Nepal Earthquake and JICA President Visit

Nepal Earthquake and JICA President Visit

.Namuna Sahitya

By- Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

          A great earthquake of 7.9 Richter Scale occurred on 25 April 2015 at 11.56 AM in Nepal having its epicenter at Gorkha district Barpak area, south of China border. After 32 minutes it happened another earthquake measuring 6.5 Scale. Next day, it released another 6.9 Richter larger category earthquake. On the 12th May it happened another 6.8 scale after shock. After the main tremor of 25 April, 435 after shocks occurred till 25 February 2016 that is 307 days from the first tremor.


This made a terror and horror around the country. The natural disaster made hundreds of thousands of people homeless with entire villages flattened, across many districts of the country. Out of 75 administrative districts of Nepal, 14 districts have been highly affected and the other 17 districts are of moderately affected. It made hundreds of people penniless and destroyed innumerable physical infrastructure and heritage of historical importance.


Low income country like Nepal is the most affected by the earthquake because it does not have the required resources, infrastructure, and well established earthquake preparedness system. This disaster has affected the country in numerous ways as roads, telephone lines, monuments, transportation and communication links were destroyed for some period. Public utilities and energy supplies were disrupted for more than four days from 25 April.


Instant rescue

Twenty-four countries including Japan, China, India, Israel, USA, UK military personnel had contributed for rescue operation and relief material distribution. They offered ready made foods and tents, blankets and mattress on destruction sites directly. Some of the countries brought their helicopters and high speed small military aircrafts with sensible trained dogs to conduct aftermath rescue operation. Some countries brought also drone to expose and create the real time data of the damaged structures.


Response of Japan

In response to the Nepal earthquake, JICA started supporting Nepal in the immediate aftermath of the disaster by sending rescue and medical teams, as well as emergency relief supplies. Close to one month since the first earthquake hit, international rescue and medical teams were sent to Nepal and relief and recovery activities were intensified.


In the mean time JICA President Dr. Akihiko Tanaka visited Nepal and organized a ‘Build Back Better (BBB)’ Reconstruction Seminar in Kathmandu on 25 May 2015, just one month of the great earthquake. In the seminar, six Japanese experts  on safety engineering, earthquake engineering, disaster mitigation, disaster management, land and infrastructure management and urban planner presented papers. There were extensive discussions, participated by concerned Nepali professionals, authorities and decision makers.


JICA President Dr. Tanaka addressed the seminar and said ‘our experience in Japan has also shown that the post disaster period is an opportunity to reassess vulnerabilities and to build back better (BBB). People often hope for a speedy return to the status quo. But simply rebuilding communities to pre-disaster standards will not address the vulnerabilities that existed earlier and expose them to future disasters. As part of damage assessment conducted after the two simultaneous earthquakes in Nepal, seismologists highlighted that there is still pent-up seismic pressure in the region near Kathmandu and remote areas. This means that the region is at risk of suffering from more catastrophic earthquakes in the future. It is therefore imperative to ‘build back better’ by investing in preventative disaster risk reduction measures to rebuild a more disaster resilient society. Japan embraces this concept of BBB as a result of our dire past experiences. It is at the core of our own disaster risk reduction policy and also guides our international co-operation policy when supporting other countries affected by natural disasters.’


Reasons of earthquake in Nepal

45 million years ago, the Indian continent collided into Southern Tibet. The Indian continent is driven under Tibet, pushing lightweight sediments upwards and thus the formation of the Himalayas were taken place. Nepal sits across the boundary between India and southern Tibet of China which are still moving towards each other by 2 centimeters per year. This movement creates pressure within the earth, which builds up and can only be released through earthquakes. This is the only way earthquakes could happen in Nepal.


According to the Wall Street Journal, Kathmandu, the tectonic plate under the city shifted southwards 3 meter over another plate along an ancient Himalayan fault line, releasing a seismic shock wave with the strength of ‘more than 20 thermonuclear weapons.’


The geomorphologists estimated that hilly areas will face a high risk of landslides in the upcoming monsoon rainy season where there are ruptures and holes. Geologists are having fear that such natural events could result in landslide disaster along main highways. In fact, Kodari Highway that links China was blocked by landslides and it is not yet cleared till this date.


Due to continental collision, the Indian sub-continent pushes against Eurasian (Tibetan) Plateau as pressure will be accumulated and it uses to release in the form of earthquakes. It is notable that the constant crashing of the two plates formed the Himalayan mountain range.


Some Japanese, Chinese, American and British geologists, geophysics, and seismologists say that Nepal earthquake-2015 bears a typical and strange behavior than the previous quakes. It showed rather different nature with the quake of the rest of the world. It is commendable to make further research and detail study how this type of unusual character revealed by this Nepal earthquake. After the great earthquake of 25 April 2015, Nepal has become a laboratory of the world for the researchers of this field. Some of them have started to make a thorough and detail study and field-based on the spot research; how and why a chunk of 65 kilometer wide and 130 kilometer long landmass of Kathmandu area is being pushed its geographical position 3 kilometer south and south-west having 5.2 meter high in altitude. They are analyzing the behaviour of 435 aftershocks, as the frequency goes low and low in some weeks and in some other week it went suddenly higher Richter and then again down and down and again up.


Devastating earthquake of 25 April 2015 was released after 81 years of the last great earthquake in 1934 AD. If we look three hundred years history of the occurrence of the great earthquakes in Nepal, it faced in 1682, 1768, 1811, 1833, 1934 and the recent one in 2015. The largest one was of 8.4 Richter scale in 1934.


Damage caused by great earthquake-2015

According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, recent great earthquake killed 8,978 persons, 22,321 people have been injured and 138 people disappeared. 79 foreigners have been killed, 50 injured and 108 are out of contact. Number of private houses and buildings fully destroyed reached as 602,592 and partially damaged houses have been counted as 284,482. Near about 2,688 government buildings have been destroyed and 3,777 partially damaged. After the earthquake, more than 800,00 people who lost their houses stayed in tents as temporary shelter. In the case of Kathmandu Valley, more than 13,000 families had stayed in tents and of them 600 families have to spent their night still under the temporary tents.


