Security concern and border management of Nepal



Security Concern and Border Management of Nepal


Buddhi N Shrestha

Spoke as a Guest Speaker at

Nepal Army Command and Staff College,

Serial number 18 Command and Staff Course

in Shivapuri, Kathmandu, 19 October 2011

(Only the points have been noted down)


1. What is security ?

  • Security is a measure taken to guard against sabotage, crime, attack, or escape.
  • It is the protection or the safety of citizens and country’s secrets
  • Security refers to all the measures that are taken to protect or to ensure the life and property of the people and the nation.


2. What is border management ?

  • To facilitate the movement of legitimate people and goods while crossing the international border.
  •   It is to maintain secure borders to meet national legal requirements.


3. Relation between security and border management

  •  These are inter-related in terms of the security of life and property of the people and   nation.


4. Location of Nepal

  • Nepal is situated between India and China
  • Nepal has very good relationship with both countries
  • Nepal’s security concern is sensitive to both neighbors
  • Nepal has its own identity, being located between two emerging nations:
  • America and European countries have shown keen interest on Nepal to obtain information especially of China and India in general

5. Border Management System

System of International Border Management

I.     Open border

II.    Regulated border


III. Closed border

      I. Open border :

–  It refers to a system where a traveler of one country can visit

and move around in another country without any restriction :

e.g. Nepal and India

     II. Regulated border:

–  It is an arrangement under which a traveler / visitor from one country must produce                           travel documents to immigration officer, such as passport and visa :

                      e.g. India and Bangladesh

–   This system makes sure that people can immigrate and emigrate, but only on regulated


     III. Closed border:
It means a system whereby a ban is enforced on cross-border movement of all types :

No traveler can cross the border and enter the neighboring country, no matter how valid             travel document she / he might have possessed.

e.g. North and South Korea.

  • India-Pakistan had closed border from 1999 to  2001.

6. History of border management system of Nepal


  • Nepal-China:

1. It has regulated border system.

– However, Tibetan refugees attempt to cross the border in a disguised manner, to    move to India to see the Dalai Lama and to go to America.

v     Chinese police shot Kelsang Namtso, while trying to cross Nangpa La pass               on 30 September 2006.

v    Nepali police arrested nearly 50 Tibetans during 2010, infiltrated illegally from Lamabagar area of Dolaka district.

2. Visa is not necessary for the inhabitants of 30 km of either side.

–        They can visit the territory of the other frontier.

–        However, compulsory ID card system is introduced since 1 January 2006 due to security reason.

–        China considers crossing a border without a permit, a criminal act, sentence of up to one year.

–        Nepal-china has demilitarized zone 20 km on either side of the border line.

  • Nepal-India:

1. Closed border system: It was prevalent in ancient period, especially for third country   national until 1816 Sugauli Treaty.

2. Controlled border: It was initiated after 1816 for Indian nationals  as well.

3. Open border: Started slowly and unknowingly after the restoration of Naya Muluk in 1860.

  •    to recruit the Gorkha regiment,
  •    to sell finished goods by India up to Tibet,
  •    to import raw materials from Nepal.

– However, passport / permit was necessary to cross  the border.

4. More open border:  After India’s independence in 1947.

5. Wide open border:  After the establishment of democracy in Nepal in 1950.

6. Empty open border: After construction of Tribhuvan Highway in 1957, linking Kathmandu to

Raxaul, Indian frontier town.

7. Closed border / blockade: India unilaterally blocked the border from 23 March 1989 to 30 June


8. Discretionary System:

– India closed unilaterally in some segments during 2004-05:

e.g. Falelung crossing-point (Taplejung-Sikkim)

– Regulated at Bhimnagar crossing-point.

9. Visa system: for the Nepalese, who enters India from third country –

: India asked to produce visa to Nepali national  traveled from third country:

e.g. While Mr. Tanka Lal Shrestha (working in German  Embassy, Kathmandu) was                             traveling from Lahore to Delhi by Indian Airline on 26 January 2005.

10. Regulated border system :

  • For air-passengers since 1 October 2000, after hijacking an Indian aircraft from

Katmandu on 24 December 1999.

  • ID card system has been introduced jointly at Nepalganj-Rupaidiya crossing- point from

1 November 2005.

  This is more or less a multi-faceted picture or a short account of Indo-Nepal border



 So Indo-Nepal border management system consists of a complex one in the world, as history

 tells, an example to make detail study.

In general, there is an open border system between Nepal and India. But, is there any treaty

make the border open ?

1. There is no such treaty, agreement or memorandum.

2. Even Nepal-India Peace and Friendship Treaty- 1950 does not have provision of open border.

3. Indian Embassy, Katmandu has said on 2  July  2004 in response an article of this scribe that:

  • Open border between two countries has not been mentioned in any of the articles of

1950 treaty.

  • But open border is an emblem of most intimate friendship that has existed between both

countries from ancient time to this date.


    So all these facts reveal:

  • There is no black and white document on open border system

between Nepal and India.

Then, how the border is made open ?

  • It is due to the fact that administration of both the sides did not    obstruct to cross the

border without any restriction.

But in the changing situation, open border system has created trouble to maintain peace &

security, law & order in both India and Nepal

7. India has regarded Indo-Nepal border insecure :

  • Due to Infiltration of unwanted elements in a disguised manner (Pakistani, Bangladeshi,

Sri Lankan, Afghani, Irani) misusing open border).

  • Due to Cross-border terrorism, illegal transportation of arms and ammunition.

8. Deployment of SSB :

India has deployed 45,000 Special Services Bureau (SSB) para-military forces along Indo-Nepal   border

– They have a plan to rise to 70,000.

  • After the incidents of September 11, 2001 in USA.
  • Attack on parliament building in New Delhi on 13 Dec. 2001.
  • Explosive incidents in London Railway Stations on 7 July 2005.
  • Serial blasts in New Delhi on 29 October 2005.
  • Mumbai train 7 bombings on 11 July 2006.
  • Maoist rebellion activities for ten years.
  • Nepalese Maoists, shaking hands with Indian Maoists-Naxalites.

Due to security reasons, India has categorized Indo-Nepal Border (1, 808 km) in three segments :

Security Sensitive Border (Kanchanpur to Rupandehi) 9 Nepal District, 725 km

Under Observation Border (Nawalparasi to Jhapa) 13 Nepal District, 780 km

Normal Border (Ilam to Taplejung and Dadeldhura to Darchula) 4 Nepal District, 303 km

On an average:
– India has deputed 25 SSB in the distance of 1 km (1 SSB in 40 meter)
– They have constructed 1 Post in every 5 km

9. Security management by Nepal Police

Nepal Police has categorized Nepal-India border into three segments for security

management proposes, on 16 September 2007, in connection to the election of

Constitutional Assembly :

  •  Highly sensitive border

Parsa – Saptarti= 8 Districts

  •  Sensitive border

Kanchanpur – Chitwan and

Sunsari – Jhapa=12 Districts

  •  Normal border

Ilam -Taplejung and

Dadeldhura – Darchula= 6 Districts

10. Nepal has deployed Armed Police Force (AFP) for border security and customs patrolling:          

–  Originally, Nepal had deputed 410 Nepal Army personnel in 12 Customs Offices                             and 89 Sub-Customs points of Tarai  from 14 March 2001.

–  But it was not for border patrolling.

–  Ultimately, Nepal Government deployed Armed Police Force  for border security and                      stop revenue leakage in 20 districts of Tarai on 5 March 2007 .

Nepal has deputed:

  •  4,740 APF for security and revenue purposes in 20 Tarai districts
  •  There are 66 border observation posts
  •  However,  AFP offices have been established 4 to 5 km inside the border line
  • They have deployed AFP teams on the northern border at Tatopani and Jomsom
  • They are planning to deploy teams at Kimathanka and Tinkar
  •    Nepal has deployed 4 AFP in 1 km whereas India has deployed 25 SSB in 1 km

11. Security concern

1. Nepal herself

  • There are more than 60 underground armed groups in the Tarai of Nepal such as Tarai Cobra, Tarai Defense Army, Tarai Kangaroo Court etc.

– They create horror in the plain areas

– It lapses peace and security of life and property

  • It is mainly due to:

– Nepal-India open border regime

– And also less vigilance on the Nepal-China regulated border

  • Unwanted elements, international terrorists, traffickers of small arms, smugglers, narcotic holders, criminals, abductors cross the open border without any restriction
  • They have adversely affected the security in Nepal


   2. India and China

  • India and China are sensitive on the security concern of Nepal
  •  They don’t want any transit disturbances from the Nepali territory
  • India suspects that Muslim community from southern bordering Madarsa make disturbances to India
  • Similarly, China is beware of anti-China (free Tibet) activities from northern frontier

– Buddhist Monasteries have been constructed in the mountain areas

– New Buddhist monks may create head ache to China

  • In this context, China and India think:

– Nepali security system should not have lapses to satisfy both the countries

  • 3. South Asia
    – Nepal’s security concern has also affected the other countries of South Asia- Parliamentarian Mirza Dil Sadbeg was killed on 29 June 1998 in Kathmandu
    – The shooter crossed over the open and unattained border and then flew to third    country, Bangkok
    – Media entrepreneur Jamim Shah was shot dead on 7 February 2010 by suspected    Underworld Chhota Rajan Group from beyond the border- General Secretary of Nepali Islami Federation Faizan Ahmed was murdered on 26    September 2011 in broad daylight

    – There are other cased of murder, such as central jail yard shooting of Yunus Ansari and      the shooting of a Pakistan Embassy official

    All these shooters fled beyond the border crossing Nepal-India porous international border

4. Western countries

v    United States Country Report on Terrorism- 2009 has cited:

– Large ungoverned space along the Nepal-India border exacerbates the vulnerability and do       security shortfalls

– Extremist group could make Nepal as a transit nation

– Laskar-e Tayyiba member Muhammad Omar Madani traveled through Nepal en-route to     New Delhi in 2010

v    U S Report on ‘Pattern of Global Terrorism- 2003’ mentions:

– Weak border control and poor security infrastructure have made Nepal a transit point for

some outside militants and international terrorists

So Nepal’s border management system is much related to security concern for herself, China, India, and other western countries

12. In order maintain internal and external security system and to make Indo-Nepal border    safe and secure-:

– An alternative measure should be implemented as:

1. Enforcing ID card / passport system.

2. Fencing the frontier.

3. Guarding the border.

1) Enforcing ID card / passport system

Most of the countries of the world have adopted ID Card system

– it is pragmatic for Nepal and India to adopt this system for the security reason.

