Ghost of Earthquake

Ghost of Earthquake

Reviewed by :

Padma Singh Karki

on the book ‘Knowledge on Earthquake’ authored by :

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

 

BhukampaKo Bhut

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Book: Knowledge on Earthquake

Book:

Knowledge on Earthquake

By

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Bhukampa Frontcover (1)

 

Bhukampa Back Cover

            Table of Contents

                  विषय सूची

 

अध्याय- १ : सैद्धान्तिक

१. भूकम्प भनेको के हो –

२. पृथ्वीको बनावट र भूकम्प

३. भूकम्प छुट्ने कारण

  • भुइँचालो कसरी छुट्छ ?
  • नेपालमा भूकम्प कसरी गयो ?
  • किन जान्छ नेपालमा भुइँचालो ?

४. भूकम्पको रिक्टर/म्याग्निच्युद् भनेको के हो ?

५. भूकम्पमापक यन्त्र सिस्मोमिटर

६ .भूकम्पको वर्गीकरण र यसको शक्ति

७. भूकम्पको तरंग

८. पृथ्वी कम्पन (मुख्यकम्पन, पराकम्पन, पूर्वकम्पन)

९. भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दु (इपिसेन्टर र हाइपोसेन्टर)

१०. टेक्टोनिक ल्पेट र यसको वर्गीकरण

११. टेक्टोनिक प्लेटमा चिरा/धाँजा

१२. भूकम्पको भविष्यवाणी र पूर्वानुमान

१३. भूकम्प आउनुअघि पशुपक्षीले अस्वाभाविक व्यवहार देखाउँछन्

१४. २०७२ को भूकम्पले कतै होचो कतै अग्लो

१५. भूकम्पबाट कसरी बँच्ने ?

 

अध्याय-२ : सम्वत् २०७२ सालको भूकम्प

१६. २०७२ सालको महाभूकम्पको विवरण

१७. महाभूकम्प र त्यसको पराकम्पन झट्का (आफ्टर शक) संख्या

१८. पराकम्पन (झट्का) हरुको महिनावारी संख्या

१९. पराकम्पन (झट्का)हरुको रेक्टर स्केलअनुसारको संख्या

२०. भूकम्प र पराकम्पनको केन्द्रविन्दुको संख्या

१५  वैशाख १२ मा कसरी हल्लियो काठमाडौं ?

२१. महाभूकम्पले उब्जाएको सन्त्रास

२२. अर्को महाभूकम्प कहिले ?

२३. महाभूकम्पको पूर्वजानकारी

२४. भूकम्पबारे नेपालीले जान्नैपर्ने तथ्य

२५. २०७२ सालको भूकम्पले पुर्‍याएको क्षति तथा अन्य विवरण

 

अध्याय-३ : २०७२ सालको भूकम्पको अनुभव

२६. यस पुस्तकका लेखकको आफ्नै भोगाइ

२७. झर्रर्ााचन्तक तथा लेखक खगेन्द्र संग्रौला (भूकम्पः एक सचेतक, एक दण्डकर्ता)

२८. भर्ूगर्भवेत्ता डा. दीपक चम्लागाँइ (फेरि आउला भूकम्प ?)

२९. सञ्चारकर्मी ध्रुव दङ्गाल (मृत्युद्वारबाट उम्कँदा)

३०. हिमाल पथपर््रदर्शक कुलवहादुर थापामगर (हिमपहिरोले मलाई पनि बगायो)

 

अध्याय-४ : सम्वत् १९९० सालको महाभूकम्पको बयान

३१. इतिहास शिरोमणि बाबुराम आचार्य (९० सालको भूकम्पको बयान)

३२. राष्ट्रकवि माधवप्रसाद घिमिरे (९० सालको भूकम्पको भोलिपल्ट कविता लेखें)

३३. वरिष्ठ संस्कृतिविद् सत्यमोहन जोशी (नब्बे सालको रुख नाच)

३४. युगकवि सिद्धिचरण श्रेष्ठ -कलममा ९० सालको भुइँचालो)

३५. इतिहास विश्लेषक ज्ञानमणि नेपाल (भूकम्पले सिकाएको पाठ)

३६. मेजर जनरल ब्रम्हशमशेर जबरा (९० सालको महाभूकम्प)

३७. सरदार भीमबहादुर पाँडे (महा-भूकम्प)

 

अध्याय-५ : टिपन-टापन

३८. सम्वत् २०७२ र १९९० सालको महाभूकम्पको तुलनात्मक विवरण

३९. ऐतिहासिक कालमा नेपालमा गएको भूकम्प

४०. जंग बहादुरले भूकम्पजस्ता दैवीप्रकोपका लागि कोष खडा गरेका थिए

४१. ९० सालको भूकम्पको केहीपछि जुद्धशमशेरले यसो भनेका थिए

४२. ७२ सालको भूकम्पका सम्बन्धमा प्रधानमन्त्री सुशील कोइरालाको सन्देश

४३. विश्व हल्लाएको महाप्रलयकारी मुख्य भूकम्पहरु

४४. २०७२ सालको महाभूकम्पपछि विश्वका अन्य स्थानमा गएका मुख्य भूकम्पहरु

४५. भूकम्प सम्बन्धी शव्दावलीको परिभाषा

४६. सर्न्दर्भ सामग्री

४७. फोटो ग्यालरी (भूकम्पले पुर्‍याएको प्रतिनिधिमूलक क्षति भएको फोटोहरु)

४८. सामान्य नाम सूची

Book published by: Ratna Pustak Bhandar,

Baag Bazar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Nepal Earthquake and JICA President Visit

Nepal Earthquake and JICA President Visit

.Namuna Sahitya

By- Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

          A great earthquake of 7.9 Richter Scale occurred on 25 April 2015 at 11.56 AM in Nepal having its epicenter at Gorkha district Barpak area, south of China border. After 32 minutes it happened another earthquake measuring 6.5 Scale. Next day, it released another 6.9 Richter larger category earthquake. On the 12th May it happened another 6.8 scale after shock. After the main tremor of 25 April, 435 after shocks occurred till 25 February 2016 that is 307 days from the first tremor.