According to the Department of Archaeology, more than 60 ancient monuments, temples and archaeological structures in the Kathmandu Valley have been fully destroyed and more than 250 monuments have been partially damaged by the earthquake. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square and the Bhaktapur Durbar Square.


More than 133 temples, statues and museums were destroyed and nearly 608 damaged across the country. The devastating earthquake that rocked the country on 25 April damaged 116 heritage monuments only in the historic town of Bhaktapur. Of them, 67 were completely damaged while 49 have suffered partial damage, according to the Executive Officer of Bhaktapur Municipality. Such is the condition of Patan and Kathmandu Metropolitan City.


Educational institutions too were hit hard on April 25. According to data collected, a total of 12,483 classrooms of 4,389 schools in 41 districts have been completely destroyed.


The devastating earthquake has badly hit the country’s power sector as well, causing damage to more than 20 hydro-projects that were either generating electricity or were under construction. Data provided by the Independent Power Producers Association of Nepal and Nepal Electricity Authority show that quake affected operational hydro-electric projects with installed capacity of at least 176.8 megawatts. The damage caused by the earthquake has shaken investor confidence, as projects that have been forced to suspend power generation, will lose income source till the time everything is fixed. According to the preliminary survey of Nepal Electricity Authority, thousands of equipments such as distribution transformer, power transformer, steel poll, distribution panel board etc have been dismantled which may cost 5,000 million Rupees.


The earthquake has not only inflicted heavy human casualty, but also dealt a big blow to livestock, poultry and other sector related to agriculture. According to the data released by the Ministry of Agricultural Development, at least 8,031 buffaloes, cows and oxen; 14,495 goats, sheep and pigs and 147,222 poultry were buried under the debris of structures that collapsed during the earthquake.


Government policy for the time being

The government had set to put a two-month ban on approval of design for new houses and overall constructions. It was felt that poor implementation of building code has resulted in massive human casualties in recent earthquakes. The Ministry of Local Development  prepared to limit houses within three storeys for the time being. Officials discussed whether the limit will apply to big complexes that are built on bigger spaces following the safety requirements. Commercial complexes may be permitted to build taller structures if they meet all the requirements with the suitability of soil capability.


Initial assessments by authorities have found that among the newly built structures mainly those constructed without acquiring municipal clearance were worst affected by the quake. The Ministry of Urban Development says- the proposed building code may necessitate the land to pass “risk-sensitive” tests before clearance and professional engineers to prepare a blueprint for buildings.


The government had completed Rapid Post Disaster Assessment (RPDA) of 26 high-rises, 134 buildings of 78 government offices, including 96 buildings of 20 hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley. According to the Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC), the assessment had marked two high rise apartments, 14 government offices outside Singha Durbar (government central secretariat), five offices within Singha Durbar and five hospitals within the Kathmandu valley as unsafe for immediate use.


Residential houses and high-rise buildings in the city which had sustained minor to serious damages in the great quake of April 25 and a number of subsequent aftershocks have been further affected by the quake that shook the country on 12th May. While residential houses that had suffered serious damages during the 25th April quake have been reduced to rubble by 12th May quake, a number of houses and commercial buildings have suffered severe damages and are in a vulnerable state.


The government provided Rs. 40,000 to the relatives of the deceased person for the ritual performances of the dead body. Rastra (Central) Bank of Nepal circulated to all the commercial banks to provide housing loan up to Rs. 2.5 million with 2 percent interest for 20 years period. In the mean time the government decided to provide Rs. 15,000 for each earthquake victims to buy corrugated zinc sheets and other materials to build temporary shelter.


Contribution of Japan

In due course of time, newly appointed JICA President Mr. Shinichi Kitaoka visited Nepal on 20 December 2015 to extend assistance and support for the earthquake victims. Japan’s ODA provided to the government of Nepal, Ministry of Finance, equivalent to Rs. 26.24 billion. 22.74 billion for reconstruction of schools and the remaining 3.50 billion had been assigned for the Project on Rehabilitation and Recovery from Nepal Earthquake.

Under this Grant Agreement, JICA will provide up to one billion and five hundred million Japanese Yen (JPY 1,500,000,000) for the program to reconstruct and rehabilitate the schools in flood and landslide affected areas as stated in the recovery and reconstruction strategy of the Ministry of Education with the BBB principles.

The BBB principles which ensure (1) Schools that are resilient to future disasters in line with appropriate standards (such as resilient buildings with safe and adequately sized staircases, necessary elevation for schools in delta areas, and improved WASH facilities, etc) and (2) Schools that have better learning environment under ongoing educational reforms (such as additional classrooms for KG in primary schools and post-primary schools, teacher’s room, good-quality classroom furniture, houses for headmaster and teacher with security where necessary, etc). The said grant will cover about one hundred and seventy thousand (170,000) students in schools who were affected by the floods and landslides, so that they can study without difficulty as early as possible.

It was expected that the emergency school reconstruction project will rebuild and retrofit schools in the districts, severely affected by the April and May earthquakes by financing the necessary expenses for reconstruction of schools and related facilities.


Likewise, the emergency housing construction project would restore and improve the living condition of the victims of the earthquakes by reconstructing the destroyed and damaged houses with an adequate seismic standard. This was expected to contribute in sustainable socio-economic development of the region with build back better (BBB). Meanwhile, the visiting JICA President Mr. Kitaoka paid a courtesy call on Prime Minister Mr. KP Sharma Oli. In the meeting, JICA President discussed overall Japan-Nepal co-operation strategies.

PM Oli and JICA President

JAAN relief work

JAAN also operated relief and supply distribution program. It collected some contribution from its members and created a fund. Besides, a major fund was received from Japan-Nepal Society, Tokyo. This fund was collected from the Nepali people residing in and around Tokyo. At the same time a considerable amount of money was received from Nepali community of USA. In such a way near about two million Rupees had been collected.


With this amount, JAAN members including President, Vice-President, General Secretary and Treasurer launched various programs for the distribution of supplies to the earthquake victims. The relief materials managed were tents, mattresses, blankets, clothes, food grains, cooking oil and ready made food stuffs. These materials have been distributed to the earthquake affected homeless people of Bhote Namlang Village Development Committee (VDC) of Sindhupalchok, Saankhu settlement of Kathmandu and Lele, Nallu VDCs of Lalitpur districts. The relief operation was conducted for more than one month.


JAAN has a plan to reconstruct a school building with a Community Hall at Bhote Namlang, which was severely damaged during the earthquake. But JAAN is waiting for a proposal from the VDC whether it is the need of the local people of that area. JAAN intends this reconstruction to be used also to conduct various training programs for community development and income generation support purposes. This type of training may help to increase capability of the purchasing power of local people.


Prime Minister KP Oli and reconstruction of Dharahara Tower

Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli appealed on 16 February 2016 to Nepalis to contribute towards rebuilding Dharahara and also announced that he would contribute one month’s salary for this purpose. The prime minister made the announcement during a programme organized by Nepal Tourism Board and Kathmandu Metropolitan City to affirm the commitment at higher political level towards rebuilding of historical sites. PM Oli added that the government is preparing to rebuild Dharahara as a memorial of lives lost during the earthquakes of April and May. Later, the government decided that Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli and all ministers, including state and assistant ministers, will donate one month’s salary for the reconstruction of Dharahara.


Oli making speechOli greeting

The government also decided to collect donation from Nepalis so that they would feel ownership in rebuilding of the historical site with a slogan Mero Dharahara : Ma Banauncchu ( My Dharahara will be built : By Myself). PM Oli said we want to rebuild Dharahara the symbol of our pride  by collecting funds from Nepali people, as this will give the message of national unity.

The 203-foot Dharahara Tower (Bhimsen Stambha), built in 1934, was collapsed within a minute on 25 April earthquake. There were 213 steps inside and 25 outside steps to climb on the top of Dharahara tower. The tumbled Dharahara took the lives of 52 persons who were climbing on the staircase at that moment.

The original 225 feet Bhimsen Tower was built in 1825 by the first Prime Minister of Nepal, Bhimsen Thapa. It was partially damaged by the massive earthquake of 1934. So it was rebuilt as nine-storey 203 feet that came crashing down on 25 April 2015.

National Reconstruction Authority (NRA)

During the programme of announcement to rebuild Dharahara, the National Reconstruction Authority (NRA) launched a campaign entitled ‘I will build my Dharahara by myself’ in a bid to collect donation from individuals, corporate houses, non-resident Nepalis and others. The campaign is a part of the three-month reconstruction mega campaign, which was launched on January 16. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the NRA disclosed that the bank account for depositing donations will be opened soon.  NRA has proposed that the new Dharahara will have a façade similar to the old structure. However, it will be built using modern construction materials, will have a three-storey underground parking and will be over 203-feet high.


Last item

Let us hope and pray that there may be no more earthquake in Nepal. But there is no science that could predict earthquake. However, the geologists and seismologists could forecast the occurrence of earthquake within some time frame, especially in the earthquake prone zone of Eurasian fault zone area. For example, they had made a forecast that there may be another great earthquake in Nepal and surrounding areas by 2034, which will be the subsequent of 1934 earthquake. But it was 19 years earlier that happened in 2015.


In recent years, scientists and researchers have manufactured equipment that forecasts earthquake making some sound, nearly one minute before the occurrence of earthquake. Whatever it may be, now the new construction and reconstruction should be of risk reduction type and less destructive, and resilient that may bear the shaking of great earthquakes.



Splitted Nepal by Sugauli Treaty

Splitted Nepal by Sugauli Treaty


Namuna Sahitya

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


सन्धिले चोइटयाएको नेपाल

बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ


दुई सय वर्षअघि भएको सुगौली सन्धिले नेपालको भूमि चोइटिएर नेपाल तराईविहीन भएको थियो । तर चोइटिएको पूर्वी तराई नौ महिनामा फेरि जोडिन आइपुग्यो । सन्धिको ४४ वर्षपछि पश्चिमी तराई फर्केर मूलभूमिमा मिसियो ।

यद्यपि मेची–टिष्टा र काली–काँगडा चोइटिएर छुट्टिएकै अवस्थामा रह्यो । यसपछि वर्तमान नेपालको सिमाना कायम रहिरहेको छ । यसरी चोइटिएको क्षेत्र फेरि जोडिएकोले बेलाबखत त्यस्ता जोडान क्षेत्रको रसायन कमजोर भएको पाउँछौं । तर पकलक्क चिरोपर्ने दरार पैदा भएको छैन ।

यस्तो चोइटिने र जोडिने नेपालको सिमानाको इतिहास अवलोकन गर्दा पृथ्वीनारायण शाहले हिमाली क्षेत्रका भुरे–टाकुरे, बाइसी–चौबिसी राज्यहरू एकीकरण गरेको प्रसंग आउँछ । उनका सन्ततिले नेपालको सिमाना पूर्वमा टिस्टादेखि पश्चिममा किल्ला काँगडासम्म जोडेका थिए ।

Choityako Nepal

परिणामत: एउटा सशक्त हिमाली राष्ट्र खडा भएको थियो । तर भारतमा शासन गरिरहेको अंग्रेजलाई यो कुरा पचेन ।

अंग्रेज हिमाली क्षेत्रका साना–तिना तथा कमजोर राजारजौटालाई आपसमा वैमनश्य पैदा गराई भारतको अरु राज्यलाई भैंm आफ्नो अधीनमा लिएर तिब्बतसम्म व्यापार विस्तार गर्न चाहन्थ्यो । तर एकीकृत नेपाल पूर्व–पश्चिम फैलिएकाले अंग्रेज तिब्बतसम्म पुग्न सकेन ।

नेपाल एकीकरण गर्ने सिलसिलामा पाल्पाका राजा अधीनस्थ बुटवल र स्युराजको भू–भागसमेत नेपालको सीमाभित्र समाहित गरिएको थियो । यिनै दुई क्षेत्रको स्वामित्वमाथि अंग्रेजले बखेडा उत्पन्न गर्दै यी भाग साविक औधका राजा अन्तर्गत थियो, त्यसैले अंग्रेज सरकारको भू–भागभित्र पर्छ भनी कचिङ्गल झिक्यो ।

तर नेपालले बुटवल र स्युराज औधका बजिरले खोसेर अंग्रेजलाई दिनुअघि पाल्पाका राजामातहत रहेकोले यी दुवै ठाउँ स्वत: नेपालको हुनगएको जिकिर गर्दै रहयो ।

यस्तो विवादमाथि अत्तो थापेर अंग्रेजी शासक गभर्नर जनरल लर्ड होस्टिङ्गसले नेपालविरुद्ध १ नोभेम्बर १८१४ मा विधिवत युद्धको घोषणा गर्‍यो । अंग्रेज जसरी भए पनि युद्ध गरी नेपाललाई घुँडा टेकाउन चाहन्थ्यो ।

नेपाल दरबारका भाइभारदारचाहिँ युद्ध गर्ने र नगर्ने भन्ने दुई फ्याक्लामा बाँडिएका थिए । तर अन्त्यमा अंग्रेजसँग युद्ध नगरी धरै छैन भन्ने पक्षको कुरा नै नेपाल सरकारले निर्णय लियो ।

अंग्रेजले बेतिया, गोरखपुर, अलमोडा, देहरादुन तथा सिरमौर गरी पाँच स्थानबाट नेपालमाथि धावा गर्‍यो । युद्धका क्रममा कतिपय क्षेत्र अंग्रेजले कब्जा गर्थ्यो भने अन्य कतिपय स्थानमा गोरखाली फौजको मातहत हुन्थ्यो ।

उदाहरणार्थ, पूर्वी क्षेत्रमा अंग्रेजी पल्टनका सिपाही र अफिसर गोरखालीद्वारा मारिंँदा अंग्रेज सेनापति रणमैदान छाडेर बेतियातर्फ भागेका थिए । गोरखालीले खेद्दै सिमाना कटाएका थिए ।

पश्चिमतर्फको युद्ध अभियानमा नेपालका अमरसिंह थापा, भक्ति थापा, बलभद्र कुँवरजस्ता सेनापति तैनाथ थिए । देउथलमा भक्ति थापा र नालापानीमा बलभद्र कुँवर, सतलजमा अमरसिंह थापाले युद्ध मैदानमा ठूलो पौरख देखाए । तर अंग्रेजले नालापानी किल्लाभित्र जाने पानीको नाला काटिदिने जस्ता अमानवीय अनेक छलछाम गर्न लागे ।

युद्ध वर्षौं लम्बिँदै जान लाग्यो । अंग्रेजी फौजसँग सैन्यशक्ति र द्रव्यशक्ति पनि थियो । तर पनि थकित हुँदै गएको थियो । नेपाली फौजतर्फ भने युद्ध सामग्री अपुग र रसदपानी पनि अभाव हुँदै आएको थियो । फलत: गोरखालीले किल्ला थाम्न नसक्ने अवस्थामा पुगेका थिए ।

यस्तो अवस्थामा दुवै राष्ट्रबीच पहिले रहिआएको शान्ति तथा मैत्री सम्बन्धलाई फेरि स्थापना गर्न अंग्रेजले केही सर्तहरू राखी सुगौली सन्धि तयार पारी लेफ्टिनेन्ट कर्णेल प्यारिस ब्राडसले हस्ताक्षर गरेर २ डिसेम्बर १८१५ मा नेपालसमक्ष पठायो ।

प्रस्तावित सन्धिमा पश्चिमतर्फ महाकाली नदीदेखि सतलज/काँगडा र पूर्वतर्फ मेचीदेखि टिस्टासम्म अनि चुरे सिवालिक पर्वतदेखि दक्षिणतर्फको मैदानी भाग नेपालले अंग्रेजलाई सदाका लागि छाड्नुपर्ने उल्लेख गरिएको थियो ।

महत्त्वपूर्ण कुराचाहिँ सन्धि मस्यौदा भएको मितिले १५ दिनभित्र नेपालको महाराजाधिराजबाट अनुमोदन गरी फिर्ता पठाउनु पर्नेछ भन्ने उल्लेख भएको थियो ।

मसौदा सन्धि नेपाल दरबारमा प्राप्त भएपछि भाइभारदार तथा सेना प्रमुखबीच धेरै दिन छलफल भयो । छलफलको क्रममा आधाजसो भारदार अंग्रेजसँग लड्नैपर्छ, यो सन्धिमा हस्ताक्षर गर्न हुँदैन भन्ने मनसायका थिए ।

बाँकी भाइभारदार अंग्रेजसँग युद्ध गर्न सकिँदैन भन्ने पक्षमा थिए । यसैले सन्धि अनुमोदन गर्ने—नगर्ने भन्ने सम्बन्धमा नेपालले महिनौं दिनसम्म पनि निर्णय गर्न सकेन । यसैबीच नेपालले सन्धिमा सहमति जनाएन भने अब काठमाडौं राजधानीमाथि नै हमला गर्ने भन्ने अंग्रेजले धम्कीपूर्ण हल्ला फिँजाए ।

