ANGLO-NEPAL WAR- 1767
By the end of the 18th century, the British East India Company was firmly established in India. The East India Company had occupied almost all the princely States of India. They were looking for an opportunity to enter into Nepal.
Besides, the East India Company wanted to expand trade in Tibet. The only way to Tibet was through Nepal. But Nepal would never allow the British to go to Tibet through her territory. Moreover, giving permission to the British to go to Tibet through Nepal meant loosing her own Tibetan market. In such a situation, the East India Company thought to threaten Nepal with war.
Another reason for British aggression to Nepal was that they wanted to reside in cool and healthy hill stations like Dehradun, Kumaon, Simla, Darjeeling and Kursang. These places were under Nepal at that time.
On the other hand, like Nuwakot for Kathmandu’s trade with Tibet, Makawanpur in the south was equally important for trade with India. While the battle in the north to surround Kathmandu was going on, the Gorkha army captured Sindhulikot, Timilakot and Hariharpur in the south and southeast, before they entered into the Makawanpurgadhi. Makawanpur was captured only after 10 hours of battle in August 1762. In 1763 AD, the Gorkhalis won seven other villages, including Dhulikhel and Banepa and expanded the border line to the north. With this, the Kathmandu Valley was completely surrounded and blockaded. After all, the four passes of Kathmandu Valley: Sanga Bhanjyang, Baad (Bhimdhunga) Bhanjyang, Ranipauwa (Kaule) Bhanjyang and Lele Bhanjyang known as Char Bhanjyang) were controlled by Prithvi Narayan Shah. The deficiency of salt, oil, spices, and even clothes led to turmoil and there was hue and cry in Kathmandu during Malla regime. When the Malla government failed to pay salary to the soldiers, their morale dwindled.
Then the King of Kathmandu, Jaya Prakash Malla asked for help from the British India. It was intended to welcome the British to Nepal by the Malla rulers. But Prithvi Narayan Shah did not allow them to stay in Nepal
In September 1767, when the forces of the British-India arrived in Sindhuligadhi, the Gorkhalis launched guerrilla attacks on them. Many of the British army were killed and the rest fled leaving behind a huge amount of weapons and ammunition, which the Gorkha army seized.
In such a way, a troop of British soldiers under the command of General Kinloch was badly defeated by the army of Prithvi Narayan Shah at Sindhuligadhi. Nepali Gorkha armay obstructed the British army and killed 1,600 British attackers on 10 November 1767 at Sindhuligadhi.
So, the British were aware of the strength and courage of the Gorkha soldiers. On the other hand, this boosted the morale of the Nepali Gorkha forces of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Nepal maintained its sovereignty and integrity and this is continued till this date. Nepal, especially the people of Sindhuligadhi and surrounding areas observe ‘Victory Day’ over the British troop on 10 November every year.