 

This made a terror and horror around the country. The natural disaster made hundreds of thousands of people homeless with entire villages flattened, across many districts of the country. Out of 75 administrative districts of Nepal, 14 districts have been highly affected and the other 17 districts are of moderately affected. It made hundreds of people penniless and destroyed innumerable physical infrastructure and heritage of historical importance.

 

Low income country like Nepal is the most affected by the earthquake because it does not have the required resources, infrastructure, and well established earthquake preparedness system. This disaster has affected the country in numerous ways as roads, telephone lines, monuments, transportation and communication links were destroyed for some period. Public utilities and energy supplies were disrupted for more than four days from 25 April.

 

Instant rescue

Twenty-four countries including Japan, China, India, Israel, USA, UK military personnel had contributed for rescue operation and relief material distribution. They offered ready made foods and tents, blankets and mattress on destruction sites directly. Some of the countries brought their helicopters and high speed small military aircrafts with sensible trained dogs to conduct aftermath rescue operation. Some countries brought also drone to expose and create the real time data of the damaged structures.

 

Response of Japan

In response to the Nepal earthquake, JICA started supporting Nepal in the immediate aftermath of the disaster by sending rescue and medical teams, as well as emergency relief supplies. Close to one month since the first earthquake hit, international rescue and medical teams were sent to Nepal and relief and recovery activities were intensified.

 

In the mean time JICA President Dr. Akihiko Tanaka visited Nepal and organized a ‘Build Back Better (BBB)’ Reconstruction Seminar in Kathmandu on 25 May 2015, just one month of the great earthquake. In the seminar, six Japanese experts  on safety engineering, earthquake engineering, disaster mitigation, disaster management, land and infrastructure management and urban planner presented papers. There were extensive discussions, participated by concerned Nepali professionals, authorities and decision makers.

 

JICA President Dr. Tanaka addressed the seminar and said ‘our experience in Japan has also shown that the post disaster period is an opportunity to reassess vulnerabilities and to build back better (BBB). People often hope for a speedy return to the status quo. But simply rebuilding communities to pre-disaster standards will not address the vulnerabilities that existed earlier and expose them to future disasters. As part of damage assessment conducted after the two simultaneous earthquakes in Nepal, seismologists highlighted that there is still pent-up seismic pressure in the region near Kathmandu and remote areas. This means that the region is at risk of suffering from more catastrophic earthquakes in the future. It is therefore imperative to ‘build back better’ by investing in preventative disaster risk reduction measures to rebuild a more disaster resilient society. Japan embraces this concept of BBB as a result of our dire past experiences. It is at the core of our own disaster risk reduction policy and also guides our international co-operation policy when supporting other countries affected by natural disasters.’

 

Reasons of earthquake in Nepal

45 million years ago, the Indian continent collided into Southern Tibet. The Indian continent is driven under Tibet, pushing lightweight sediments upwards and thus the formation of the Himalayas were taken place. Nepal sits across the boundary between India and southern Tibet of China which are still moving towards each other by 2 centimeters per year. This movement creates pressure within the earth, which builds up and can only be released through earthquakes. This is the only way earthquakes could happen in Nepal.

 

According to the Wall Street Journal, Kathmandu, the tectonic plate under the city shifted southwards 3 meter over another plate along an ancient Himalayan fault line, releasing a seismic shock wave with the strength of ‘more than 20 thermonuclear weapons.’

 

The geomorphologists estimated that hilly areas will face a high risk of landslides in the upcoming monsoon rainy season where there are ruptures and holes. Geologists are having fear that such natural events could result in landslide disaster along main highways. In fact, Kodari Highway that links China was blocked by landslides and it is not yet cleared till this date.

 

Due to continental collision, the Indian sub-continent pushes against Eurasian (Tibetan) Plateau as pressure will be accumulated and it uses to release in the form of earthquakes. It is notable that the constant crashing of the two plates formed the Himalayan mountain range.

 

Some Japanese, Chinese, American and British geologists, geophysics, and seismologists say that Nepal earthquake-2015 bears a typical and strange behavior than the previous quakes. It showed rather different nature with the quake of the rest of the world. It is commendable to make further research and detail study how this type of unusual character revealed by this Nepal earthquake. After the great earthquake of 25 April 2015, Nepal has become a laboratory of the world for the researchers of this field. Some of them have started to make a thorough and detail study and field-based on the spot research; how and why a chunk of 65 kilometer wide and 130 kilometer long landmass of Kathmandu area is being pushed its geographical position 3 kilometer south and south-west having 5.2 meter high in altitude. They are analyzing the behaviour of 435 aftershocks, as the frequency goes low and low in some weeks and in some other week it went suddenly higher Richter and then again down and down and again up.