आखिर नेपाल दरबार विवश भएर सन्धिमा हस्ताक्षर गरी अंग्रेजलाई बुझाउन चन्द्रशेखर उपाध्यायलाई पठाइयो । उपाध्यायले गजराज मिश्रलाई साथमा लिई मकवानपुरको सुगौलीमा रहेको अंग्रेजको क्याम्पमा गई नेपालका तर्फबाट सन्धिमा काउन्टर हस्ताक्षर गरी इस्ट इन्डिया कम्पनीका प्रतिनिधि महाराज्यपाल डीडी अक्टरलोनीलाई हस्तान्तरण गरे ।

अक्टरलोनीले सन्धिलाई ४ मार्च १८१६ मा अनुमोदन हस्ताक्षर गर्दै बेलायत सरकारका तर्फबाट एक प्रति उपाध्यायलाई सुम्पुवा गरे । यो सन्धिबाट नेपालको एक तिहाइ भू–भाग चोइटिएर फुत्क्यो । परिणामत: नेपाल तराईविहीन भएको थियो ।

यसरी नेपाललाई चोइटयाउन गरिएको सन्धिमाथि उल्लिखित घटनाक्रमअनुसार नेपालले राजीखुसीसाथ गरेको होइन भन्ने देखिन्छ । सन्धिमा काउन्टर हस्ताक्षर १५ दिनमा गर्नु भनिएकोमा नेपाल विवश भएर ९३ औै दिनमा मात्रै हस्ताक्षर गरिएको थियो । महत्त्वपूर्ण कुराचाहिँ नेपालले असन्तुष्टि जनाउँदै नेपालका राजा–महाराजाले सन्धिमा हस्ताक्षर नगरेको प्रतिविम्बित हुन्छ ।

नेपाल खुस भएको भए भारदारले हस्ताक्षर गरेको सन्धिलाई सरकार या राष्ट्रप्रमुखले अनुमोदन (रेटिफाइ) गर्नुपर्ने हो । तर यस्तो गरिएको पाइँदैन । जबकि सन् १९५० को शान्ति तथा मैत्री सन्धिमा नेपालका तर्फबाट श्री ३ (प्रधानमन्त्री) र भारतका तर्फबाट राजदूतले संयुक्त हस्ताक्षर गरिएकोमा नेपालका राजा त्रिभुवनले रेटिफाइ गरेको पाइन्छ ।

नेपाल करकापमा परेर मात्र सुगौली सन्धि गरिएको हो भन्ने कुरा अंग्रेज र गोरखालीबीच कहिल्यै पनि युद्ध र मनमुटाव नभएको मेची र टिस्टा बीचको भू–भाग नेपालबाट हठात् खोसिएकोबाट प्रमाणित हुन्छ ।

यतिमात्र होइन, मेची–टिस्टा बीचको बलजफ्ती लिइएको नेपाली जमिन लेप्चा प्रदेश (सिक्किम) लाई टिटालिया सन्धि गरी दिइयो । मेची–टिस्टा क्षेत्रमा असन्तुष्ट गोरखाली फौजले युद्ध गर्लान् भन्ने संशयले ४० दिनभित्र खाली गर्नुपर्छ भन्ने उल्लेख गर्दै सन्धिपश्चात् मनसुन वर्षा सकिने बित्तिकैदेखि अंग्रेजले मेची नदीको पूर्वी किनारमा भटाभट जंगे सीमाखम्बा खडागरी १८१७ जनवरी महिनामा नक्सा नै प्रकाशित गर्‍यो ।

नेपाललाई करकापमा पारेर सन्धि गर्न लगाइएको कुरा स्वयम् अंग्रेजलाई पनि महसुस भएको थियो । त्यसैले बेखुस भारदारहरूलाई निवृत्तिभरणका रूपमा वितरण गर्न प्रतिवर्ष २ लाख रुपियाँ नेपाललाई प्रदान गरिने कुरा सन्धिको धारा–४ मै उल्लेख गरियो ।

यी सबै बुँदाबाट नेपाल डरत्रास र धाकधम्कीमा परी विवश भएर सुगौली सन्धि (असमान भए पनि) हस्ताक्षर गर्न करबलमा परेको पुष्टि हुन्छ ।

सुगौली सन्धिपछि नेपालमा बेलायती ‘लिगेसन’ स्थापना भयो । परिणामत: अंग्रेज रेजिडेन्ट काठमाडौंमा बस्न पाउने व्यवस्था भयो । यसबाट नेपालको राष्ट्रियता र सार्वभौमिकतामाथि अप्रत्यक्ष रूपले आँच आउन सुरु गर्‍यो ।

ब्रिटिस गोर्खा रेजिमेन्ट स्थापना गरी गोरखा सैनिक भर्ती गर्ने गरियो । यस्ता नेपाली गोरखा सैनिकले बेलायतका लागि जीउज्यान दिनुपर्ने प्रावधान बन्यो ।

सुगौली सन्धिले चोइटयाएर नेपाललाई तराईविहीन बनाउँदा मर्कामा परेको रहेछ भन्ने अंग्रेजको दिमागमा परिरहेका कारण सन्धि भएको ९ महिनापछि राप्तीदेखि कोसीसम्मको समथर तराई भू–भाग फेरि नेपालमा नै जडान हुन आइपुग्यो । यसका कारण नेपाललाई प्रतिवर्ष दिइने दुई लाख नगद दिन बन्द गरियो ।

धारा–३ मा सन्धिमा उल्लिखित भूमि नेपालले सदाका लागि परित्याग गर्नेछ भनिए पनि नेपाललाई चित्त बुझेको छैन भन्ने अंग्रेजले ठानेको थियो । यसैले सन्धि सदाका लागि होइन भन्ने चरितार्थ गर्न अंग्रेजले चोइटयाएको पूर्वी तराई क्षेत्र र नयाँ मुलुक नेपाललाई फिर्ता गरेको हुनसक्छ । यसबाट पनि नेपाल सन्धिमा हस्ताक्षर गर्न बाध्य हुनुपरेको प्रमाणित हुन्छ ।

