International Boundary Making

Int. Bdry. Makaing

International Boundary Making

FIG COMMISSION 1
Professional Standards and Practice

 

Editor
Haim Srebro

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SURVEYORS (FIG)
Copyright c The International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), December 2013.
All rights reserved.
International Federation of Surveyors (FIG)
Kalvebod Brygge 31–33
DK-1780 Copenhagen V
DENMARK
Tel. + 45 38 86 10 81
E-mail: FIG@FIG.net
http://www.fig.net

Published in English
Copenhagen, Denmark
ISBN 978-87-92853-08-0

Published by
International Federation of Surveyors (FIG)
Editor: Haim Srebro
Authors: Miklos Pinther, William A. Robertson, Maxim Shoshany, Buddhi N. Shrestha,
Haim Srebro

Front cover and introdcution photos: Haim Srebro
Design: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG
Printer: 2013 Hakapaino, Helsinki, Finland

ABOUT FIG
International Federation of Surveyors is the premier international organization representing the interests of surveyors worldwide. It is a federation of the national member associations and covers the whole range of professional fields within the global surveying community. It provides an international forum for discussion and development aiming to promote professional practice and standards.

FIG was founded in 1878 in Paris and was first known as the Fédération Internationale des Géomètres (FIG). This has become anglicized to the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG). It is a United Nations and World Bank Group recognized non-government organization (NGO), representing a membership from 120 plus countries throughout the world, and its aim is to ensure that the disciplines of surveying and all who practice them meet the needs of the markets and communities that they serve.

 

                                                           CONTENTS

PREFACE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………8
FOREWORD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10

PART I:
A METHODOLOGICAL COMPREHENSIVE INTERNATIONAL
BOUNDARY-MAKING MODEL…………………………………………………………………………………………..15
Part I Prologue………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….16
Chapter 1: The Process of International Boundary Making………………………………………17
Chapter 2: The Order of Precedence of Boundary Definitions…………………………………39
Chapter 3: A Model of Boundary Delimitation in a Peace Agreement……………………51

PART II:
PRACTICAL CASES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….67
Part II Prologue…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………68
Chapter 4: The Israel–Jordan International Boundary……………………………………………….69
Chapter 5: Demarcation of the Iraq–Kuwait Boundary……………………………………………..94
Chapter 6: Contributions and Challenges for Surveyors
in the Establishment of International Boundaries – Cases in Africa……………………..118
Chapter 7: Demarcation of the International Boundaries of Nepal………………………149

 

PREFACE

Robert Frost in “Mending Wall” poetically said, “good fences make good neighbours”. In
the same vein, our Profession believes good boundaries make good fences that make good neighbours. This must particularly be so with international boundaries, as good boundaries unite rather than divide. The consequence of good international boundaries should promote and contribute towards peace and shared prosperity.

This publication addresses surveying methodology and experiences in the delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries. The process of international boundary making is generally categorised into four recognised phases. They are: the preparations for an agreement, boundary delimitation, boundary demarcation and, boundary maintenance and administration. Surveying for the delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries is highly specialised.

The team of contributing authors, Miklos Pinther, Bill Robertson, Maxim Shoshany, Buddhi Shrestha and Haim Srebro, who are also professionals and practitioners, must be congratulated for their diligent efforts leading to this publication. It is an accomplishment for this team of authors, from diverse background yet eminent in their experience and expertise, under the able leadership of Haim Srebro, Editor for the publication. The support from the team’s families, employers, and FIG member organisations are equally appreciated. FIG thanks the New Zealand Institute of Surveyors for co-sponsoring the printing of this publication.

FIG extends gratitude to the United Nations Cartographic Section for their contribution to this publication, in particular the peer review carried out by Ms. Ayako Kagawa, Mr. Ghassan Mkhaimer and Mr. Kyoung-Soo Eom.

It is the hope that this publication will enhance information, knowledge and practices for the delimitation of international boundaries towards the promotion of peace throughout the world.

CheeHai Teo
President
International Federation of Surveyors
December 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following experts and institutions are acknowledged for their valuable contributions to this FIG Publication:

Editor and Contributing Author

Dr. Haim Srebro is a senior consultant on mapping and boundaries and author of books on these subjects. Former Director General of the Survey of Israel (2003–2012). He participated as a leading figure in the delimitation of the international land and maritime boundaries of Israel. Since 1994 he is chair of the Israel–Jordan Joint Team of Experts regarding the international boundary. He is vice chair of FIG Commission 1. He was FIGWW2009 Congress Director. E-mail: haim.srebro@gmail.com.

Other Contributing Authors (in alphabetical order)

Miklos Pinther, retired. Former Head, Cartographic Department, The American Geographical Society (1969–1977). Former Chief Cartographer, United Nations (1985–2001). He was the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Iraq–Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission at the time of this demarcation. E-mail: pinther@optonline.net.

