroachment                                        99

                6         Gurhwal Kumaon 1827                                                       125

                7         India-XII, Index Map 1835                                                  129

                8         The Atlas of India, Plate X and XI 1846                              133

                9         Nipal and the Countries Adjoining 1856                                141

             10         Boundary Demarcation 1816-1860                                      143

             11         District Almora 1865-69 and 1871-77                                  145

             12         Nepal, Almora District, U.P. 1879                                       149

             13         Old Atlas of China, Qing Dynasty 1903                               309

             14         Indo Index of South Asia, Tokyo 1934                                 311

             15         The World Atlas, Moscow 1984                                          317

             16         List of Border Maps concerning Nepal                                318

 

Chapter- IX : Last Chapter

41.     Newspapers’ Note to the Author                                              321

42.     Short Introduction to the Author                                               343

43.     Cartoons on Border Issues                                                       352

44.     Selected Bibliography                                                              356

45.     General Index.                                                                        358

 

n

 

 

General Index

A

Abduction- 96

Adulteration- 88, 122

Al Queda- 88, 122

Amar Singh Thapa- 25, 28

Anti-national element- 187

Antu- 36, 37

Auxiliary pillar- 144

B

Baburam Acharya- 178, 179, 218

Baburam Bhattarai- 189,190

Badahakim-7 5, 108

Barbed wire fencing- 56, 60, 107, 109-113, 122, 197, 326

Berlin wall-  60,

Betrawoti Treaty- 16, 20, 21, 40, 216

Bhimsen Thapa- 14, 15, 25, 30, 35, 64, 176, 183, 187

Bhot (Tibet)- 11

Bihari politics- 96

Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala- 40, 43, 64, 176, 177, 182, 217

Blurred border- 56, 96

Border blockade- 57, 78, 80, 112, 188

Border dispute- 24, 59

Border management-1, 57, 62, 74, 78, 105, 119, 123, 193

Border marker- 40

Boston Museum of Science- 179, 324

Bradford Washburn- 179, 324

Brahmadev Mandi-136, 137, 142, 148, 166, 167

C

Campbell- 7

Captain Lloyd- 36

Cease-fire- 117, 191

Chandra Shekhar- 28, 29, 31, 35

Char bhanjyang- 8

Chautaria- 36

Check post- 50, 52, 80, 98, 123, 197, 202, 204

Chomolungma- 178-181, 218

Chou En-Lai- 40, 43, 177, 181, 217, 219

Christina Rocca- 87

Close border- 55, 106, 208

Coal marking- 60

Constitution- 48, 49, 50, 15

Controlled border- 55, 62, 76, 101, 105-107, 120, 121, 205, 208

Corrupt persons- 192

Cross-border- 76, 81, 85, 92, 107, 202, 208

Customs point- 80, 81

 

D

Delimitation- 57-61, 136

Demarcation- 16, 24, 40, 44,    57, 59, 60, 61, 65, 66, 84, 97, 136, 137, 148, 156, 158, 162, 176, 182, 183

Demilitarized zone- 62, 114

Democratic movement- 187

Deuralis- 4, 62, 63, 68

Devanagari script- 180

Dharnis-19

Dispute- 166

Drugs trafficking- 92

Dunduwa Range- 168

E

Earthen pillar- 38

East India Company- 12, 14, 24-26, 29, 33, 35, 36, 48, 77, 332

Emergency-50, 82, 192, 213, 218, 326

Encroachment-52, 84, 85, 140, 157, 167, 171, 177, 320

Extradition Treaty-193

F

Fake currency- 93

Fiefdoms- 6, 9-12, 15

Five principles- 176

Fixed boundary principle-152, 154, 159, 162, 163, 247

Fluid boundary principle-247

Friendship bridge-181

Friendship peak-181, 218

Frontier-4, 64, 68, 73, 92, 119, 123, 178, 193

G

Gadhwal- 12, 14, 30

Gajraj Mishra- 14, 28, 29

Geneva Convention- 118

George Ramsey-38

Gillespie-27

Gorge-4, 16, 167

Gorkha (Gorkhalis)-6-9, 12, 16, 17, 20, 24, 26, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 77, 87