असमान सन्धिको चोट नेपालमाथि परिरहेकोले जंगबहादुरले ब्रिटिसकालीन भारतमा उब्जेको सिपाही विद्रोह समन गरिदिए बापत नयाँ मुलुकका रूपमा बाँके, बर्दिया, कैलाली, कञ्चनपुर फिर्ता लिएर वर्तमान नेपालको सिमाना कायम हुनपुगेको छ । यी सबै कारणले दुई सय वर्ष अघिको सुगौली सन्धि नेपालका लागि कालो सन्धिका रूपमा रहेको मान्नुपर्छ ।

यो सन्धिले गर्दा नेपाल राष्ट्र नै अपमानित र अपहेलित भएको कुराले वीर योद्धा अमरसिंह थापाको मनमा चस्का परेकोले गोसाइँकुण्डमा गएर उनले त्यहीं देहत्याग गरेका थिए ।

सुगौली सन्धिजस्ता विभेदकारी सन्धि—सम्झौता नेपालले अब कहिल्यै देख्न—भोग्न नपरोस् । राष्ट्रको अखण्डता, सार्वभौमिकता र स्वाधीनता कायम राख्न सुगौली सन्धिलाई खेदजनक तरिकाले भत्र्सना गर्नुपर्छ ।



Sugauli Treaty Until Nepal Having Prosperous

Sugauli treaty until Nepal having prosperous

New 2072Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


नेपाल समृद्ध नभएसम्म

बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ


सुगौली सन्धिमा गुमेको भूभाग सहीसलामत फिर्ता लिन सकिन्छ


पृथ्वीनारायण शाहले सुरु गरेको नेपालको सीमा एकीकरण अभियानको सिलसिलामा विशाल नेपाल उच्च हिमशिखरका साथै पहाड, उपत्यका, तराई, तथा पूर्व–पश्चिम लमतन्न परी बीच–बीचमा अवस्थित भन्ज्याङ, घाँटी, थुम्का–थुम्कीहरूले भरिएको थियो ।


त्यस समयमा १८ तथा १२ ठकुराई, सिरमोर, गढवाल क्षेत्र, कुमाउँ प्रदेश, बाईसी, चौबीसी राज्य, काठमाडौँ उपत्यका, सेन राज्य, माझकिराँत, पल्लोकिराँत, लिम्बुआन क्षेत्र तथा लेप्चा इलाकासमेत गरी, तत्कालीन अवस्थामा छरिएर रहेको ५६ वटा पृथक्–पृथक्, ससाना राज्य–रजौटा क्षेत्रहरू एउटै सीमा रेखाभित्र बाँधिई सिंगो राष्ट्र एकीकृत नेपालको रूपमा स्थापित भएको थियो ।


नेपाल राज्यको एकीकरणको अन्तिम चरणमा आइपुग्दासम्मको अभियानमा वीर बलभद्र र भक्ति थापाले गरेको रगतको बलिदान, बहादुर शाह र अमरसिंह थापाले देखाएको वीरता र भीमसेन थापाको कुटिलताको परिणामस्वरूप नेपालको सिमाना पूर्वमा टिस्टा नदीदेखि पश्चिमको किल्लाका ‘गडा र हिमालको उत्तरी फेदीदेखि दक्षिणको उर्वरा समतल भूभाग गंगा–जमुना संगमसम्म पुगेको थियो । नेपालको मानचित्रको सीमारेखाभित्र अंकन गरिएको थियो ।


यस्तो विशाल भौगोलिक क्षेत्र ओगटेको हिमाली राज्य स्थापना भएकोमा भारत शासन गरिरहेको ‘सूर्य नअस्ताउने देश’ का अंग्रेजी शासकलाई चित्त बुझेन ।


उनीहरूले तिब्बतसम्म पुगेर एकाधिकार व्यापार गर्न पाएनन् । यसैले नेपालले एकीकरण गरेको बुटवल क्षेत्रका छेउछाउका गाउँबस्तीहरूमा अंग्रेजले दावा गर्दै निहुँ खोज्न थाल्यो । नेपालचाहिँ आफ्नो हक अधिकारमा अटल रह्यो । परिणामतः दुवै देशबीच शत्रुता पैदा भयो । अन्ततः कम्पनी सरकारले सिमानासम्बन्धी छलफल गर्ने मनसाय जाहेर गर्‌यो ।


यसै प्रसंगमा अंग्रेजको तर्फबाट मेजर पेरिस ब्राडशा र नेपालका तर्फबाट कमिस्नर कृष्ण पण्डितले दुईतर्फको प्रतिनिधित्व गर्दै कुराकानी अगाडि बढाउँदै गएका थिए । तर ब्राडशा र पण्डितका बीच सम्बन्ध बिग्रँदै गयो र कुराकानी नमिल्ने ठानी नेपाली पक्ष अप्रिल १८१४ मा वार्ता भंग गरी काठमाडौँ फर्कियो ।


यस्तैमा आफूले भनेको कुरा नेपालले नमानेको भन्ने अत्तो थापेर अंगे्रज पक्षले अब लडाइँकै घोषणा गर्नुपर्‌यो, संघर्ष अपरिहार्य नै भयो भन्ने ठाने । यसको फलस्वरूप कम्पनी सरकारले १ नोभेम्बर १८१४ मा नेपालसँग संघर्ष गर्न विधिवत् युद्धको घोषणा गर्‌यो । गोर्खालीले अंग्रेजका विरुद्धमा युद्ध गर्ने–नगर्ने भन्ने विषयमा काठमाडौँमा भारदारहरूबीच छलफल तथा वादविवाद भयो ।