Dr. William Alexander (Bill) Robertson ONZM has been involved in the demarcation of five international boundaries in Africa and Asia. He has also acted as an independent consultant on various World Bank Land Administration projects and for the United Nations. Previously he served as Director General and Surveyor General of the New Zealand Department of Surveying and Land Information. Bill is a Past President of the New Zealand Planning Institute and a Past President of the Commonwealth Association of Planners. E-mail: billrobertson@xtra.co.nz

Prof. Maxim Shoshany is a Professor of remote sensing at the Department of Transportation and Geo-Information, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israeli Institute of Technology. He was in the past head of the Geography Department at Bar Ilan University. E-mail: maximsh@tx.technion.ac.il

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha     is the former Director General, Survey Department of Nepal. Currently he is working as the Managing Director of Bhumichitra Mapping Co. He is the Board Member of ‘Institute of Foreign Affairs’ nominated by Nepal Government. He has authored seven books on border demarcation and management of Nepal. He was involved in Nepal–India and Nepal–China Joint boundary Committees. He is the President of Nepal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. E-mail: bordernepal@gmail.com.

                                  SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Very special thanks to the Cartographic Section, Division for Geospatial, Information & Telecommunications Technologies (DGITT), Department of Field Support, United Nations and in particular, Mr. Kyoung-Soo Eom, (Chief Cartographic Section), Ms. Ayako Kagawa (Chief Geo Support Unit) and Mr. Ghassan Mkhaimer (Technical Project Manager, Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Maintenance Project or IKBMP) for the support, the knowledgeable and invaluable review of the entire publication;

Special thanks to the New Zealand Institute of Surveyors for its support and contribution
towards the publication including co-sponsoring the cost of printing of the publication;
Special thanks to the FIG Council and FIG Commission 1: Professional Standards and Practice for their support and encouragement;

Special thanks to Dr. Bill Robertson for his thorough review of the publication on behalf
of FIG;

Special thanks also to the Survey of Israel, an Affiliate Member of FIG and its Director
General, Ronen Regev for its support;

Thanks to the Association of Licensed Surveyors in Israel, a Member Association of FIG
and the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology, an Academic Member of FIG for its support; and

Last but not least, to the FIG Office and its staff for administering the process from
conceptualisation to completion of the print version and in particular, coordinating the
layout, printing and despatch.

 

FOREWORD

It is a privilege to write this forword for this important FIG publication on international boundary making. The New Zealand Institute of Surveyors and I are proud to be part of the publication under the editorship of Haim Srebro, a highly experienced international boundary consultant. With this pedigree it presents an authoritative and knowledgeable outline of the surveyor’s role and challenges in international boundary making. It serves its purpose well in promoting the sharing of information, methodological knowledge and experience required in the delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries.

As such it fills an important gap in publications on the subject of international boundary
determination. Over the last century there have been numerous determinations of international boundaries and many books and papers on this. However, these are invariably concerned with the legal and political dimensions of international boundaries. Thus, this collection of surveying methodology and experience is particularly timely in emphasising the role of surveying and describing the range of processes and procedures involved. It records a full surveying and demarcation methodology that has existed previously only in the scattered records of various international boundary projects.

The contents confirm surveying for international boundaries is of a high level specialist
nature and that the surveyors’ role demands a wide portfolio of surveying expertise. These range through documentary research, geodetic surveying, digital imagery and mapping, reconnaissance, ground marking and positioning etc. The references to the surveyor working within strict legal and political parameters are most valuable and highlight the serious constraints imposed on surveying activity and conduct in the international legal and political arena. The proposed methodology for establishing a boundary making process between two states provides a very useful survey guidance model avoiding the need to continually reinvent from surveying first principles. The process of international boundary making is categorised in the four generally recognized phases. These are the preparations for a boundary agreement, boundary delimitation, boundary demarcation, and boundary maintenance and administration. All phases require significant surveyors’ input. The compilation of chapters from five well experienced authors on seven different international boundaries provides a wealth of surveying experience. It contains a depth of learning through the application of survey practice in a wide variety of historic, physical and political circumstances. References to International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of Arbitration and other cases provide authoritative sources for detailed follow up by readers and practitioners.

This publication is timely and it provides comprehensive documentation and guidance
on a specialist topic of surveying that has been lacking up until now. It is a very good
reference publication for all involved or interested in international boundaries and fills
a gap both in surveying and international boundary literature. FIG is to be congratulated
on producing this publication at this time as a valuable service to the international
surveying community.

Dr Bill Robertson ONZM FNZIS
New Zealand Institute of Surveyors
December 2013

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: