Jange – Buddhe
Authored by- Buddhi Narayan Shrestha
Jange means- Janga Bahadur, Former Prime Minister of Nepal, who initiated to construct masonry ‘Jumbo Border Pillar.’
Buddhe means- Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, who is making study and research on the Jange (Jumbo) Border Pillar.
The book ‘Jange – Buddhe’ was launched jointly on 9 August 2016 in a colourful function by the distinguished personalities- Nation Poet Madhav Prasad Ghimire, Senior Culture Expert Satya Mohan Joshi and noted critic Eminent Prof. Dr. Abhi Subedi amidst a grand programme in Kathmandu.
Six television channels had covered and aired the news the same evening and mostly next morning as well. Various daily and weekly newspapers such as Kantipur, Nagarik, Annapurna Post, Nayapatrika, Gorkhapatra, Rising Nepal, RSS (National News Agency) etc had published the news next day. Some online media such as Radio Nepal, image FM, Hami Nepali, Nepal Aaja, Purbeli News, Thaha Khabar, Sambad Media, Nepal News, Faith Nepal, Maitri News, nepalromania.com, bishalnepal.com etc had carried the news. Kantipur Television (Rise and Shine Program) had interviewed Shrestha the following morning. Some weekly and monthly and other magazines such as Nepal Weekly, Madhu Parka, Kanoon, Garima etc have published the review of the book. Followings are the news and views covered by media:-
The book has described about the Jange (Jumbo) boundary Pillars that Janga Bahadur Rana has contributed to protect the boundary of Nepal by constructing the jumbo boundary pillars wisefully and efficiently during the British dominance in overall South Asia. The book has transmitted the message that Nepali people should be aware to protect border and frontier against the encroachment by neighbouring countries. Janga Bahadur brought back around 6.7 per cent of total territory of the nation from the British India, which was a part of lost territory during Sugauli Treaty.
Most of the historians use to tell- Nepali people understand Janga Bahadur Rana as a cruel administrator who started the oligarchy regime in Nepal. Yes, this is as one side of the coin. But the other side of the same coin is that he was a nationalist, obedient of legal state, as he had prepared and announced the Penal Code of the nation, for the first time, to maintain rule and regulations of the laws by all. On top of these items, he was a crusader of border’s protection, as he had erected and established the ‘jumbo boundary pillars’ to protect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Nepal.
During the program, author of the book Buddhi Narayan Shrestha spoke that this book is a collection of autobiographical write-ups related with Jange (Jumbo) Pillar; and Nepal-India border issues. Most of the chapters of this book are related to the boundary of Nepal, whether it is connected to any person or any reference material or any occurrence that may be belinked with incidents. The book includes the subject matters of the boundaries, boundary literature, biography, auto-biography and philosophy of life in some extent.
Shrestha further spoke- ‘needless to say, the Greek word auto-biography’ is understood as autos means self, boas denotes life and graphe is the writing. At the same time British poet and critic Stephen Spender has defined that auto-biography is the story about oneself, written by himself. Thinker George Smitch has said that auto-biography is written by those who have spent public life and have played the important role in the historical events who have gained fame or defame, that represent the society. In this perspective he said, ‘I would like to mention that it is not me to tell you, but the readers of my book will evaluate whether this is or not the auto-biography as well, after they read the book. It is indeed a border literature that also reflects the philosophy my life as well. I have tried to add some literary flavour to the topic of boundary of Nepal,’
Lauding the contribution of Janga Bahadur, Shrestha said ‘While 160 Bighas land of Jamunah area of Banke District border area was encroached, Janga Bahadur sent a protest letter to the British Government on 7 April 1862. It is to be understood that ‘many kings and prime ministers came and went since the demise of Jung Bahadur but none of them corresponded with India even there was the encroachment of thousands of hectare of land’ rued Shrestha. He said, his new book was his memoir that chronicled his struggles to protect the borders in relation to the Jange Pillars.
The author of the book highlighted that on the basis of field study, 1,880 km long Nepal-India boundary is delimitated on the map with 8559 boundary pillars. However, only 4360 pillars have been erected on the ground so far. Among them 946 Jange Pillars had been constructed during British rule in India. Of 4,360 erected pillars, 499 have been washed away by the rivers. Besides, 202 Jange Pillars have been destroyed, disappeared and vandalized. In addition, 189 pillars have been in dilapidated condition. Furthermore- 684 main, subsidiary and minor border pillars have to be repaired and maintained. According to him, these data have been chalked down on his recent book. So it depicts more or less a kind of condition and situation of the Jange Pillars along Nepal-India border.