 

Devastating earthquake of 25 April 2015 was released after 81 years of the last great earthquake in 1934 AD. If we look three hundred years history of the occurrence of the great earthquakes in Nepal, it faced in 1682, 1768, 1811, 1833, 1934 and the recent one in 2015. The largest one was of 8.4 Richter scale in 1934.

 

Damage caused by great earthquake-2015

According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, recent great earthquake killed 8,978 persons, 22,321 people have been injured and 138 people disappeared. 79 foreigners have been killed, 50 injured and 108 are out of contact. Number of private houses and buildings fully destroyed reached as 602,592 and partially damaged houses have been counted as 284,482. Near about 2,688 government buildings have been destroyed and 3,777 partially damaged. After the earthquake, more than 800,00 people who lost their houses stayed in tents as temporary shelter. In the case of Kathmandu Valley, more than 13,000 families had stayed in tents and of them 600 families have to spent their night still under the temporary tents.

Before-After-Basantapur-Durbar-Square

According to the Department of Archaeology, more than 60 ancient monuments, temples and archaeological structures in the Kathmandu Valley have been fully destroyed and more than 250 monuments have been partially damaged by the earthquake. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square and the Bhaktapur Durbar Square.

 

More than 133 temples, statues and museums were destroyed and nearly 608 damaged across the country. The devastating earthquake that rocked the country on 25 April damaged 116 heritage monuments only in the historic town of Bhaktapur. Of them, 67 were completely damaged while 49 have suffered partial damage, according to the Executive Officer of Bhaktapur Municipality. Such is the condition of Patan and Kathmandu Metropolitan City.

 

Educational institutions too were hit hard on April 25. According to data collected, a total of 12,483 classrooms of 4,389 schools in 41 districts have been completely destroyed.

 

The devastating earthquake has badly hit the country’s power sector as well, causing damage to more than 20 hydro-projects that were either generating electricity or were under construction. Data provided by the Independent Power Producers Association of Nepal and Nepal Electricity Authority show that quake affected operational hydro-electric projects with installed capacity of at least 176.8 megawatts. The damage caused by the earthquake has shaken investor confidence, as projects that have been forced to suspend power generation, will lose income source till the time everything is fixed. According to the preliminary survey of Nepal Electricity Authority, thousands of equipments such as distribution transformer, power transformer, steel poll, distribution panel board etc have been dismantled which may cost 5,000 million Rupees.

 

The earthquake has not only inflicted heavy human casualty, but also dealt a big blow to livestock, poultry and other sector related to agriculture. According to the data released by the Ministry of Agricultural Development, at least 8,031 buffaloes, cows and oxen; 14,495 goats, sheep and pigs and 147,222 poultry were buried under the debris of structures that collapsed during the earthquake.

 

Government policy for the time being

The government had set to put a two-month ban on approval of design for new houses and overall constructions. It was felt that poor implementation of building code has resulted in massive human casualties in recent earthquakes. The Ministry of Local Development  prepared to limit houses within three storeys for the time being. Officials discussed whether the limit will apply to big complexes that are built on bigger spaces following the safety requirements. Commercial complexes may be permitted to build taller structures if they meet all the requirements with the suitability of soil capability.

 

Initial assessments by authorities have found that among the newly built structures mainly those constructed without acquiring municipal clearance were worst affected by the quake. The Ministry of Urban Development says- the proposed building code may necessitate the land to pass “risk-sensitive” tests before clearance and professional engineers to prepare a blueprint for buildings.

 

The government had completed Rapid Post Disaster Assessment (RPDA) of 26 high-rises, 134 buildings of 78 government offices, including 96 buildings of 20 hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley. According to the Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC), the assessment had marked two high rise apartments, 14 government offices outside Singha Durbar (government central secretariat), five offices within Singha Durbar and five hospitals within the Kathmandu valley as unsafe for immediate use.

 

Residential houses and high-rise buildings in the city which had sustained minor to serious damages in the great quake of April 25 and a number of subsequent aftershocks have been further affected by the quake that shook the country on 12th May. While residential houses that had suffered serious damages during the 25th April quake have been reduced to rubble by 12th May quake, a number of houses and commercial buildings have suffered severe damages and are in a vulnerable state.

 

The government provided Rs. 40,000 to the relatives of the deceased person for the ritual performances of the dead body. Rastra (Central) Bank of Nepal circulated to all the commercial banks to provide housing loan up to Rs. 2.5 million with 2 percent interest for 20 years period. In the mean time the government decided to provide Rs. 15,000 for each earthquake victims to buy corrugated zinc sheets and other materials to build temporary shelter.

 

Contribution of Japan

In due course of time, newly appointed JICA President Mr. Shinichi Kitaoka visited Nepal on 20 December 2015 to extend assistance and support for the earthquake victims. Japan’s ODA provided to the government of Nepal, Ministry of Finance, equivalent to Rs. 26.24 billion. 22.74 billion for reconstruction of schools and the remaining 3.50 billion had been assigned for the Project on Rehabilitation and Recovery from Nepal Earthquake.

Under this Grant Agreement, JICA will provide up to one billion and five hundred million Japanese Yen (JPY 1,500,000,000) for the program to reconstruct and rehabilitate the schools in flood and landslide affected areas as stated in the recovery and reconstruction strategy of the Ministry of Education with the BBB principles.