Goswara- 75, 77

Great Wall of China-60

Greater Nepal-10, 15, 35, 127

H

Hat bazaar- 84

Hijacking- 94, 102, 205, 207, 208, 209

I

I.K. Gujaral-131, 211, 212

ID card system- 55, 76, 107- 109, 109, 121

Ikararnama- 36

Indo-Tibetan border- 130, 150

Inter-Service Intellegence (ISI)- 86, 101, 196, 202, 213

J

J.W. Grant- 6

Jaisi Kotha- 63, 181

Jawans- 201

Jawharlal Nehru- 51, 187

Jaya Prakash Malla- 8

Jolmo Lungma- 181, 182

Jung Bahadur- 22, 33, 36, 37, 67, 70, 127, 138, 180

Junge pillar- 60, 85, 138-147, 151-159, 163, 171, 173, 326

K

Kalapani- 52, 56, 85, 97, 110, 121, 124, 126, 128, 130-132, 134, 135, 137, 147, 148, 150, 066, 180, 184, 202, 212-214, 220, 321-327, 329-342

Kali (see Mahakali)

Kangra- 2, 14, 24, 35, 127,

Kantipur- 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16

Kerung Treaty- 19, 216

Khasa Agreement- 17, 18, 216

Khukuris- 27, 28

Kidnapping- 82, 94, 196

King Birendra- 210, 211, 214

King Gyanendra- 103, 189, 222

King Mahendra- 41, 54, 64, 183, 187, 217

King Tribhuvan- 187

Kirat- 10-12, 15

Kodari highway- 54, 62, 72

Kot Parva- 187

Kumaon- 11, 12, 28, 30, 127

Kuti Yangti- 128, 147, 331

L

Lahure- 186

Lepcha- 5

Limbuwan- 11, 15, 22

Limpiyadhura- 42, 52, 56, 85, 97, 124, 126-128, 130-132, 135, 137, 147, 166, 180, 184, 202, 203, 211, 214, 220, 321-327, 329-342

Line of Control- 98, 197, 207

Lipulek- 45, 121, 124, 128, 127,147, 203, 211

Liu Shao-Chi- 41, 217

Lord Buddha- 94

Lord Kenning- 33

Lord Moira- 26, 30

Lumbini- 169

M

Musharniya- 5

Mount Everest (see Sagarmatha)-

 

Mao Tse-tung- 43, 88, 181, 182

Munshikhana- 63, 75, 107

Mouja- 71, 172

Multi-party democracy- 80

Maoists- 84, 86, 87, 90, 101, 104, 110, 113, 116, 122, 188-192, 202, 214

Maiti Nepal- 1

Masonry pillar- 138, 140, 142, 146, 151, 156, 159

Mount Kanchanjungha- 175

Matha- 179, 180

Mugalan- 186

Multi-party system- 187

Maoist insurgency- 188, 189, 191

Maoist guerrillas- 190

Mafia- 201

Mahakali Treaty- 210, 211

Mechi River- 2, 14, 85, 138, 151, 160, 163, 173,

Mahakali (Kali) River- 2, 4, 28, 29, 34, 60, 96, 124, 127, 135-137, 147, 211, 220, 323, 326, 333

Mul Kaji- 7, 14

N

Naik- 23

Najari Naksa- 180

Nalapani- 27

National Geographic Society- 179

Naya Muluk- 33, 76, 124

Nep+Aal- 9, 10

Nepal Game Plan- 86

Nepal honey- 96

Nepaleswor- 10

No-man’s land- 70, 76, 81, 84, 110, 118, 168, 210

O

Ochterlony- 28, 29

Open border- 55, 76, 77, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 95, 96, 102, 104, 106, 113, 119, 208