केही भारदारले लडाइँ रोक्नुपर्छ भन्ने धारणा प्रस्तुत गरे भने धेरैजसो भारदारले लडाइँ गर्न अंग्रेजले लल्कारिसकेकाले लडाइँको तयारी गर्नुपर्ने राय व्यक्त गरे ।

निचोडमा अंग्रेजसँग युद्ध गर्नैपर्छ भन्ने भीमसेन थापाको प्रस्ताव नै स्वीकृत भयो । यसअनुसार नेपाली फौजका गणहरूको प्रबन्ध गरियो । परिणामतः कम्पनी सरकार र गोरखाली सेनाबीच ‘एङ्लो–गोर्खा’ युद्ध सुरु भयो । यो युद्ध वर्षौं चल्यो । युद्धका क्रममा नेपाली सिमानाभित्र अंग्रेजहरूको सैनिक गतिविधि तथा दबाब तत्कालीन परिस्थितिमा बढ्दै आएकाले अब अरू युद्ध लम्ब्याउन नेपालले उचित ठानेन ।


अतः युद्ध स्थगनको लागि कम्पनी सरकारसँग वार्ता गर्न २८ मे १८१५ मा नेपालको तर्फबाट गजराज मि श्र र चन्द्रशेखर उपाध्यायलाई सुगौलीतर्फ पठाइयो । वार्तामा कम्पनी सरकारका पेरिस ब्राडशाले भाग लिएका थिए । कम्पनी सरकारले आफ्नो हातमाथि पारी नेपाललाई अप्ठेरो पार्ने किसिमका थुप्रै माग राखे, जुनचाहिँ नेपाललाई स्वीकार्य भएन ।


फलस्वरूप प्रथम चरणको वार्ता असफल भयो । यसपछि नेपाललाई शान्ति सन्धि गर्न अंग्रेजतर्फबाट दबाब आयो र दोस्रोपटक वार्ता भयो । तर नेपाललाई तराई क्षेत्र छोड्न अंग्रेजले राखेको प्रस्ताव मन्जुर नभएकाले यो वार्ता पनि भंग भयो । अर्को प्रयासस्वरूप तराई छोडेबापत अंग्रेजले नेपाललाई सालिन्दा केही रकम दिने र अन्य केही सुविधा प्रदान गर्ने लोभ देखाई लर्ड हेस्टिङ्सले सुगौली सन्धिको मस्यौदा तयार गरे ।


यो मस्यौदो २ डिसेम्बर १८१५ मा नेपालसमक्ष प्रस्तावित गरी पठाइयो । १५ दिनभित्र यस सन्धिपत्रमा सहमति हस्ताक्षर गरी स्वीकृति पठाउन नेपाललाई भनियो । तर यसमा नेपाल सरकारले हस्ताक्षर गर्न तत्परता देखाएन ।


यसको प्रतिक्रियास्वरूप सर डेभिड अक्टरलोनीको नेतृत्वमा अंग्रेजी सेना काठमाडौँतर्फ अगाडि बढ्ने एकाएक योजना बन्यो । यसैले नेपाल सरकारले शान्ति सम्झौताको लागि आफ्नो प्रतिनिधि ब्रिटिस हेडक्वाटरमा पठाउने जानकारी गरायो । यसअनुसार नेपालका तर्फबाट पण्डित गजराज मि श्रलाई साथमा लिई चन्द्रशेखर उपाध्याय मकवानपुरतर्फ लागे ।


मकवानपुरको सुगौलीमा पुगी उनले नेपालका तर्फबाट सन्धिमा सहमति हस्ताक्षर गरी ४ मार्च १८१६ दिउँसो २.३० बजे कम्पनी सरकारलाई हस्तान्तरण गरे । अंगे्रजका तर्फबाट गभर्नर जनरल डेभिड अक्टरलोनीले प्रामाणिक हस्ताक्षर गरी एक प्रति चन्द्रशेखरलाई दिए । परिणामतःएकीकृत नेपालको एकतिहाइ भूमि गुम्यो ।


यसरी विवश भएर सुगौली सन्धि स्वीकार गर्न नेपाललाई कर लागेको थियो । यस्तो करकापमा परी गरिएको सुगौली सन्धि भएको आज दुई सय वर्ष पुगेको छ । तथापि नेपाल राष्ट्र र नेपाली जनता समृद्ध भएमा र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय स्तरमा वैचारिकरूपले शक्तिशाली भएमा सुगौली सन्धिमा गुमेको नेपालको भूभाग भारतबाट एक दिन सहिसलामत फिर्ता लिनसक्ने सम्भावना रहेको दखिन्छ ।


उदहारणका निम्ति सन् १८४२ मा हङकङ अंग्रेजहरूले सदाको लागि भनी सन्धि गरेर लिएका थिए । तर त्यो भूभाग १५५ वर्षपछि अंग्रेज नतमस्तक भएर चीनलाई फिर्ता गर्न बाध्य भयो । चार सय वर्षअघि कब्जा गरेको मकाउ १९९९ डिसेम्बर २० मा फिर्ता हुन सक्यो । यस्तै, मोगलले लगानी उठाइरहेको ‘गोआ’ लाई चार सय वर्षअघि पोर्चुगलले आफ्नो अधीनस्थ पारेको थियो ।


अंग्रेजी शासनबाट भारत स्वतन्त्र भइसकेपछि १९६० जनवरीमा गोआको भूमि भारतले फिर्ता लिन सकेको थियो । यिनै उदाहरणको परिपे्रक्षमा आजभन्दा दुई शताब्दीअघि मात्र अंग्रेजले चोक्टाएको नेपालको बाँकी भूभाग फिर्ता हुन सक्दैन भन्न सकिन्न ।