The BBB principles which ensure (1) Schools that are resilient to future disasters in line with appropriate standards (such as resilient buildings with safe and adequately sized staircases, necessary elevation for schools in delta areas, and improved WASH facilities, etc) and (2) Schools that have better learning environment under ongoing educational reforms (such as additional classrooms for KG in primary schools and post-primary schools, teacher’s room, good-quality classroom furniture, houses for headmaster and teacher with security where necessary, etc). The said grant will cover about one hundred and seventy thousand (170,000) students in schools who were affected by the floods and landslides, so that they can study without difficulty as early as possible.

It was expected that the emergency school reconstruction project will rebuild and retrofit schools in the districts, severely affected by the April and May earthquakes by financing the necessary expenses for reconstruction of schools and related facilities.

 

Likewise, the emergency housing construction project would restore and improve the living condition of the victims of the earthquakes by reconstructing the destroyed and damaged houses with an adequate seismic standard. This was expected to contribute in sustainable socio-economic development of the region with build back better (BBB). Meanwhile, the visiting JICA President Mr. Kitaoka paid a courtesy call on Prime Minister Mr. KP Sharma Oli. In the meeting, JICA President discussed overall Japan-Nepal co-operation strategies.

PM Oli and JICA President

JAAN relief work

JAAN also operated relief and supply distribution program. It collected some contribution from its members and created a fund. Besides, a major fund was received from Japan-Nepal Society, Tokyo. This fund was collected from the Nepali people residing in and around Tokyo. At the same time a considerable amount of money was received from Nepali community of USA. In such a way near about two million Rupees had been collected.

 

With this amount, JAAN members including President, Vice-President, General Secretary and Treasurer launched various programs for the distribution of supplies to the earthquake victims. The relief materials managed were tents, mattresses, blankets, clothes, food grains, cooking oil and ready made food stuffs. These materials have been distributed to the earthquake affected homeless people of Bhote Namlang Village Development Committee (VDC) of Sindhupalchok, Saankhu settlement of Kathmandu and Lele, Nallu VDCs of Lalitpur districts. The relief operation was conducted for more than one month.

 

JAAN has a plan to reconstruct a school building with a Community Hall at Bhote Namlang, which was severely damaged during the earthquake. But JAAN is waiting for a proposal from the VDC whether it is the need of the local people of that area. JAAN intends this reconstruction to be used also to conduct various training programs for community development and income generation support purposes. This type of training may help to increase capability of the purchasing power of local people.

 

Prime Minister KP Oli and reconstruction of Dharahara Tower

Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli appealed on 16 February 2016 to Nepalis to contribute towards rebuilding Dharahara and also announced that he would contribute one month’s salary for this purpose. The prime minister made the announcement during a programme organized by Nepal Tourism Board and Kathmandu Metropolitan City to affirm the commitment at higher political level towards rebuilding of historical sites. PM Oli added that the government is preparing to rebuild Dharahara as a memorial of lives lost during the earthquakes of April and May. Later, the government decided that Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli and all ministers, including state and assistant ministers, will donate one month’s salary for the reconstruction of Dharahara.

 

Oli making speechOli greeting

The government also decided to collect donation from Nepalis so that they would feel ownership in rebuilding of the historical site with a slogan Mero Dharahara : Ma Banauncchu ( My Dharahara will be built : By Myself). PM Oli said we want to rebuild Dharahara the symbol of our pride  by collecting funds from Nepali people, as this will give the message of national unity.

The 203-foot Dharahara Tower (Bhimsen Stambha), built in 1934, was collapsed within a minute on 25 April earthquake. There were 213 steps inside and 25 outside steps to climb on the top of Dharahara tower. The tumbled Dharahara took the lives of 52 persons who were climbing on the staircase at that moment.

The original 225 feet Bhimsen Tower was built in 1825 by the first Prime Minister of Nepal, Bhimsen Thapa. It was partially damaged by the massive earthquake of 1934. So it was rebuilt as nine-storey 203 feet that came crashing down on 25 April 2015.

National Reconstruction Authority (NRA)

During the programme of announcement to rebuild Dharahara, the National Reconstruction Authority (NRA) launched a campaign entitled ‘I will build my Dharahara by myself’ in a bid to collect donation from individuals, corporate houses, non-resident Nepalis and others. The campaign is a part of the three-month reconstruction mega campaign, which was launched on January 16. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the NRA disclosed that the bank account for depositing donations will be opened soon.  NRA has proposed that the new Dharahara will have a façade similar to the old structure. However, it will be built using modern construction materials, will have a three-storey underground parking and will be over 203-feet high.

dharahara

Last item

Let us hope and pray that there may be no more earthquake in Nepal. But there is no science that could predict earthquake. However, the geologists and seismologists could forecast the occurrence of earthquake within some time frame, especially in the earthquake prone zone of Eurasian fault zone area. For example, they had made a forecast that there may be another great earthquake in Nepal and surrounding areas by 2034, which will be the subsequent of 1934 earthquake. But it was 19 years earlier that happened in 2015.

 

In recent years, scientists and researchers have manufactured equipment that forecasts earthquake making some sound, nearly one minute before the occurrence of earthquake. Whatever it may be, now the new construction and reconstruction should be of risk reduction type and less destructive, and resilient that may bear the shaking of great earthquakes.