He further reiterated that Nepal’s 26 districts, out of 75, have been adjoined with Indian territory. There are encroachments, disputes, conflicts, cross-holding occupations, claims and counter-claims in 23 districts, having 71 spots and places. The total area of these issues have been enumerated as 606 square kilometer. The largest portion of encroachments are Lipulek-Kalapani-Limpiyadhura of Darchula district with 370 sq km; and second one is Susta area of Nawalparasi district with 145 sq km; and the rest 69 spots have been calculated as 91 sq km. All these data have been included in the book to make it lively. He has also suggested some means and ways to resolve the border related issues as well, while speaking.
Lastly, the author thanked all those who joined the book release program from different sections of the society- for example academicians and university teachers, former government bureaucrats, former Army Commander-in-Chief, former Police Officer, former AIG of Armed Police Force, former Chief of Intelligence Department, former Chief Election Commissioners, former Royal Palace Secretary, former Commissioners of Commission of Investigation of Abuse of Authority, literate, poets, Film Director, renowned national singer, people’s singers, electronic and paper media persons, friends, class mates and other gentlemen and ladies. He expressed his gratitude to all who had spared their valuable time to attend the book release function.
On the occasion, critic Prof. Dr. Abhi Subedi said, although the term ‘border’ sounded abstract, Shrestha talked about tangible border symbolized by the Junge pillars. He noted that Junge pillar signified Nepalese power and freedom and this was a reason, why the country’s independence remained unchallenged for centuries.
‘Junge pillars carry the political, legal, ethical and historical dimensions. They do not only symbolize the nationality of hill-origin people, they offered a sense of security to the Terai people living near the Nepal-India border,’ added Subedi. He said that Shrestha was a lone figure to defend the sanctity of border.
He added, readers who are interested on border related issues, Buddhi Narayan’s book will be useful and effective. The write-up depicts a balanced adjustment of the literature, history and auto-biography beautifully. It is the ability of the author to make the difficult subject matter, like the boundaries, to be readable in the literature form.
Abhi Subedi further said in the program: Shrestha has written history, making an image to the Jange Pillar. Boundary formation and deletion work is being continued in the world. Our erased border is constructed after the Treaty of Sugauli. Politics, legality, historic and egoism have been made on that treaty. The book has caught the Jange Pillars that have been remained in the form of ‘Pole’ of Nepal’s freedom.
As a chief guest of the book release function, renowned Nation Poet Madhav Prasad Ghimire addressed lauding Shrestha: ‘I just sang the song for the glory of nation but Shrestha has accomplished concrete deed to the service of the nation. He has disseminated authentic information about the Jange Pillars set up along the borders.’
Ghimire said: British India, who won most of the countries of the world, but Nepal was able to preserve and arouse its independence. It is indeed, Nepal’s identity must be preserved. Political leaders must maintain the territorial integrity of the nation wisefully. It should not come into agitation while working for the shake of nation. Let us not bend to any of the neighbouring countries. Getting together each other, leaders must make harmony to preserve country’s sovereignty.
Nation Poet Ghimire further said, it is not only to expand road and construct buildings in Kathmandu, but also we must be aware to make our border managed. We must have great responsibility upon our nation. As such, Buddhi Narayan has submitted himself to his work and contributed greatly to the motherland.
As a special inaugural guest of the program, Senior Culture Expert Satya Mohan Joshi said, Shrestha’s book has heralded a new type of writing in Nepal. ‘It is the start of writing the people’s history. It generates a feeling of nationalism among the people.’
Joshi further said, now the country has gone to republican system. The country will remember the bad and good history of not only the work of King and Kingship, but also the work of the leaders of these days. In this context, the book has brought forward the history of the boundary of Nepal to make aware to the leaders and general people.
Joshi further spoke in the program: now the history will not work only saying that certain Malla King had constructed certain temple, but it needs to construct the sovereign history of the desire of the people.
Drawing a comparison between Jung Bahadur and other prime ministers, he made a jibe: ‘While Jung Bahadur took back the lost territory from the neighbour, but many other Nepalese Prime Ministers just donated Nepal’s rivers to other.’
In connection to his speech, Cultural Expert Joshi expressed as a complaint that the State has neglected upon Prithvi Narayan Shah and Janga Bahadur, who had contributed on the construction and preservation of the nation. But the state requires attention to maintain their statues which have been in a condition of abandonment.
In relation to the book Joshi said, Buddhi Narayan has presented much work to cultivate the national spirit, energy, enthusiasm and freshness by writing the book ‘Jange – Buddhe.’ It has provided an opportunity to Nepali to know the history of boundaries.
Prof. Dr. Khem Koirala, who conceived the title of the book, said writer Shrestha had reified the notion of nationalism at a time when an abstract nationalism was rife. He opined- the attempt of Janga Bahadur to protect the boundary of Nepal and the study of Jange (Jumbo) Pillars made by Buddhi Narayan are as similarly courageous.