Annapurna Post- Sketch 72-11-21

सुगौली सन्धि खेदजनक भएकाले यस दिनलाई तिरस्कृत भावनाले हेर्नुपर्छ नेपालले भविष्यमा यस्तो कालो दिन खेप्न नपरोस् भनी सार्वभौमिकता तथा भौगोलिक अखण्डतामा सबै नेपालीले प्रतिबद्धता जनाउँदै दृढ संकल्पित रहनुपर्छ सन् १९५० को सन्धिको धारा ले यसअघिका सबै सन्धिसम्झौता खारेज गरेकाले सुगौली सन्धि सदाका लागि भएको होइन भन्ने मनन गरी नेपाल नेपालीले आत्मबल जगाउँदै आजको दिनलाई भत्र्सना गर्नुपर्छ

यसैले नेपालको चोक्टिएको पुख्र्यौली जमिन मूल भागसँग गाभिन नसक्ने भन्ने देखिँदैन । केही अघिदेखि भारतको पूर्वी राज्य आसामले स्वतन्त्रताको आवाज गुन्ज्याइरहेको छ भने नेपालको भूखण्ड पराधीनको हातमा कुँजिएर रहिरहेकोमा यसले आफ्नो ऐतिहासिक मातृभूमिमा एकीकरण भई गाभिने स्वतन्त्रता पाउँदैन भन्न सकिन्न । तर यसका लागि नेपाल समृद्ध र बलियो हुनुपर्‌यो, नेपालीले नै पहलकदमी गर्नुपर्छ ।


विश्वको उदीयमान राष्ट्र चीनले आर्थिक क्षेत्रमा विश्वलाई नै गाँज्दै राजनीतिक र विज्ञान प्रविधिमा समेत समृद्ध भएकाले आफ्नो गुमेको हङकङको भूभाग बेलायतबाट फिर्ता लिन सक्षम भएको हो । अंग्रेजले हङकङ लिँदा गरेको सन्धिजस्तै नेपालसँगको सुगौली सन्धि भएकाले कालान्तरमा नेपाल समृद्ध भए नेपालले फिर्ता पाउन सक्दैन भन्न मिल्दैन ।


यसका लागि प्रत्येक नेपालीको आर्थिक स्थिति उँभो लाग्नुपर्‌यो, प्रतिव्यक्ति आम्दानी बढाउने परिबन्ध मिलाउनुपर्‌यो । देशभित्रै कलकारखाना, उद्योगव्यवसाय फस्टाउनुपर्‌यो । जलस्रातेको दोहन गर्दै साहसिक पर्यटनको विकास गर्नुपर्‌यो । अनि राजनीतिक फाँटबाट सबल, सशक्त र दूरदृष्टि रहेको नेतृत्वले क्रमबद्ध योजना निर्माण गरे नेपालको आर्थिक अवस्था उकालो लाग्न सक्छ ।


नेपाली समाजको विकासको गति अगाडि बढ्न सक्छ । आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक विकास भएमा प्रत्येक नेपालीको बौद्धिक क्षमता वृद्धि भई सोच्ने शक्ति बढोत्तरी हुन जान्छ । समाजमा चेतना अभिवृद्धि भएपछि राष्ट्रिय जागरण तथा राष्ट्रप्रेमको भावना जागृत हुने मात्रा पनि स्वाभाविकैले थपिन पुग्छ ।


यसपछि सामाजिक जागृतिले भरिपूर्ण भएको नेपाली नयाँ पुस्ता आफ्नो पुर्खाले आर्जेको मेची–टिस्टा र महाकाली–काँगडाको गुमेको भूभाग फिर्ता लिन सक्षम हुन सक्नेछ र चन्द्र–सूर्य अंकित त्रिकोणाकारको झन्डा एकीकृत नेपालको चौकिल्लामा फहरिन सक्नेछ । नेपालले अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय जगत्मा विश्व जनमत बटुली प्रत्येक नेपाली नागरिकमा आत्मबल जागे सुगौली सन्धिको छेकबार भत्की टिस्टा र किल्लाकाँगडा नेपालको सिमानाभित्र फेरि समाविष्ट हुनेछ ।


यसै कारणले नेपालको नयाँ संविधानको धारा ४ (२ख) मा ‘नेपालको क्षेत्र यो संविधान प्रारम्भ भएपछि प्राप्त हुने क्षेत्र हुनेछ’ भन्ने पनि उल्लेख भएको छ ।

स्मरण गर्नुपर्ने कुरा के छ भने ठीक दुई सय वर्षअघि आजैका दिनमा अंग्रेजशासित भारत र परापूर्वकालदेखि स्वतन्त्र रहिआएको नेपालबीच सुगौली सन्धि भएको थियो ।


करकाप छलछाम र दबाबमा परी नेपालले यो सन्धिमा हस्ताक्षर गर्नुपरेको इतिहासले बताएको कुरा सर्वविदितै छ । सन्धिका कारण नेपाले आफ्नो एकतिहाइ भूभाग गुमाउनुपरेको थियो । यसैले नेपालको सिमानाको इतिहासमा आजको दिनलाई नेपाली नागरिक समाजले घृणा जनाउनुपर्छ । सुगौली सन्धि खेदजनक भएकाले यस दिनलाई तिरस्कृत भावनाले हेर्नुपर्छ ।


नेपालले भविष्यमा यस्तो कालो दिन खेप्न नपरोस् भनी सार्वभौमिकता तथा भौगोलिक अखण्डतामा सबै नेपालीले प्रतिबद्धता जनाउँदै दृढ संकल्पित रहनुपर्छ । सन् १९५० को सन्धिको धारा ८ ले यसअघिका सबै सन्धिसम्झौता खारेज गरेकाले सुगौली सन्धि सदाका लागि भएको होइन भन्ने मनन गरी नेपाल र नेपालीले आत्मबल जगाउँदै आजको दिनलाई भत्र्सना गर्नुपर्छ ।

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