India encroached Nepal border

All political parties say that India encroached Nepal border

In a major development that will have far-reaching repercussions on Indo-Nepal relations, all major political parties have officially concluded that India harassed the local villagers and encroached our land in Dang district. Two all-party delegations first from the Constituent Assembly and the other of the legislature parliament have conformed media reports that the notorious and hated SSB raped our women, harassed our locals and shifted border pillars in Dang district. This incident was denied by the Indian Ambassador saying that nothing of this sort had happened and the Nepali government too had not officially said anything on the matter. Now what more official comment is needed other than the statements made after site inspection by all-party delegations of the sovereign parliament of Nepal? Nepali people now want an answer from the Madhav Nepal government – on who is right? The Indian Embassy or the Constituent Assembly of Nepal? While last week’s delegation was headed by Nabindra Raj Joshi from the Nepali Congress, these two have been headed by leaders of left parties. In reality, the left parties and the centrist NC dominate the current Constituent Assembly.

 The CA team was lead by Amik Sherchan, chairman of the Committee for Protection of National Interest while the parliamentary delegation was headed by Padma Lal Biswakarma, chairman of the International Relations and Human Rights Committee.
Organising a press conference in Dang on 13 June 2009, the all-party CA inspection team urged the government to start rehabilitation of those displaced due to unruly acts of the Indian border security officials, provide them relief support and seek lasting solution to the recurrent border disputes. The team even told journalists that Indian SSB personnel threatened, harassed and barred Nepalis from purchasing daily consumer goods from the bordering market. This is against the 1950 treaty which allows nationals of one country to move freely through the open border to another.
 Not only the MPs but even a huge rally was organized on Friday in Susta, Nawalparasi by the CPN (Maoist) party which was participated by a large number of Madhesis. They shouted against the brazen Indian act of shifting border pillars. The footage in by prominent television stations showed thousands of dhoti clad Madhesis who were protesting against Indian hegemony. It was really an interesting development and perhaps happened for the first time in the history of Nepal that Madhesis were protesting against India.
More interesting is the repeated assertions by all-party delegations that Nepal’s border has been encroached in a number of places by India. One is reminded of an interview in early 2006 by former Indian Ambassador Shiv Shankar Mukherjee given to Vijaya Kumar in which he strongly said that “India’s sympathy and support is with the Nepali political parties”. He further added that the “political parties are the Indian card.” If only there is any system of re-evaluation and re-thinking in democratic India on neighbourhood policy that has gone drastically wrong , would it not be fair to ask for an interrogation by the Indian parliament over MEA, IB and RAW’s totally absurd handling of Nepal situation?  


People’s Review Weekly, 18 June 2009

Indian SSB paramilitary retreated back

Indian SSB para-military force retreated back

Indian Special Services Bureau para-military infiltration in Dang district problem must be addressed at the government level at the earliest.”  Even during British rule in India, there was a dispute over the Dhuduwa range in southern Dang, which was resolved after British India and Nepal recognised the southern foothills of the Dhunduwa range as the borderline. Meanwhile, Indian SSB personeel have dug three feet wide and three feet deep ditch along the no-man’s land. They have cut the Nepalese forest and transported to India with the stones, boulders and sand from the Nepalese frontier. 

The border dispute in Dang could be resolved if India agrees to review demarcation lines based on historic agreement made on 7 January 1875 . The agreement was signed by Lieutenant Colonel I. F. Mac Andrew from British India and Siddhiman Singh Rajbhandari from the government of Nepal. The agreement says ‘The boundary between the two States on the Dhundwa range of hills from the Arrah Nudee to the hills above Baghora Tal shall be the foot of the lower spurs where they meet the plain to the south of the range.’

 “If India agrees, this problem can be resolved through review of border demarcation lines based on above mentioned historical survey documents. SSB personnel had been resorting to excesses against people living in parts of Dang bordering India for years.

The Indian SSB personnel would drive people away if they failed to produce land ownership certificates claiming that the territory belonged to India. Indian SSB personnel had been infiltrated upon some 40-metre-wide swathe stretching 30 kilometres along the eastern and western strips covering 22 pocket areas of Bhausahi, Dangmarg, Khangra, Gurung and Koilabas posts in Dang. The SSB personnel retreated back before a team of Constitution Assembly Members headed by Padma Lal Bishwokarma and eighteen political party representatives led by former deputy prime minister and member of Constitution Assembly Member Amik Sherchan visited on the spot of illegally infiltrated area of Dang district.