P

Panchasheel- 66, 216

Panchayat System (partyless)- 79, 130, 187, 188

Parish Bradshaw- 24, 26, 28, 29

Passport system- 75, 76, 108, 109, 205

Peaceful Co-existence- 176, 218

Peak XV- 178

People’s militia- 191

People’s movement- 190

People’s war- 90, 116, 189,

Peter Boileau- 30

Porous border- 96, 109, 186, 193, 196

Pradhan- 8

Praganna-71

Pratap Singh Kairon- 164

Prithvi Narayan Shah (the Great)- 6-10, 15-17, 26, 30, 62, 186,

Protocol (boundary)- 4, 42, 45-48, 61, 65, 67, 68, 74, 176, 220

Q

Qian Qichen- 48, 220

R

Radhanath Sickdhar- 179

Rahadani- 75, 77

Ralley Takura- 28

Ramnagar- 36

Rebellion- 50

Rebels- 84, 89, 101, 110, 113, 116, 122, 123, 186-189, 191, 192

Reference pillar- 144, 153, 155, 158, 221

Refugee- 95

Regency- 12

Regulated border- 55, 105, 106, 113, 121, 196

Royal Geographical Society- 179

S

Safe haven- 186, 192, 193

Sagar- 179, 180

Sagar Dadhyo- 179

Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest)-5, 15, 42, 43, 59, 65, 176-186, 218, 219, 326

Sakhada Bhagawoti- 171

Sandakpur- 110, 174, 203, 214,

Sardar Ballabhbhai Patel-51

Second tier terrorist- 189

Secondary pillar- 156, 160

Secret Service Bureau (SSB)- 98, 100, 113, 117, 119, 120, 201, 202, 203, 205, 214

Sepoy (Soldier’s) Mutiny- 33, 34, 36, 37

Sharada barrage- 166

Singhalila Range- 4, 136, 137, 175

Sir George Everest- 179

Siwalik Range- 2, 4, 5

Sloping roof- 186

Sloping terrace- 185, 186, 219

Smugglers- 194, 195, 198

Strip-mapping- 97

Subsidiary pillar- 151, 155, 174

Sucha Singh- 164

Sugauli Treaty- 4, 6, 21, 28-32, 35, 39, 54, 60, 76, 97, 124, 132, 135-137, 144, 152, 154-157, 160, 209, 326, 333

Susta- 85, 93, 160-165, 169, 202, 214

Sutlej- 2, 4, 14, 15, 24, 28, 30, 35

 

T

Tanakpur- 166, 214

Tarai- 2

Tashilhunpo- 2, 16, 19, 20

Tejbir Budhathoki- 179

Terrorist attack- 2

Territory- 12, 49, 65, 110, 135, 150, 152, 156, 160, 166, 182, 212, 321, 

Terrorist- 2, 81, 85-87, 107, 109, 113, 119, 123, 189, 196, 204

Terrorism- 85, 88, 104, 111, 119,189

Thalweg- 247

Thapathali Treaty- 21, 23, 24, 39, 216

Thum-  67, 71

Tinkar-  41, 45, 128, 147

Tista River- 2, 4, 15, 35,127, 152

Treaty of Titaliya- 36

Tribhuvan highway- 75, 77, 108

Tri-junction-  42, 44, 45, 131, 137, 151, 184, 183, 212, 220

Tundhikhel- 183

U

Unification- 10, 12, 15, 16, 30

U Thong Yong- 88

Uti possidetis- 247

V

Visa System- 75, 107, 108, 109

Vista- 248

W

Watch tower- 98, 110

Watershed principle- 4, 41, 45, 71

Women trafficking- 90

Y

Yari-Hilsa- 72

Z

Zanskar Range- 15, 126, 215

Zeng Xu Yong- 131, 220

Zhangmu- 72

Zhongba- 73

Zillah of Poornneea- 142, 146

Zone of peace- 210

¨¨

 

 

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