 

 

Nepal Earthquake-2015

Nepal Earthquake- 2015

Labeda Survey PP Size

 

 

 

 

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

 

A great earthquake of 7.9 Richter Scale occurred on 25 April 2015 at 11.56 AM in Nepal at Gorkha district Barpak area, south of China border. After 32 minutes it happened another earthquake measuring 6.5 Scale. Next day, it released another 6.9 Richter larger category earthquake. After the main tremor, more than 394 after shocks occurred till 32 days of the first tremor.

6-Dharahara Before & After copy

This made a terror and horror around the country. The natural disaster made hundreds of thousands of people homeless with entire villages flattened, across many districts of the country. Out of 75 administrative districts of Nepal, 14 districts have been highly affected and the other 17 districts are of moderately affected. It made hundreds of people penniless and destroyed innumerable physical infrastructure and heritage of historical importance.

1-map

Low income country like Nepal is the most affected by the earthquake because it does not have the required resources, infrastructure, and well established earthquake preparedness system. This disaster has affected the country in numerous ways as roads, telephone lines, monuments, transportation and communication links were destroyed. Public utilities and energy supplies were disrupted.

 

Reasons of earthquake in Nepal

45 million years ago, the Indian continent collided into Southern Tibet. The Indian continent is driven under Tibet, pushing lightweight sediments upwards and thus the formation of the Himalayas were taken place. Nepal sits across the boundary between India and southern Tibet of China which are still moving towards each other by 2 centimeters per year. This movement creates pressure within the earth, which builds up and can only be released through earthquakes. This is the only way earthquakes could happen in Nepal.

Due to continental collision, the Indian sub-continent pushes against Eurasian (Tibetan) Plateau as pressure will be accumulated and it uses to release in the form of earthquakes. It is notable that the constant crashing of the two plates formed the Himalayan mountain range.

2A-map2B-Crust of Indian Plate

Some Chinese, Japanese, American and British geologists, geophysics, and seismologists say that Nepal earthquake-2015 bears a typical and strange behavior than the previous quakes. It showed rather different nature with the quake of the rest of the world. It is commendable to make further research and detail study how this type of unusual character revealed by this Nepal earthquake. After the great earthquake of 25 April 2015, Nepal has become a laboratory of the world for the researchers of this field. Some of them have started to make a thorough and detail study and field-based on the spot research; how and why a chunk of 65 kilometer wide and 130 kilometer long landmass of Kathmandu area is being pushed its geographical position 3 kilometer south and south-west having 5.2 meter high in altitude. They are analyzing the behaviour of 265 aftershocks, as the frequency goes low and low in some weeks and in some other week it went suddenly higher Richter and then again down and down and again up.
Devastating earthquake of 25 April 2015 was released after 81 years of the last great earthquake in 1934 AD. If we look three hundred years history of the occurrence of the great earthquakes in Nepal, it faced in 1682, 1768, 1811, 1833, 1934 and the recent one in 2015. The largest one was of 8.4 Richter scale in 1934.

According to the Wall Street Journal, Kathmandu, the tectonic plate under the city shifted southwards 3 meter over another plate along an ancient Himalayan fault line, releasing a seismic shock wave with the strength of ‘more than 20 thermonuclear weapons.’

 

Damage caused by great earthquake-2015

According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, recent great earthquake killed 8,617 persons and 16,808 people have been injured. 70 foreigners have been killed and 108 are out of contact. Number of private houses and buildings fully destroyed reached as 494,437 and partially damaged houses have been counted as 265,736. Near about 824 government buildings have been fully destroyed and 2,507 partially damaged. Those who lost their houses are staying in tents as temporary shelter. It is intended to construct more or less a little bit better shelter, as the monsoon rainy season would start from June.

3-Tent3-1-Dome house

 

Twenty-four countries including China, India, Israel, USA, UK and Japan military personnels for rescue operation and relief material distribution. They offered ready made foods and tents, blankets and mattress on destruction sites directly. Some of the countries brought their helicopters and high speed small military aircrafts with sensible trained dogs to conduct aftermath rescue operation. Some countries brought also drone to expose and create the real time data of the damaged structures.

4-Indian Airforce Plane4-1-Sensitive Dogs

 

According to the Department of Archaeology, nearly 90 percent of ancient monuments, temples and archaeological structures in the Kathmandu Valley are either fully destroyed or partially damaged by the recent earthquake. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square and the Bhaktapur Durbar Square.

5-Patan

More than 600 temples, statues and museum across the country were damaged in Nepal’s deadliest earthquake on record, including Kathmandu’s 200-foot Dharahara Tower, built in 1832, which collapsed within a minute. The devastating earthquake that rocked the country on 25 April damaged 116 heritage monuments only in the historic town of Bhaktapur. Of them, 67 were completely damaged while 49 have suffered partial damage, according to the Executive Officer of Bhaktapur Municipality. Such is the condition of Patan and Kathmandu Metropolitan City.

0-Basantapur-Durbar-Square copy

Educational institutions too were hit hard on April 25. According to data collected, a total of 12,483 classrooms of 4,389 schools in 41 districts have been completely destroyed.

The devastating earthquake has badly hit the country’s power sector as well, causing damage to more than 20 hydro-projects that were either generating electricity or were under construction. Data provided by the Independent Power Producers Association of Nepal and Nepal Electricity Authority show that quake affected operational hydro-electric projects with installed capacity of at least 176.8 megawatts. The damage caused by the earthquake has shaken investor confidence, as projects that have been forced to suspend power generation, will lose income source till the time everything is fixed. According to the preliminary survey of Nepal Electricity Authority, thousands of equipments such as distribution transformer, power transformer, steel poll, distribution panel board etc have been dismantled which may cost 5,000 million Rupees.