– Canada and USA has the open border system, but ID has to be produced while                                crossing the border.


2) Fencing the frontier

“ Good fences make good neighbors.”



Good neighbors make good fences too

– It will be not too bad to erect barbed wire fencing between Nepal and India with 180 exit / entry   points. Because:

–        India and Pakistan have common barbed iron fencing (2,912 km).

–        US President signed on a bill on 27 October 2006 to erect fence (1,120 km) between USA and Mexico

– A high wall is being constructed in between Bhutan (Funcholing and Gyalephung) and India (Jayagaon) unilaterally.

–   Wire fence has been raised in 856 km. between India (Tripura) and Bangladesh, etc.

–   India has erected 742 km. wire fencing in Kashmir (Line of Control).

–   Indian State of Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar has opined on 11 January 2011 in Patna that Indo-Nepal border should be properly fenced to obstruct illegal activities

3) Guarding the border by border security force :

  • This is one of the alternative measures to maintain national security both in Nepal and India.
  • Army men or armed Police Force has an important role to protect the national border.

–           India-Bangladesh and Indo-Pakistan (Line of Control) border

have BSF, whereas Indo-Nepal has SSB

Nepal-India has Armed Police Force.

–           But sometimes military battalions,

guarding the common borderline,

might have confrontation.

      • For example, 16 Indian and 2 Bangladeshi BSF personnel were killed fighting each other on 18 April 2001.

13. Security measures :

For the security reason, the border must be:

  • Restricted for the terrorists.
  • Controlled for smugglers.
  • Checked for criminals.
  • Obstructed for girl traffickers.
  • Stopped for narcotic holders.
  • But it must be regulated for genuine passengers.
  • There should be efficient management for export and import of merchandise legally.
  • Special arrangements must be made for the inhabitants living 5 km either side, to cross the

border many times a day without feeling insecure.

1. Insecure Indo-Nepal border could be made secure with political will and commitment

from both sides.

2. Security concern should be a key dimension of border management between Nepal

and India.

3. Nepal must assure China that there will be no security lapses to stop anti-China

activities (Free Tibet) from the northern frontier of Nepal.

4. Similarly, Nepal must satisfy India that there will be no safe haven for Al-Queda,

Laskare Toyyba and Pakistani ISI agents from the Nepalese soil.


14. Border dispute and encroachment :


  • There were disputes, claim and counter-claims in 32 places in connection to the border demarcation during 1961-62.

– These were Kimathanka, Tinkar, Chhangru, Lapchi, Gauri Sankar, Nangpa                  Bhanjyang, Langtang, Mustang etc.

  • Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) was claimed by China.
  • But all the issues had been settled within a period of two years, with the watershed principle and with a view of mutual respect and Panchasheel.
  • Issue of Sagarmatha was settled in the Prime Minister level.
  • Third joint border inspection to renew the Boundary Protocol is going on from 2006.
  • There is a small issue of the dislocation of border pillar number 57, located north of

Lamabagar area of Dolakha District.

  • Missing pillar 57 was identified recently and the talk has been continued.
  • Next issue is to mention the dual height of Sagarmatha

– Height without snow = 8,844.47 meter

– Height with snow =      8,848     meter


  • There are encroachment, dispute, claim and counter claim
  • at 54 places in 21 districts (out of 26 districts) of Nepal.
  • Total area of issues have been as 60,000 hectare
  • Kalapani-Limpiyadhura, Susta, Sandakpur, Manebhanjyang, Pashupatinagar Thori, Brahmadev, Pyaratal, Chyangthapu, Kabeli-Kabru, Mechi river area etc.

15. Issue of Kalapani-Limpiyadhura encroachment

    • Main issue is the origination of the river Mahakali.
    •  As there is a controversy on the delineation of the source of river Mahakali-

Whether it is originated from:

– Limpiyadhura or


– Lipulek or


– A pond near Kali Temple ?

All the historical maps and documents say that the River Kali has been originated from Limpiyadhura

16. Issue of Susta encroachment

  • Changing of the course of the river Narayani during great floods, is the main cause
  • The area left by the river has been encroached by India
  • Susta is surrounded by India on three sides: east, west and south

The then river course (during the period of the Treaty of Sugauli- 1816) must be identified

and demarcated.