Patriotism to the nation has been disappeared as the boundary and border pillars have been as abstract. In this context, the book is useful to create awareness to protect patriotism, national feeling and nationality. Koirala said, if someone wants to know about Buddhi Narayan and what he is doing, what types of contribution he is making; the book will furnish the information. He expressed that it was his privilege to write the preface of the book.
Managing Director of Makalu Prakashan Griha Basudev Dhakal said during his welcome speech that Buddhi Narayan Shrestha has raised his voice through his work writing various books such as Boundary of Nepal, Border War, India-Nepal Frontier Barrage, Knowledge on Boundary, Border Management of Nepal as Nepal’s geography and border-related books. He has written hundreds of articles, dozens of timeless compositions for the readers.
Acknowledging his high value contribution, he has been awarded more than three dozen national and international honors and awards such as Madan Puraskar (Prize), Itihas Shiromani Baburam Acharya Sodh Samman , Amar Singh Thapa Memorial Award, News24 Television Respect Felicitation, Dev Shamsher Felicitation, Yogi Naraharinath Trust Appreciation, Eduard Dolezol Award (Austria), Letter of Appreciation from International Federation of Surveyors (Copenhagen) etc.
Dhakal said, it will not be exaggerated to say that as Janga Bahadur is named as ‘Jange’ while Buddhi Narayan should be named as ‘Buddhe’ as he has earned knowledge and done research, that has contributed for the protection of the country’s border, as he has brought forward the importance and fact & figure of the Junge Pillar to the society. The name Buddhe is not a symbol of negative example, but it is a metaphor filled with knowledge and wisdom, as the name has been synonymous. Lastly, I express my gratitude to the author for being given the opportunity to publish this masterpiece creation, entitled ‘Jange – Buddhe.’
Literate Tulsihari Koirala was the Master of Ceremony in the program. He conducted the program in a well manner. He highlighted some texts of the book in between the speeches of the speakers. He said, the book is an anthology of the border issues and incidents of Nepal experienced by the author.
At the back cover page of the book, short bio-data of the author has been inscribed as followings:
Name: Buddhi Narayan Shrestha
Birth Place: Okhaldhunga Rambazar-5. Presently: Ghattekulo Height, Kathmandu.
Study: Master Degree (Geography) Tribhuvan University, Land Surveying (Calcutta), Land Use Mapping (Canada), Land Information System (Germany), Remote Sensing Technology (Japan), Ph. D. Research Fellow (Border issues of Nepal and means to resolve the issues) Tribhuvan university, Boundary Demarcation and Maintenance Training, University of Durham (International Boundary Research Unit) U.K.
Experience: Director General- Land Survey Department, Managing Director- Bhumichitra Mapping Company, Consultancy services on Surveying & Mapping and Study, Research, Writing, Presentation and Publication concerning the boundary of Nepal.
Creation: Books: Jange-Buddhe, Border War, India-Nepal Frontier Barrage, Boundary of Nepal, Border Management in the context of National Security, Border Management of Nepal, Knowledge on Boundary and Cadastral Survey for Public Usefulness. And in co-authorship: Nepal-India and China Treaty, Nepal-India Relations Past Present and Future, International Boundary Making. And Knowledge on Earthquake (under publication).
Other Writing: Published near about 400 articles and write-ups in the context of boundary of Nepal, Border Management, National Security, Issues of Submergence and ways and means to resolve the issues.
Discourse & Presentation: More than 120 presentations in US (five States), London, Moscow, Tokyo, Beijing, Seoul; and national organizations and associations, and to the Prime Minister, Ministers and Parliament Speaker on the border issues of Nepal and its resolvation.
Prize, Award, Felicitation: 21 prizes, award and felicitations including Madan Puraskar-2057, Eduard Dolezol Award- Vienna (Austria), Certificate of Appreciation (Denmark), Itihas Siromani Baburam Aacharya Research Felicitation, Dev Shumsher Excellent Journalism Prize etc.
Conference: Participated and presented some papers in more than 40 conferences at home and abroad such as Border Regions in Transition-XII and XIV Conference (Japan-South Korea and France- Belgium), Boundary Demarcation and Maintenance (UK), Negotiating International Boundaries (UK), Border Management in an Insecure World (UK), International Federation of Surveyors Congress- FIG (UK, Australia, Malaysia) etc.
Professional Membership: Members of more than 15 national and international organizations and associations including International Boundaries Research Unit (UK), Association for Borderland Studies (Canada), International Real Estate Federation (France) and at home Nepal Institutions of Chartered Surveyors etc.
Travel: 31 countries of the world and 68 districts of Nepal (out of 75).