Think before signing border map

सीमा नक्सामा हस्ताक्षर गर्नुअघि सोचौं

 बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ


नेपाल र भारतबीच तयार भएका १ सय ८२ थान सीमानक्सामा दुई देशका पदाधिकारीले चाँडै हस्ताक्षर गर्न लागेका छन् । केही समयपछि हुने प्रधानमन्त्रीको भारत भ्रमणका समय दुई परराष्ट्र सचिवले संयुक्त दस्तखत गर्नेछन् । वास्तवमा यस्ता तयारी नक्सा -स्टि्रप म्याप) मा कतिपय क्षेत्रको स्थलगत विवरण नमिलेको पनि देखिन सक्छ । यस्ता नमिलेका विवरण यथार्थरूपमा सुधार गरिएपछि मात्र संयुक्त हस्ताक्षरको काम गरिनुपर्छ । सुधार नगरी हतारमा हस्ताक्षर गरिए नेपाली नागरिक विदेशी बासिन्दामा परिणत हुन जाने र सीमा संकुचन भई नेपाल पछुताउनुपर्ने सम्भावना रहन्छ । यस्ता सीमानक्सा कुन हदसम्म शुद्ध तरिकाले बनाइएका छन् भन्ने कुरा भारतका विदेशमन्त्री प्रणव मुखर्जीको नेपाल भ्रमणका अवसरमा ०६५ मंसिर १० गते उनले दिएको अभिव्यक्तिबाट पनि केही बुझ्न सकिन्छ । उनले भनेका थिए, ‘करिब ९८ प्रतिशत सीमाक्षेत्र रेखांकन भइसकेको छ र तिनलाई नक्सामा समेत राखिएको छ । ती नक्सामा केही निश्चित सुधारपछि सम्बद्ध अधिकारसम्पन्न अधिकारीले हस्ताक्षर गर्नेछन्’ -कान्तिपुर, ०६५ मंसिर ११) ।
नक्साको सत्यापन
नक्साको सत्यापन परीक्षण गर्नका लागि हाल नेपालको भू-भाग मिचिएको छ भनी आवाज उठिरहेको क्षेत्रमा जमिनसँग भिडाउने काम गर्नु व्यावहारिक हुन्छ । यसबाट त्यस्ता पकेट क्षेत्रको सीमा मिचिएका छन् छैनन् भन्ने निक्र्योल हुनसक्छ । यस प्रयोजनका लागि तयारी नक्साको फोटोप्रति संविधानसभामार्फत सभासदहरूसमक्ष पुग्नुपर्छ । सभासदहरूले आफ्नो सीमा क्षेत्रको नक्सा प्राविधिज्ञको सहयोगमा
अध्ययन अवलोकन गरी स्थलगत हिसाबमा दुरुस्त छन् छैनन् भन्ने कुरा पत्ता लगाउनुपर्छ । नक्सा नमिलेको भए सुधार गर्ने प्रक्रियामा जानुपर्छ ।
नक्साको प्रथम चरणमा दुवै देशका सर्भे अफिसियलको तहमा ०६४ पुस ४ गते नयाँदिल्लीमा हस्ताक्षर भएको छ । नेपालको तर्फबाट नापी विभागका महानिर्देशकले र भारतका तर्फबाट सर्भे अफ् इन्डियाका सर्भेयर जनरलले दस्तखत गरेका छन् । अब यी नक्सा दुवै देशका अधिकारप्राप्त व्यक्ति -प्लेनी पोटेनसियरी) ले हस्ताक्षर गरेपछि पूर्ण सरकारी दस्तावेजका रूपमा परिणत हुन्छन् । वैधानिकताका निम्ति हस्ताक्षर गर्नुअगाडि मन्त्रिपरिषद्बाट पारित गर्नुपर्छ ।
सभासदद्वारा नक्सा अध्ययन
सीमा नक्साको फोटोकपी अध्ययनका लागि सभासदलाई उपलब्ध गराउन मिल्छ या मिल्दैन भन्ने कुरा सरकारी हैसियतबाट उठ्न सक्छ । किनकि सीमानक्सा सरकारी कागजातका रूपमा रहेको छ । तर यो राष्ट्रका निम्ति गोप्य कागजातचाहिँ होइन । किनकि यस्ता सामग्री नेपाली जनताको हितका निम्ति बनाइएका हुन् । नेपालको राष्ट्रिय हित संरक्षणका लागि यस्ता नक्सा तयार गरिएका हुन् । संविधानसभाअन्तर्गतका समितिमा रहेका सभासदहरूले राष्ट्रको सीमालगायत देशको हित संरक्षणका लागि नयाँ संविधानको मस्यौदा तयार पार्दै छन् । संविधान लेखनको सिलसिलामा राष्ट्रको सिमाना र सीमा व्यवस्थापनका कुरा पनि पर्ने भएकाले सरोकारवाला कागजात तथा नक्सा सभासदले अध्ययन गर्न स्वतः पाउनुपर्छ भन्ने स्पष्ट छ । अर्कोतर्फ नेपाली जनताको व्यक्तिगत जग्गा जमिन तथा घरबासप्रति यी नक्सा सम्बन्धित रहेका छन् । नक्सामा उनीहरूको जमिन तथा घरबास भारतीय सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रतर्फ पारी अंकन गरिएको भए यस्तो नक्सा प्रचलनमा आउनेबित्तिकै उनीहरू भारतीय नागरिक हुनुपर्ने अवस्था आउँछ । यस्तो संवेदनशील कुरोमा सरोकारवाला पक्षले प्रक्रिया पुर्‍याई सरकारी कागजातको प्रतिलिपि पाउनुपर्ने कुरा विधिसम्मत बुँदाभित्रै पर्न सक्छ ।
नक्साको शुद्धता
तयारी नक्सामा कतिपय सम्बद्ध स्थानका विवरण के कसरी अंकन गरिएका छन् र ती विवरण सुगौली सन्धिका प्रसङ्गमा तयार पारिएका पुराना नक्सा दस्तावेजका आधारमा हालको नयाँ नक्सामा जस्ताको तस्तै उतारिएका छन् छैनन् भनी जान्न नेपाली जनमानस आतुर देखिन्छ । यस सम्बन्धमा दुई-चार प्रसंग उल्लेख गर्नु सान्दर्भिक होला ।
प्रथमतः झापा जिल्ला भद्रपुर नगरपालिकाबाट भारतको गलगलिया रेल्वे स्टेसनतर्फ जाँदा मेची नदी किनारमा रहेको जंगेखम्बा नम्बर पीपी- १ लाई हालको नयाँ नक्सामा मूल सीमा खम्बाको दर्जा दिइएको छ कि साक्षी खम्बाका रूपमा अंकन गरिएको छ ? नक्सामा यसको निरुपण भएको छ छैन भन्ने कुरा महत्त्वपूर्ण छ । किनकि भारतले यस जंगे खम्बालाई मूलखम्बा नमानी त्यो खम्बाभन्दा करिब ३ सय फिट पश्चिम भद्रपुर माध्यमिक विद्यालयको प्रांगणमा ०५२ चैतको अन्तिम हप्तामा १ सय १ सिरियलका नयाँ पुड्का खम्बाहरू गाडेको थियो । धेरै हल्लाखल्ला मच्चियो । काठमाडौंबाट बहालवाला तथा भूतपूर्व केही मन्त्री निरीक्षणमा पुगे । यसै सिलसिलामा नेपाल र भारतका जिल्लास्तरका अधिकारीहरूको बैठक ०५५ पुस २० गते चन्द्रगढीमा बसेको थियो । नदी क्षेत्रको जमिन अतिक्रमण समस्या सम्बन्धमा संयुक्त स्थलगत निरीक्षण गरिएको थियो । तर यो समस्या समाधान भएको थिएन । स्मरणीय छ लेफि्टनेन्ट जोन पिटर बोएलुको नेतृत्वमा त्यस क्षेत्रको सर्वेक्षण भई जनवरी १८१८ मा जंगे खम्बाहरूको चित्रांकनसहित नक्सा प्रकाशित भएको थियो । त्यो नक्सामा जंगेखम्बालाई मूल खम्बाको दर्जा दिइएको थियो । यहाँ यो विवरण उल्लेख गर्नुको कारणचाहिँ यदि त्यो खम्बालाई नयाँ नक्सामा मूल खम्बा नमानिएको भए यो त देशद्रोह नै हुनसक्छ ।
अर्को बँुदा, बारा जिल्ला दक्षिण झिटकैया गाविसमा रहेको जंगे पिलर नम्बर २५ देखि २६ सम्मको कित्ता नापी नम्बर १०९ तथा ५८० को रामसखीदेवी दुसादिनसमेतको एकतीस कित्ताको करिब ३० बिघा जमिन सीमा नक्सामा भारततर्फ पारेर अंकन गरिएको छ कि नेपालतर्फ ? यो विवरण रामसखीले हेर्न चाहेकी छन् । आफूले नसके आफ्ना जिल्लाका सभासद शिवचन्द्रप्रसाद कुसवाह तथा ज्वालाकुमारी साहमार्फत जान्न खोजेकी छन् । यदि उनको जमिनसमेत भारततर्फ पारिएको भए यो त नेपालको राष्ट्रियतामाथि नै आँच आउने कुरो भयो । यहाँ बाराका रामसखी तथा कैलाली जिल्लाको भजनी गाविस वडा नं. ९ कुसुमघाटका वीरु विकजस्ता सयौं नेपाली नागरिक विदेशी बासिन्दामा परिणत हुनेमात्रै होइन, यसबाट नेपालको सीमारेखा पनि संकुचनमा पर्न जान्छ । यो एउटा उदाहरणमात्र हो । यस्ता मामिला अनेकौं पकेट क्षेत्रमा हुन सक्छन् । यसरी व्यक्तिको अतिक्रमित जमिन भारततर्फ नै पारी नक्सांकन गरिएको भए रामसखी देवीजस्ताका निम्ति नेपालबाट दिइएको जग्गाधनी दर्ता लालपुर्जा र नेपाली नागरिकताको प्रमाणपत्र एउटा कागजको खोस्टोमात्र हुनसक्छ । अर्कोतर्फ, राष्ट्रको सीमा साँघुरिँदै गई एक दिन राष्ट्रको अस्तित्व नै लोप हुने अवस्था आइपर्दैन भन्न सकिन्न । यिनै कुरालाई हृदयंगम गरी हालको सीमानक्सा सरोकारवालाले हेर्न पाउने प्रबन्ध सरकारले गर्नुपर्छ । सरकारी कागजातको प्रतिलिपि एक तहका कर्मचारीले दिन नसके त्यसभन्दा माथिल्लो दर्जाका पदाधिकारीले प्रदान गर्न पनि सक्छन् । सीमानक्साको प्रतिलिपि नापी विभागले उपलब्ध गराउन नसके परराष्ट्र मन्त्रालयले उपलब्ध गराउन सक्ला । नसकिए विशेष प्रबन्ध गरी कमसेकम संविधानसभाअन्तर्गत विभिन्न समितिका सभापतिलाई उपलब्ध गराउन सकिएला । यसबारे सरकारले बेलैमा चासो राख्नुपर्छ ।
तेस्रो बुँदा, नेपाल र भारतबीच १ हजार ८ सय ८ किलोमिटर लामो सीमारेखाको ९८ प्रतिशत नक्सांकन गर्ने काम समाप्त भएको छ । भारतीय विदेशमन्त्री प्रणव मुखर्जीले पटक-पटक यस्तै भनेका छन् । यसैगरी नेपालका लागि भारतीय राजदूत राकेश सुदले पनि यही कुरा दोहोर्‍याएका छन् । यसै दैनिकको जेठ ३ मा प्रकाशित आन्तर्वार्तामा उनले सीमांकनको काम दुवै पक्षका विशेषज्ञले गरेका हुन्, डिसेम्बर २००७ मा उनीहरूले आफ्नो काम सकेर स्टि्रप म्यापमा सही पनि गरिसकेको छन्, यसले नेपाल र भारतको ९८ प्रतिशत सीमा क्षेत्र समेट्छ, दुई क्षेत्र- सुस्ता र कालापानी यसमा परेका छैनन् भन्ने उल्लेख गरेका छन् । अझ अगाडि बढ्दै उनले भनेका छन्- ‘प्राविधिक सर्वेक्षकहरूले सुस्ता र कालापानी -विवादलाई) सुुल्झाउन राजनीतिक संवादको खाँचो रहेको छ । हामीले नेपाल सरकारलाई -अन्तिम हस्ताक्षर गरेर) स्टि्रप म्यापलाई औपचारिकता दिन अनुरोध गरेका छौं ।’
यहाँ प्रश्न उठ्छ, नेपाल र भारतको सम्पूर्ण सीमांकनको काम समाप्त नगरी ९८ प्रतिशत नक्सामा मात्रै नेपालको हस्ताक्षर गराउन भारतलाई किन हतार भएको हो ? शतप्रतिशत काम सम्पन्न भएपछि मात्र संयुक्त हस्ताक्षर गरिनुपर्ने होइन र ? त्यसमाथि पनि परराष्ट्र सचिवस्तरको तहबाट हस्ताक्षर हुने चाँजोपाँजो मिलाउन लागिएको बुझिन्छ । विश्वका विभिन्न देशहरूमा सीमाको सम्पूर्ण काम सकिएपछि मात्र वादविवादरहित तरिकाले संयुक्त हस्ताक्षर गरिने प्रचलन रहेको छ । नेपाल र चीनबीच सगरमाथा मामिला निप्टारा भई सबै काम सकिएपछि मात्र दुवै देशका परराष्ट्रमन्त्रीले नक्सासहितको सीमा प्रोटोकलमा २०१९ माघ ७ गते हस्ताक्षर गरेका थिए ।
भारतीय मनसायमा लुकेका कुरा
रेखांकनको सबै काम नसकी ९८ प्रतिशत नक्सामा पटके हिसाबले नेपाललाई हस्ताक्षर गराउने भारतीय मनसायमा कालापानी र सुस्ताबाहेक अन्य सम्पूर्ण भागमा समस्या छैन भन्ने प्रमाण बनाउने कुरो लुकेको जस्तो देखिन्छ । तर इतिहासविज्ञ, अनुसन्धानकर्ता तथा अन्वेषक भन्दै छन्- नेपाल र भारतबीच ५४ भन्दा बढी स्थानमा सीमा अतिक्रमण, विवाद, दाबा-विरोधका मामिला रहेका छन् । हुन पनि हिजोआज दाङ जिल्लाका बाइस नाकामा भारतीय सशस्त्र प्रहरीको घुसपैठ तथा ज्यादतीका कुरा उठेका छन् । बाराको ८१ सीमाखम्बा सारेको, इलामको श्रीअन्तु गुफापातालको ११ रोपनी नेपाली भूमि मिचेको समेतको कुरा सेलाएको छैन । यस्तै, टनकपुर, सन्दकपुर, महेशपुर आदि इत्यादिको समस्या पनि ज्युँदै छन् । अर्को कुरा, बाँकी २ प्रतिशत भन्ने कुरा सुन्दा अथवा भनिदा थोरै अंश मात्र रहेछ भन्ने पनि बुझिन सक्छ । तर नेपाल र भारतबीच सीमारेखाको दुई प्रतिशत भन्नाले करिब ३७ किलोमिटर लामो रेखाको कुरो आउँछ । यही ३७ किलोमिटरको ठाउँ-ठाउँमा समस्याको माखेसाङ्लो अड्किएर बसेको छ । सीमारेखाको ५४ भन्दा बढी स्थानमा अतिक्रमण र विवादको मामिला रहेको छ ।