The earthquake has not only inflicted heavy human casualty but dealt a big blow to livestock, poultry and other sector related to agriculture. According to the data released by the Ministry of Agricultural Development, at least 8,031 buffaloes, cows and oxen; 14,495 goats, sheep and pigs and 147,222 poultry were buried under the debris of structures that collapsed during the earthquake.

7-Buffalo Puriyeko

The geomorphologists estimate that hilly areas will face a high risk of landslides in the upcoming monsoon rainy season where there are ruptures and holes. Geologists are having fear that such natural events could result in landslide disaster along main highways.

8-Road Rup

 

Government policy for the time being

The government has set to put a two-month ban on approval of design for new houses and overall constructions. It is felt that poor implementation of building code has resulted in massive human casualties in recent earthquakes. The Ministry of Local Development is preparing to limit houses within three storeys. Officials have been discussing whether the limit will apply to big complexes that are built on bigger spaces following the safety requirements. Commercial complexes may be permitted to build taller structures if they meet all the requirements with the suitability of soil capability.

Initial assessments by authorities have found that among the newly built structures mainly those constructed without acquiring municipal clearance were worst affected by the quake. The Ministry of Urban Development says- the proposed building code may necessitate the land to pass “risk-sensitive” tests before clearance and professional engineers to prepare a blueprint for buildings.

The government has completed Rapid Post Disaster Assessment (RPDA) of 26 high-rises, 134 buildings of 78 government offices, including 96 buildings of 20 hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley. According to the Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC), the assessment has marked two high rise apartments, 14 government offices outside Singha Durbar (government central secretariat), five offices within Singha Durbar and five hospitals within the Kathmandu valley as unsafe for immediate use.

9-Singha Darbar

Residential houses and high-rise buildings in the city which had sustained minor to serious damages in the great quake of April 25 and a number of subsequent aftershocks have been further affected by the quake that shook the country on 12th May. While residential houses that had suffered serious damages during the 25th April quake have been reduced to rubble by 12th May quake, a number of houses and commercial buildings have suffered severe damages and are in a vulnerable state.

10-Arughat Shop

In the mean time, the government has restricted construction of new buildings taller than two storeys (including ground floor) and not to approve the blue-prints of new houses until mid-July 2015. No joint housing and land plotting (development) projects to receive permission until mid-July 2015. Joint housing design permit from the next fiscal year will be based on soil tests and soil bearing capacity. Residents of the areas where large percentage of houses were destroyed or damaged by the April 25 great earthquake want to government to test the soil and feel them that their areas are safe for those buildings that are still standing. The government has formed four sub-committees to prepare a report on how safe buildings could be constructed, along with land use policy. It is believed by preliminary observations that houses suffered damage mostly in areas with low water table above normal level and unstable sloping areas.

 

Nepal Land and Housing Developers’ Association (NLHDA)

Nepal Land and Housing Developers’ Association (NLHDA) is a parent organization of land and housing developing companies of Nepal. It is registered in the Nepal Government Company Registrar’s Office and is paying taxes and revenue to the government. NLHDA has more than 88 registered housing and land development companies, who are providing services to the people to fulfill the need for housing. NLHDA is the country member of International Real Estate Federation (FIABCI) and Asia Pacific Regional Secretariat. It is also the Commodity Member of Federation of Nepalese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI) and Nepal Chamber of Commerce (NCC). NLHDA member companies have developed near about 8,000 unit housings in high rise buildings, apartments in and around the capital city Kathmandu Valley and in some other districts. Of them 4,700 units have been already sold and nearly 3,300 units still have to be sold.

11-civil-homes-pha4

Some of the high rise buildings got crack. Some other apartments got plaster broken by the recent earthquake. There are no structural damage in most of the high rise buildings constructed by 24 developers. however, there are some 30 to 40 percent non-structural partial damage on brick wall, partition wall and cosmetic plaster. After some repair work it will be alright. Two of the dwelling apartment building apartments occurred damage and it is not feasible to stay at the moment.

12-horizon1

In this situation, after the occurrence of recent great earthquake in Nepal, now housing is a felt need for those who lost their dwellings during earthquake. NLHDA has a programme to construct light weight pre-fabric earthquake resistance low cost and environment friendly homes for the earthquake affected Nepali people. We are consulting with the Ministry of Urban Development and Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC) to meet the challenges of housing need for the earthquake victims. It may need huge amount of money to construct homes for homeless.

13-Manchhe Nikaldai

The government has provided Rs. 40,000 to the relatives of the deceased person for the ritual performances of the dead body. Rastra (Central) Bank of Nepal has circulated to all the commercial banks to provide housing loan up to Rs. 2.5 million with 2 percent interest for 20 years period. Very recently the government has decided to provide Rs. 15,000 for each earthquake victims to buy corrugated zinc sheets and other materials to build temporary shelter.

 

International donor’s conference

Nepal government is intended to host an international donor’s conference in Kathmandu by June end to raise fund for post-disaster reconstruction. The government is preparing a comprehensive post-disaster needs assessment report based on damage incurred across the country due to the April 25 earthquake and its 280 aftershocks. The focus of the conference is to seek money from donor agencies such as World Bank, Asian Development Bank and International Monetary Fund as well as from all friendly countries. According to the Ministry of Finance at least US$ 500 billion would be required for reconstruction work that includes rebuilding more than 800,000 damaged structures, including private houses, office buildings and historical and cultural sites.