17. Military personnel should be

  • Aware of national boundary.
  • They must act to protect country’s international boundary as Border Security Force.
  • If there is no clear demarcation of international boundary, the state cannot survive.
  • Military cadre should have knowledge of map reading and its handling.
  • They must recognize different type, shape and size of border pillars such as:

– Main boundary pillar (BP)

–  Reference pillar (RP)

–  Subsidiary pillar (SP)

–  Demarcation of boundary line

–  Maintain No-man’s land (Das Gaja)

Digging out the Controversial Expression of Defence Minister

        रक्षामन्त्रीको विवादास्पद अभिव्यक्ति खोतल्दा

                                                                                                                       बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ
रक्षामन्त्री शरदसिंह भण्डारीले देश विखण्डन हुनसक्ने अभिव्यक्ति दिएपछि राजधानी लगायत मोफसलका विभिन्न जिल्लामा चर्का नाराबाजी साथै विरोध प्रदर्शन भए । रक्षामन्त्रीले यस्तो के बोले र विभिन्न जिल्लामा प्रदर्शन गरियो ? उनले बोलेका हुन्- २२ जिल्लाका जनताले नेपालबाट छुट्टनि चाहे कसैले रोक्न सक्दैन । मधेसका जनताले चाहे २२ जिल्ला नेपालबाट टुक्रन सक्छ । उनी प्रश्न गर्छन्- राजतन्त्र समाप्त गर्न सकिन्छ भनेर कुन संविधान, कानुनमा लेखिएको थियो ? तर जनताले रुचाएनन् र फालिदिए । उनी अझ अगाडि सर्दै भन्छन्- तराईका २२ जिल्लाका जनताले छुट्टनिे निर्णय गरे संविधान, कानुनले रोक्न सक्दैन । उनको जिकिर छ- मधेसका जनताको भावना राष्ट्रले बुझ्न नसके नेपालबाट २२ जिल्ला टुक्रिन पुग्छन् । उनले चेतावनी दिँदै सुझाव पनि प्रस्तुत गरेका छन्, ‘२२ जिल्लाका मधेसीलाई हेपेर, पेलेर पन्छाउनुभन्दा सम्मान दिएर भावनात्मक रूपमा एकता कायम गरी राष्ट्रिय एकता र अखण्डता बलियो पार्नुपर्छ ।’ यहाँ प्रश्न आउँछ- रक्षामन्त्रीले किन यस्तो उद्गार पोखे ? अर्को कुरा, उनको भनाइ अनुसारका २२ जिल्ला कुन-कुन हुन्

रक्षामन्त्रीको अभिव्यक्तिमा तीन बुँदा रहेको पाइन्छ । प्रथमतः मधेसी समुदायलाई राष्ट्रले हेपाहा प्रवृत्ति देखायो । दोस्रो, राजा फाल्ने कुरा संविधानमा लेखिएको थिएन । तेस्रो, मैदानी भागमा रहेको मधेस छुट्टनि सक्दैन भनी संविधानमा उल्लेख भएको छैन ।

यी बुँदाबारे विश्लेषण गर्नुअघि रक्षामन्त्रीको भनाइ अनुसारका २२ जिल्ला कुन-कुन हुन् भन्नेतर्फ लागौं । उनले उल्लेख गरेको मधेस बुझिने मैदानी भाग कञ्चनपुरदेखि झापासम्म २० जिल्ला रहेका छन् । बाँकी २ जिल्ला डडेलधुरा र इलामलाई गाभ्न खोजेको हो भने यी त पहाडि भू-बनौटका जिल्लामा पर्छन् । यो उनको आशय अनुसारको मधेस -मैदान) होइन । यदि उनले भित्री मधेसलाई तान्न खोजेका हुन् भने तीन जिल्ला पर्छन्- उदयपुर, सिन्धुली र मकवानपुरको भाग । जिल्ला संख्याबारे स्पष्ट पार्ने जिम्मेवारी उनकै हो । तर यहाँ एउटा लाक्षणिक कुरा देखियो । संविधानसभामा मतदानको अवस्था आयो भने ६०१ को संख्यामा रहेका सभासदमध्ये २० मैदानी जिल्लाका सभासदले मात्र दुई तिहाइ नपुग्ने छाँट देखेर अरू दुई जिल्ला थपिएको हुनसक्छ । थप्नैपरे मधेसको भाइ भित्री मधेस तीन जिल्ला थप्नुपर्ने थियो, तर दुई जिल्लामात्र थप्न पुग्नुभयो ।

अब मधेसी समुदायलाई राष्ट्रले हेप्यो भन्ने उनको भनाइतर्फ ध्यान दिऔं । के राष्ट्रले साँच्चै मधेसी समुदायलाई हेपेकै हो त ? वास्तवमा यस्तो देखिँदैन । देशको सर्वोच्च पदमा रहेका राष्ट्रपति, उपराष्ट्रपति, उपप्रधानमन्त्री तथा अन्य गण्यमान्य पदाधिकारी ती २० जिल्लाभित्रैका वासिन्दा हुन् । सरकार टिकाउने र गिराउने खेलमा यिनै जिल्लाका सभासद महोदयको अहम् भूमिका रहेको देखिँदै आएको छ । मधेसी समुदायको बोलवालाको कदर हुँदै आइरहेकै छ । गिरिजाप्रसाद, मातृकाप्रसाद, विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइराला, नगेन्द्रप्रसाद रिजालजस्ता पूर्वप्रधानमन्त्री तथा भगवतीप्रसाद सिंहजस्ता प्रधानन्यायाधीश पनि ती जिल्लाकै वासिन्दा थिए । सडक, सिंचाइ, उद्योग, कलकारखानाजस्ता विकासका कुरामा तिनै जिल्लालाई अग्रस्थान दिएको पाइन्छ । सरकारी बजेट र योजना त्यतैतिर बढी सोहोरिएको भेटिन्छ । त्यसैले ती २० जिल्लालाई राष्ट्रले हेपेको र हेला गरेको भन्ने कुरा लङ्गडो तर्क भएको देखिन्छ । हाम्रा मैदानी भागका दाजुभाइको मानसिकतामा आफू हेपिएको हीनताबोध देखिएको मात्र हो ।

बाँकी रह्यो, मधेसी युवालाई नेपाली सेनामा भर्ना गरिएन भन्ने गुनासो । विषय वा प्रसंगले अर्को अर्थ नलागेमा कृष्णप्रसाद भट्टराई प्रधानमन्त्रीका हैसियतले भारत भ्रमण गरेको कुरा जोडौं । भ्रमणको अवसरमा भारतीय सञ्चारकर्मीले हाम्रा प्रधानमन्त्रीलाई मधेसी युवालाई किन सेनामा स्थान दिनु भएको छैन – भनी प्रश्न गरेछन् । हाम्रा प्रधानमन्त्रीले प्रत्रि्रश्न गरेछन्- भारतीय गोर्खा रेजिमेन्टमा तपाईंको सरकारले भारतसँग जोडिएको मधेसका जवान केटालाई किन भर्ना गरेका छैनन् –  किन पहाडका आला-काँचा केटालाई मात्र लिने गरिएको छ –  यसपछि तैंचुप मैंचुप भएछन् ।

रक्षामन्त्रीले आफ्नो भनाइ पुष्ट्याइँ गर्ने सहारा खोज्दै राजालाई हटाउन संविधानमा लेखिएको थिएन, तर जनताले फालिदिए भन्ने उपमा जोड्न खोजेका छन् । संविधानमा उल्लेख नभए तापनि राजा हटाइए । तर नेपाल अविभाज्य राज्य हो भनी संविधानको धेरै दफामा लेखिएको कुरालाई चाहिँ रक्षामन्त्रीले सरासर बेवास्ता गरे । यो नै उनको कमजोरी देखिन आउँछ ।

अब मैदानी भागको मधेस नेपालबाट छुट्टनि कुनै कानुन र संविधानले रोक्न सक्छ या सक्दैन भन्नेतर्फ लागौं । नेपालको अन्तरिम संविधान- २०६३ को धारा ४ मा नेपाल राज्यलाई भाग लगाउन नसकिने व्यवस्था गरिएको छ । धारा ४ -१) मा नेपाल एक स्वतन्त्र, अविभाज्य, सार्वभौमसत्ता सम्पन्न, धर्मनिरपेक्ष, समावेशी र पूर्ण लोकतान्त्रिक राज्य हो भनी उल्लेख गरिएको छ । यसै धाराको -१) -क) मा यस संविधान प्रारम्भ हुँदाका बखत नेपालको सीमारेखाले घेरेको क्षेत्रफलमा कहिल्यै कमी हुनदिन नहुने प्रावधान छ । तर संविधान प्रारम्भ भइसकेपछि नेपालको क्षेत्रफलमा थप भू-भाग प्राप्त हुनआएमा सो सीमाक्षेत्र स्वीकार गर्न सकिने प्रावधान छ । यस्तै धारा १५ मा नेपालको सार्वभौमसत्ता वा अखण्डता सम्बन्धमा प्रतिकूल हुनेगरी कानुन बनाउन रोक लगाइएको छ ।

धारा ३ ले नेपालको अथवा नेपाली भू-भागको अखण्डताप्रति आस्थावान रही एक राष्ट्रको रूपमा समष्टिगत तरिकाले आबद्ध हुन सबै नेपाली जनतालाई आह्वान गरेको छ । यसैगरी नेपाल राज्यको सिमाना विषयमा छिमेकी मुलुकसँग कुनै पनि सन्धि वा सम्झौताको अनुमोदन, सम्मिलन, स्वीकृति वा समर्थन व्यवस्थापिका-संसदमा तत्काल कायम रहेको सम्पूर्ण सदस्यहरूको दुई तिहाइ बहुमतले गर्नु पर्नेछ । तर नेपाल राज्यको प्रादेशिक अखण्डतामा प्रतिकूल असर पर्नेगरी कुनै सन्धि वा सम्झौता गरिने छैन भनी धारा १५६ मा उल्लेख गरिएको छ ।

यसबाहेक धारा १४३ -१) मा नेपाल राज्यको अखण्डता वा कुनै भागको सुरक्षामा नेपालमाथि बाह्य आक्रमण, आन्तरिक युद्ध, सशस्त्र विद्रोहका कारण गम्भीर सङ्कट उत्पन्न भएमा सङ्कटकालीन अवस्थाको घोषणा गर्नसक्ने प्रावधान पनि छ ।

संविधानको यतिका धारा तथा उपधारामा नेपाल अविभाज्य र विखण्डन गर्न नसकिने राज्य हो भनी लेखिएको र यो संविधान लागू भएको बखतको क्षेत्र कायम रहने भनी उल्लेख गरिएको देख्दादेख्दै रक्षामन्त्रीले किन नेपालबाट २२ जिल्ला चोइटिएर अलग हुनसक्छ भन्ने संविधान विपरीत अभिव्यक्ति दिए ? उनले केही वर्षअघि दलबदल गरी पसेका पार्टीको नुनको सोझो गरेका हुनसक्छन् । नयाँ नारा दिँदा लोकपि्रय भइन्छ भन्ने भावनाले पनि उनको मुखबाट यस्तो अभिव्यक्ति फुत्किएको हुनुपर्छ । त्यसपछि विभिन्न पार्टी, संघ-संस्थाबाट उनलाई रक्षामन्त्रीबाट हटाउनुपर्ने चौतर्फी आवाज आएपछि उनले दुई कदम पछाडि हट्दै भने, ‘म राष्ट्रिय अखण्डताप्रति सधैं प्रतिबद्ध रहँदै आएको व्यक्ति हुँ र आफ्नो मुलुकको विखण्डन बनाउने विषयको कल्पना पनि गर्न सक्दिन । मधेसका २२ जिल्लाका नेपालीलाई भावनात्मक एकताका आधारमा राष्ट्रिय मूलप्रवाहीकरणमा ल्याउनुपर्छ र त्यसले मुलुकलाई बलियो बनाउँछ ।’ उनले मन्त्रिपरिषदमा स्पष्टीकरण दिँदै भनेका छन्, ‘आफूले राष्ट्रिय एकता र अखण्डतामा आँच आउनेगरी अभिव्यक्ति दिएको छैन ।’ उनको फेरिएको बोलीमा २२ जिल्ला टुक्र्याउने कुराबारे जिब्रो चपाइएको पाइन्छ । यसबाट उनको आफ्नो बोलीभन्दा उनलाई मन्त्रीपद बढी प्यारो रहेको बुझिन्छ । नत्र देश टुक्र्याउने आशयले बोलेको कुरा पर्सिपल्टै होइन भनी स्पष्टीकरण प्रसारण गरिरहनुपर्ने थिएन ।

यस्ता अभिव्यक्ति पहिले पनि बेलामौकामा आएको पाइन्छ । तर समयको अन्तरालमा बिलाएर गएको देखिन्छ । जनतान्त्रिक तराई मुक्तिमोर्चा -ज्वाला समूह) का अध्यक्ष नगेन्द्रप्रसाद पासवानले स्वतन्त्र तराईको जन्म भइसकेको र सीमा पनि भौगोलिक दृष्टिकोणले आफैं स्पष्ट रूपमा छुट्टइिसकेकोले सीमा छुटयाउने वार्तामात्र हुन बाँकी रहेको कुरा २०६४ असार २७ मा बोलेका थिए । यस्तैगरी तमलोपा अध्यक्ष महन्थ ठाकुरले २०६४ माघ १० मा मधेसी मूल वासिन्दाको माग पूरा नभए मधेस छुट्टै राष्ट्र हुनसक्छ भनेका थिए । तमलोपा नेता राजेन्द्र महतोले मधेसी जनता २३९ वर्षको गुलामीबाट मुक्ति पाउन लडाइँ लडिरहेको र ‘समग्र मधेस एक प्रदेश’ नभए मुलुकमा विखण्डन आउनसक्ने अभिव्यक्ति २०६४ माघ १७ मा दिएका थिए । त्यसैले यस प्रकारको भनाइको छाल समय-समयमा आउँदै हराउँदै गएका छन् । हालैको अभिव्यक्तिलाई पनि यस्तै दर्जामा राख्न सकिन्छ ।

तर नेपाली जनताले हालको अभिव्यक्तिलाई संवेदनशील मानेका छन् । अभिव्यक्ति दिने व्यक्ति बहालवाला रक्षामन्त्री हुन् । देशको साधसिमानामा कुनै कतै संकट परेमा रक्षा मन्त्रालयबाट त्यसको प्रतिरक्षा हुनुपर्ने हो । तर स्वयम् रक्षामन्त्रीले नै यस्तो भनेको हुँदा अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय समुदायले पनि कान ठाडो पारेका छन् । संसदीय व्यवस्थामा मन्त्रीहरू प्रधानमन्त्रीप्रति उत्तरदायी रहन्छन् । प्रधानमन्त्रीले पनि मन्त्रिपरिषदका सदस्यहरूलाई ‘चेन अफ कमान्ड’मा राखेको हुन्छ । संसद अधिवेशनको सुरुमा राष्ट्रप्रमुखद्वारा सरकारको नीति तथा कार्यक्रम उजागर गरिन्छ र यसैअनुरूप मन्त्रिपरिषदले काम गर्छ । कुनै मन्त्रीले यस विपरीत बोलेमा प्रधानमन्त्री पनि जिम्मेवार रहन्छन् । मन्त्रीले बोलेको कुरा राष्ट्रिय नीति तथा संविधान विपरीत ठहरिए पदबाट राजीनामा दिने प्रचलन अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय जगतमा छ । यसैले पदाधिकारीले सार्वजनिक स्थानमा उद्गार गर्दा सोची-सम्झी राष्ट्रिय एकता, प्रादेशिक अखण्डता र देशको सार्वभौमिकतामा अडिग रही बोल्ने गर्नुपर्छ ।

Anglo-Nepal War- 1767

                                                   ANGLO-NEPAL WAR- 1767

By the end of the 18th century, the British East India Company was firmly established in India. The East India Company had occupied almost all the princely States of India. They were looking for an opportunity to enter into Nepal.