Border Disputes and its Solution

Discussion program


Border dispute and it’s Solution


            Collective Campaign for Peace (COCAP), Central Regional Secretariat and Campaign for Change Nepal (CCN) jointly organized a half day discussion cum interaction program on, “Border Dispute and it’s solution” on 14th June, 2009 on the premise of CCN meeting hall, Buddhanagar. Altogether 21 participants including the border expert, members of Constituent Assembly, representatives of networks, federations, youth organizations intensively participated on the program. (the name list of the participants is in annex). The program was organized to make the concept clear about the border and its’ dispute.

            The program was commenced with short introduction of the participants. Yagya Aryal, Secretary of Central Regional Secretariat and President of CCN by facilitating the session, shared the objectives of the program As a resource person, Buddhi Narayan Shrestha shared about the border and it’s technical aspect, how it became the matter of debate and how we can fortify the border? According to Shrestha, “Border is an extremely sensitive, because if a small portion of land is encroached, the people residing in that area would have to belong to another nation.” If this process continues and the border is encroached in huge mass, there is the great question of existence of the nation. The territory of Nepal is not same; time and again it was changed. During 1806, the territory of Nepal is stretched towards Killa and Kangada later Nepal lost that land. The present territory of Nepal is set by the Sugauli Treaty of 4th March, 1816. In Shrestha’s words, the territory of border is encroached due to the unavailability of clear roadmap and historical documents, setting the border based on the river, the so-called superiority of neighboring country, and negligence of neighboring country to follow the international territory. The debate of border encroachment got high attention as India encroach the border time and again. Different places including Pyaratal/Parasan of Kanchanpur, Lalbhungi/Bhajani of Kailali, Kalapani, Sutsta, Pashupatinagar of Ilam and Lakauhi of Sunsari et al are became the issue of hot debate of border encroachment. In total there is 1800 km long border line sets the border of Nepal and India where 26 districts directly touched the Indian border and amongst 26 districts there is debate on 54 places in 21 districts. In total, there was hot debate on 60,000 hectares of land. The border dispute is continues from the time of Anglo war period. The recent case of Dang is not novel, since it became the matter of debate from the history.


Mr. Shrestha also mentioned about the recommendations to solve the dispute of border;

  • Diplomatic initiative from government level.
  • Scientific measurement of the territory based on Global Positioning System (GPS).
  • Developing the appropriate strategy and proper implementation of that.
  • Empowering and making aware the people residing in the border areas.
  • Pressurizing the government by the people to implement the agreements and treaties.
  • Neutral committee formation including the border experts from the both of the nation and diplomats.

Dilli Rawat, representative of Civil Society and member of Federation of Nepalese Journalists, Dang also shared his views about the border encroachment occurred in Dang district. The pillars kept in the border are in ruined condition. The case of Dang is related with stone, forest and wild animals. The people of the border belongs to Nepal has to depend on India and vice versa. The stones and forest resources are using by the Indian people. To protect the territory, the government has to kept special security force over there in the border.

Rabindra Adhikari, CA member and member of the National Interest Preservation Committee formed for drafting the new constitution also shared his views on the program. Regarding Nepal and India there are three kinds of border; close border, controlled border and open border. He agreed on the fact that, the border of India and Nepal frequently became the matter of debate, thus he shared few recommendations to improve the situation.

  • Regular depart to measure the border time to time.
  • Monitoring from the level of diplomats.
  • Establishment of security force in the border area.
  • Strictly elimination of residing in the no man’s lane areas.
  • Provision of identity card in border areas.
  • Improve awareness of the residuals in border areas.
  • Self-empowerment of the residual of border areas.
  • Mobilization of local bodies to protect the land.
  • Wider consensus amongst the political parties and elimination of political motivation on common national agendas.
  • Cross security by both countries in border area.

Similarly, Dama Kumari Sharma, CA member from the constituency of Dang representing United CPN Maoist also shared her views on the program. The border disputes of Nepal and India not a new one. Every year Nepalese people have to face several problems in the boarder areas caused by the Indians. She proclaimed that, her party is strongly raising the voice of border as they are in the government and also away from the government.  She also puts few recommendations to eliminate the border dispute.

  • State should be accountable on addressing the problems caused by border.
  • Scientific measurement of territory before drafting the constitution. 
  • Provision of identity card for the residuals of border areas.
  • Rehabilitation of the displaced people due to the border dispute.
  • Elimination of trend of open border.
  • Pressurizing the government vis-à-vis Indian government from the level of people.

Manoj Pandeet, Film Maker and the Director of Greater Nepal also put his views on the program. By agreeing on the fact of border encroachment he felt happy on making debate and interaction on the issue of border because it is not became the matter of discussion. He also put his recommendations for eradicating border dispute;

  • Determining an exact territory before drafting the constitution otherwise there is no space to promulgate the constitution.
  • Concluding the culture of showing guilt and lamenting for the past but to develop future strategies to secure our territory.
  • Scientific demarcation of territory.
  • Triangular coordination amongst India, Britain and Nepal to eliminate border dispute. 
  • Updating information of border.


Bharati Pathak, Treasurer FECOFUN, also shared her ideas on the program. The dispute of border is related with water, land and forest (jal, jamin ra jungle). The forest should not be deforested in the name of resettling the people. There should be short term and long term plan to eliminate the challenges of border. The civil society has to provide pressure from the local to the national level and the natural resource must become the political agendas. Similarly there is an essentiality of common consensus amongst the political parties and the updated information of border also plays vital role.

Since the program was interactive, the participants shared their queries and views on the program. The participants got knowledge of technical aspect of the territory. An encroachment of territory must touch the people and the participants show their commitment to develop that environment. There should be the provision of citizenship as well the lobbying with diplomats and international communities equally plays the vital role. In the same manner, the participants mentioned that, if the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is used in border security that would be more better and relates with the peace process. Civil Society has to pressurize the concern stakeholders by making their common voices. The program commenced at 2.30 and concluded at 5.15 pm and facilitated by Yagya Aryal. He thanked all the participants for their valuable participation and hope for building collective effort on coming days.


Major outputs of the program

  • Increased understanding about the border and it’s technical aspects.
  • Identified basic approaches for determining the territory of the nation.
  • Developed common consolidation amongst the stakeholders including the policy makers to eliminate the border dispute in scientific way.
  • Developed coordination in-between the stakeholders functioning in different areas.
  • Augmented coordination in between member organization and regional secretariat.





            Border, one of the sensitive issues in context of Nepal is becoming the matter of huge debate time and again. The territory of Nepal encroached and the people residing in the border areas are facing the problems of displacement, raping, abduction, fear, terror, threatening and many more. But, the government is being quite lethargic and not listening the voices of the victims. The political parties are using this agenda merely as a political too. In this context, there must be a common consensus not only between the political parties, but also the civil society has to raise the voice. The program organized to develop basic idea on border became fruitful as the stakeholders participated on the program showed their great enthusiasm. The materialization of the programme depends on the upcoming efforts taken by the stakeholders and the common consensus amongst the political parties acknowledging it as a common agenda of nation.




































Annex I

Name list of the participants





Rabindra Adhikari CPN-UML CA Member
Bishnu Bdr. Khatri Youth Action Nepal Executive Director
Buddhi Narayan Shrestha   Border expert
Yagya Aryal COCAP/CCN Secretary/President
Dev Raj Bishokarma   Journalist, Dang
Dilli Bahadur Rawat Civil Society, Federation of Nepalese Journalists (FNJ) Member
Bharati Pathak FECOFUN Treasure
Dama Kumari Sharma U CPN Maoist CA Member
Umesh Singh Tharu CCN Office Assistant
Prabhat Kiran Koirala   Journalist
Arjun Bhattarai NGO Federation of Nepal Central member
Madhab Bastakoti COCAP Program Manager
Laxmi Niraula AYON Program Coordinator
Rudra Prd. Bastola    
Sahek BK Dalit Activist  
Shyam Adhikari COCAP Regional Program Officer
P.S. Badri HURDAN  
Manoj Pandit Film-maker Greater Nepal
Purna Gandhari COCAP Office Assistant
Deepak Kumar Bhattarai COCAP President
Pokhraj Shrestha CCN Program Coordinator




Annex II

Photos of the program


(Buddi Naryan Shrestha, Border Expert sharing his view in the program)  



(Dilli Rawat, member of civil society Dang putting his views in the program)


(Rabindra Adhikari, CA member and the member of National Interest Preservation Committee, sharing his views)  


(Dama Sharma, CA member in left and Bharati Pathak, Treasurer FECOFUN in the program)



(Manoj Pandee(in red T-shirt), Film Maker sharing his views)


(Participants mentioning their queries in the program)



(Yagya Aryal, facilitating the program)



(Participants of the program)


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