Friendly countries have shown interest in organizing this meeting abroad. Japan and India have formally shown interest in convening the conference in their own countries. The United Nations too is of the opinion that it would be better to organize the conference abroad as tremors are continuing and normalcy is yet to return to Nepal. But Nepal government is in the opinion that if the conference is convened in Nepal, the participating delegates will have chance to directly assess the extent of damage and know how much support Nepal needs to recover from this natural disaster.

 

Last item

In this context, Nepal Land and Housing Developers’ Association (NLHDA) is intended to launch a reconstruction program of ‘Shelter for Homeless Earthquake Victims’ especially in the affected settlements within Kathmandu Valley, in the first phase.

14-Earthquake Resist Home

 

NLHDA is going to raise funds internally and internationally through the members of FIABCI. It is commendable that the Board Chairman of the FIABCI Asia Pacific Regional Secretariat, Dato’ Alan Tong and Exco has extended an assistance with a donation of 10,000 Euro to NLHDA. We would like to appreciate and thank Dato’ Alan Tong for his sensible assistance for the homeless earthquake victims of Nepal. NLHDA appeals to all FIABCI members and real estate business houses of the world to join Nepal Land and Housing Developers Association to materialize the reconstruction program ‘Shelter for Homeless Victims of Nepal Earthquake-2015.’ Those who wish to donate and contribute as a benevolent charity to the earthquake affected homeless Nepali people, NLHDA would like to request to contact in the following address. Account of the expenses will be definitely sent to the concerned donor and stakeholders after the completion of the project.

635659001701422093-NEPAL-EARTHQUAKEbarpak village

Building DhalkekoBuilding Tilted

Kaligandaki BridgeRoad RupturedDamaged Bricks

Terror created by Great Earthquake

Terror created by great earthquake

Sun Cap

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

It occurred a great earthquake of 7.8 Richter Scale on 25 April 2015. Next day, it released 6.9 Scale tremor. After that, next tremor of 6.8 Richter Scale happened on 12 May. Besides, more than 68 after shocks happened from 25 April to 15 May.

According to the Geologists and Seismologists, most of the earthquakes occur due to tectonic movement as the Indian sub-continent (plate) is moving at the rate of near about 1.5 centimetre per year underneath the Tibetan Plateau (Fixed). Nepal faced great earthquakes in 1834 and 1934; and now 2015. Interval of the last earthquake was one century. But this time earthquake occurred after 81 years. One could say that this phenomena is more or less a regular eventuality for the case of Nepal and Himalayan countries. After the main 7.8 Scale tremor of 25 April 2015, some rumour-mongers spread uproar that greater than the 25th April earthquake having more than 8.5 Richter Scale will occur in a few days. Due to this uproar, people are panic and feeling distress.

According to the national and international researchers, geologists and seismologists, the energy pressure that was accumulated for 80 years has been recently released and did burst on 25 April. Now there is no such large density of pressure underneath the Nepal earth crust. It needs decades and decades to be accumulated such quantity of energy. So it may not occur another great earthquake so soon, larger than the recently released 7.8 Scale tremor of 25 April. However, after shocks may prevail for some days or weeks or may be months. So there may not be a possibility of another great earthquake in a very near future. It may take decades and decades even a century for the next havoc.

(This is the gist of the following article)

महाभूकम्पले उब्जाएको सन्त्रास

वैशाख २९ गते मंगलबार १.५२ बजे ६ दशमलब ८ रेक्टरको ठूलो आफ्टर शक जानुपूर्व वैशाख १२ गते, शनिबार ११.५६ बजे ७ दशमलब ८ रेक्टर स्केलको मुख्य महाभूकम्प पृथ्वीको सतहदेखि १५ किलोमिटर तलबाट गोर्खाको बारपाकलाई केन्द्रबिन्दु बनाई ५० सेकेन्डसम्म छुटेको थियो । त्यसको दुई घन्टापछि ५ दशमलब ७ र तीन घन्टामा ५ दशमलब ९ रेक्टरको र भोलिपल्ट दिउँसो १२.५४ बजे ६ दशमलब ९ ठूलो वर्गीकरणको भूकम्प गएको थियो । यसबाहेक यो हरफ कोर्दासम्म मझौला स्तरको लगभग ४ रेक्टरको एक सय ६८ पटक र त्यसभन्दा कम वर्गको दुई हजारभन्दा बढी साना कम्पन (आफ्टर शक) भएको छ । यसबाट जनमानसमा सन्त्रास रहेको छ । अब अझै डर त्रास लिनुपर्ने हो, होइन । १२ तथा २९ गतेको भन्दा फेरि तत्काल ठूलो भूकम्प छुट्छ छुट्दैन होला भन्ने सम्बन्धमा केही प्राविधिक तथ्यता र विगतमा गएका भूकम्पलाई आधार बनाएर यो आलेख तयार पार्न लागिएको छ ।