Besides, the East India Company wanted to expand trade in Tibet. The only way to Tibet was through Nepal. But Nepal would never allow the British to go to Tibet through her territory. Moreover, giving permission to the British to go to Tibet through Nepal meant loosing her own Tibetan market. In such a situation, the East India Company thought to threaten Nepal with war.

Another reason for British aggression to Nepal was that they wanted to reside in cool and healthy hill stations like Dehradun, Kumaon, Simla, Darjeeling and Kursang. These places were under Nepal at that time.

On the other hand, like Nuwakot for Kathmandu’s trade with Tibet, Makawanpur in the south was equally important for trade with India. While the battle in the north to surround Kathmandu was going on, the Gorkha army captured Sindhulikot, Timilakot and Hariharpur in the south and southeast, before they entered into the Makawanpurgadhi. Makawanpur was captured only after 10 hours of battle in August 1762. In 1763 AD, the Gorkhalis won seven other villages, including Dhulikhel and Banepa and expanded the border line to the north. With this, the Kathmandu Valley was completely surrounded and blockaded. After all, the four passes of Kathmandu Valley:  Sanga Bhanjyang, Baad (Bhimdhunga) Bhanjyang, Ranipauwa (Kaule) Bhanjyang  and Lele Bhanjyang known as Char Bhanjyang) were controlled by Prithvi Narayan Shah. The deficiency of salt, oil, spices, and even clothes led to turmoil  and there was hue and cry in Kathmandu during Malla regime. When the Malla government failed to pay salary to the soldiers, their morale dwindled.

Then the King of Kathmandu, Jaya Prakash Malla asked for help from the British India. It was intended  to welcome the British to Nepal by the Malla rulers. But Prithvi Narayan Shah did not allow them to stay in Nepal

In September 1767, when the forces of the British-India arrived in Sindhuligadhi, the Gorkhalis launched guerrilla attacks on them. Many of the British army were killed and the rest fled leaving behind a huge amount of weapons and ammunition, which the Gorkha army seized.

In such a way, a troop of British soldiers under the command of General Kinloch was badly defeated by the army of Prithvi Narayan Shah at Sindhuligadhi. Nepali Gorkha armay obstructed the British army and killed 1,600 British attackers on 10 November 1767 at Sindhuligadhi.

So, the British were aware of the strength and courage of the Gorkha soldiers. On the other hand, this boosted the morale of the Nepali Gorkha forces of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Nepal maintained its sovereignty and integrity and this is continued till this date. Nepal, especially the people of Sindhuligadhi and surrounding areas observe ‘Victory Day’ over the British troop on 10 November every year.

Nepal On Hire But not On Sale !

                      Nepal On Hire

But not On Sale !


1. Background

Nepal is naturally a beautiful Himalayan country. Himalayas are regarded as the most beautiful part of the earth. Himalaya is the King of Mountains. Nepal has tall mountains, more  than any other regions of the planet.

Nepal is a developing country of South Asia. It has a very slow economic progress in comparison to political changes within a period of last ten years. Politically, changes took place in a faster rate in Nepal from monarchy to democracy, people’s democracy and republican country. But so far as the space of economic development is concerned, it has the snail speed progress. It may be due to the personality conflicts of top leaders and between intra-party and inter-political party leaders. Each of them regard supreme leader himself.

A political leader is neither capable to gain support and confidence from other party leaders, nor he is ready to offer confidence to other leader. As a result, there is not a supreme leader or leader among leaders, who bears capability to obtain faith and confidence from other counterpart leaders. Those who holds the power and position, he is intended to earn money and material illegally. He takes benefits for himself and his family at first. Then he provides chances to collect fame and money to his nearest kith and kin. And then he prefers to provide legal and illegal strength to his political party workers. After that, he remembers the nation and national interest. At the same time, other political party leaders protest and make slogans and demonstration against the power holder, even the ruling leader makes some program of national interest. Even a small group of Constitutional Assembly members make slogan in the running Assembly meeting and they obstruct the session for their vested interest.

In such a fashion, the political leaders are like cats and dogs. They make so called ideological conflicts and quarrels each other all the time even in case of a trifle matter to pull down the position holder. They blame each other that his opponent has done nothing in the matter of national interest, sovereignty and integrity. All the leaders are power monger and hankering over money and materials from the government treasury. By any means, they want to hold power and remain in decision making level for a long time. But they do not have vision in favour of nation building and economic upliftment for the general people of the country.

In this gloomy situation, something has to be done for the betterment of common folk without hindering sovereignty and national integrity of Nepal. During this transition period, one of my friends opined that Nepal should be put ‘On Hire.’ But it is restricted to go ‘On Sale’. Is it really good for the benefit of the Nepali people to invite global competition to float ‘Nepal On Hire or Lease’ ? I assured him that I shall try my best. Nepal is my country- my pride.

2. Characteristics

Naturally beautiful Nepal has the following characteristics:

  1. Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest), the highest mountain in the world is located in Nepal.
  2. Lord Gautama Buddha, as revered as a symbol of peace across the world, was born in Nepal.
  3. World famous Sherpa mountain guides belong to Nepal.
  4. Nepal is the home of brave, honest and obedient Gorkha soldiers.
  5. Nepal is physically constructed with Himal, Mountain and Plain area.
  6. If someone drives 120 Kilometer south-north for ten hours, he experiences from sub-tropical summer climate to cold tundra type.
  7. Thirteen mountain peaks, higher than 8,000 meter falls on Nepali territory.
  8. Nepal has a diverse elevation from 59 meter to 8,850 meters above mean sea level.
  9. Nepal has 10,167 plant species (including medicinal and aromatic plants).
  10. It has over 650 species of birds and 167 species of animals.
  11. Approximately one million foreign tourists, mountaineers, expeditioners  and trekkers visit Nepal every year.
  12. Nepal is the country of amenable Yak & Yeti.
  13. Nepal has the potentiality of roughly 83,000 MW hydro-electric power generation.
  14. Nepal is the destination of adventure travel (like para-gliding, bunjy-jumping, sky-diving, mountain biking etc), selected by world famous National Geographic Adventure Magazine (17 March 2009).
  15. Nepal is going to be a human labour exporting country.
  16. Nepal has an identity of ‘Double Triangle shaped National Flag’ unique all over the world.

3. Global tender

It will not be a too bad idea to offer Nepal as ‘On Hire or Lease’ in some context. Recently, the cash-strapped Northern Mariana Islands, a US territory in the Western Pacific, has offered to lease land to China as long as it is not used for military purpose. Northern Marianas Governor Benigno Fitial made the offer during a US-China Governors Forum in Beijing which discussed potential investment and job creation opportunities. A self-governing commonwealth of the United States since 1976, the islands are in the grip of a severe budget crisis following the collapse of their garment industry. The Northern Marianas consists of 15 islands, with more than 90 percent of the population of 54,000 living on Saipan.

In this context, if a global notification is floated to put Nepal on hire or lease, what will be the terms and conditions ? My friend gave me a rough sketch of terms and reference (TOR) to convert Nepal into ‘New Nepal’ as Nepal is ‘On Hire or Lease’ for fifteen years with the following TOR (terms and conditions):

  1. Provision of twenty-four hours supply of drinking water and availability of electricity all over cities, towns and settlements.
  2. Connections of motor-ways to all major settlements.
  3. Railway line network to all district headquarters.
  4. Development of manufacturing industry to employ 4 million people.
  5. Hydro-electric power generation 10,000 MW.
  6. Construction of irrigation canal and channel 10,000 km in length.
  7. To make per capita income GDP equivalent to 3,000 Euro.
  8. Petroleum exploration and production shall be materialized in two spots.
  9. Make Nepal a bridge between India and China to foster Nepali economy.
  10. Create environment to make rule of law and end of impunity.
  11. Correct the mentality of working level people from political gossip to work as worship.
  12. Access to sea port shall be materialized in one more spot, in addition to present Calcutta port.
  13. Nepal-India border should be fenced with 180 exit and entry crossing points.
  14. Open border with India shall be regulated, whereas Chinese border shall be strengthened for the security purposes.

4. Conditions

  1. Priority will be given to European non-United Nations member for bidding.
  2. Partial proposal (bidding) will not be accepted in any circumstance.
  • For example, India may be interested to obtain ‘On Hire’ the southern plain area.
  • China may be interested to bid for northern Himal area.
  • Bangladesh may take interested on the middle mountainous area.
  • But it is purely a single package program of entire Nepal.
  • United States of America may be interested to bid for whole Nepal. It will be easy to America to know and explore the secrecy of Chinese development strategy from Nepal, adjoined to the Tibet. America may visualize anti-Chinese activity from the newly built high mountain Buddhist monastery through converted monks of northern Nepal.
    1. The successful bidder must deposit 10 Trillion Euro as an earnest money.
    2. At the end of 15 years period, ‘Developed Nepal’ should be handed over back to the elected Nepal government.
    3. Time period ‘On Hire’ shall not be extended. There shall not be any provision of variation order at any cost.
    4. The elected government shall verify the pace of development (achievement), as agreed in the TOR.
    5. If it has been achieved, the earnest money will be released with the deduction of 10 percent.
    6. If the achievement (as mentioned in the TOR) is not 100 percent, deposited amount of money will be confiscated.
    7. Bidding time starts from now for six months.
    8. All rights are reserved with Nepal Government, to whom Nepal shall be provided or not to be provided ‘On Hire’.
    9. If there are some controversies, International Court of Justice (ICJ) decision will be the final one.

 Let us see, who will bid for “Nepal On Hire (Lease), But not On Sale !”

Happy Vijaya Dashami- 2068

Happy Vijaya Dashamai- 2068 Greetings to all.

May Durga Bhawani provide us power to protect our national boundary of Nepal, where ever we are, whether we are in the Nepali territory or abroad in connection to perform work as worship.

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