भूकम्पको ज्ञान
अध्ययनकर्ता र अनुसन्धानदाताका अनुसार हाम्रो जस्तो भूकम्पीय जोखिम क्षेत्रमा लगभग सय वर्षको चक्रमा एउटा महाभूकम्प छुट्ने गर्छ र दुई महाभूकम्पको अन्तरालमा विभिन्न स्तरका भूकम्प हुन्छन् । भूगर्भवेत्ताका अनुसार ४ रेक्टरभन्दा सानो स्केलको भूकम्पलाई सानो (सामान्य) भनिन्छ । ४ देखि ५ दशमलब ९ सम्मकालाई मझौला, ६ देखि ७ सम्मको ठूलो र ७ भन्दा माथिकालाई महाभूकम्प मानिन्छ । वैशाख १२ गते गएको महाभूकम्प भएकाले अब अर्को यस्तै स्केलको महाभूकम्प करिब ८० देखि सय वर्षको दौरानमा हुने गर्छ भन्ने विश्वास गरिएको छ ।
भूकम्प नाप्ने स्केललाई ‘रेक्टर म्याग्निच्युड’ भनिन्छ । दुईवटा भूकम्पको नापमा एक रेक्टर स्केलको अन्तर भयो भने ती दुईबीचको शक्ति ३२ गुणाले फरक हुन्छ । जस्तै– ५ रेक्टर स्केलको भूकम्पले फ्याँक्ने शक्तिभन्दा ६ रेक्टरको भूकम्पले फ्याँक्ने शक्ति ३२ गुणा ठूलो हुन्छ । त्यसैले ५ रेक्टर स्केलको ३२ वटा भूकम्प जानु र ६ रेक्टरको एउटा भूकम्प जानु शक्तिका हिसाबले बराबर हुन्छ । यसैगरी ७ रेक्टरको एउटा भूकम्प जानु भनेको ५ रेक्टरको १ हजारवटा भूकम्प जानुजतिकै हुन्छ ।

भूकम्प हुनुको कारण
पृथ्वीको भित्री भागमा अत्यधिक तापक्रमका कारणले तरल रूपमा रहेका पदार्थ एकातर्पmबाट अर्कोतिर बहावट भए टेक्टोनिक हलचल पैदा हुन्छ । यसले गर्दा दरारको मात्रा धेरै सिर्जना भई भित्र रहेको भूखन्डमा केही हलचल तथा गडबडी पैदा हुन थाल्छ । यस्तो गडबडीबाट उत्पन्न भएको ऊर्जाद्वारा सिर्जित कम्पन पृथ्वीको सतहसम्म आइपुगेमा भूकम्प हुने गर्छ । नेपालमा पटक–पटक साना–ठूला भूकम्प जानुको कारणचाहिँ नेपाली भूमिको सिधै पृथ्वीको भित्री भागमा बढी तापक्रमका कारण पग्लिएर रहेको तरल पदार्थमाथि तैरिएर रहेको भारतीय प्लेट, स्थिर तिब्बती प्लेटतर्पm घुस्दै गई टेक्टोनिक हलचल मच्चाउनु नै हो । यसरी भारतीय प्लेट नेपालको उत्तरमा अवस्थित तिब्बती प्लेटतर्पm घुस्दै गएका कारणले सिर्जित ऊर्जाद्वारा बेलाबखतमा भौगर्भिक बनौटमा गडबडी उत्पन्न भई नेपालमा भूकम्प जाने भूगर्भविद्हरूको धारणा रहेको पाइन्छ । भूकम्पसम्बन्धी अध्ययन अनुसन्धान तथा मनिटरिङ गरिरहेका स्वदेशी विदेशी वैज्ञानिकहरूका अनुसार साढे चार करोड वर्षदेखि भारतीय प्लेट तिब्बती प्लेटमा घुस्दै आएको छ । घुस्ने क्रम अद्यापि वर्षको करिब डेढ सेन्टिमिटरको दरमा जारी रहेको छ ।

नेपालमा भूकम्पको इतिहास
नेपालमा भएको भूकम्पको करिब तीन सय वर्षको इतिहास अध्ययन गर्दा करिब ८० देखि सय वर्षको समयावधिमा महाभूकम्प छुटेको पाइन्छ । संवत् १७३८ जेठ सप्तमी तिथि रातमा गएको महाभूकम्पपछि २१ परिकम्पन (आफ्टर शक) भएको थियो । १८९० भदौ १२, सोमबार ७ दशमलब ८ रेक्टरको महाभूकम्प ४० सेकेन्ड रहेको थियो । महाभूकम्पलगत्तै दिनमा ४५ आफ्टर शक कम्पन भएको थियो । १९९० माघ २, सोमबार औंसी तिथिमा दिउँसो २.२४ बजे संखुवासभाको चैनपुरमा केन्द्रबिन्दु भएको ८ दशमलब ४ रेक्टर स्केलको महाभूकम्प करिब १ मिनेटसम्म भएको थियो । त्यससँग सम्बन्धित पचासौँ साना कम्पन भएका थिए । यसपछिको महाभूकम्प भनेको ८२ वर्षपछि २०७२ वैशाख १२ गतेको हो । यद्यपि संवत् १९९० र २०७२ को समयावधिभित्र २०२३ असार १३, २०३७ साउन १४, २०४५ भदौ ५, २०५३ माघ १७ तथा २०६८ असोज १ मा ठूला स्केलका भूकम्प छुटेका थिए । यी तथ्यांकबाट नेपालमा ८० देखि सय वर्षभित्र महाभूकम्प भएको बुझ्न सकिन्छ । यसबाट अब तत्काल ध्वंशात्मक वर्गको महाभूकम्पको कम्पन आउँदैन भन्ने कुरा मनन् गर्न सकिन्छ ।

हल्लाको सन्त्रास
हाम्रो समाजमा हल्लाखोरहरूको कमी छैन । सानातिना भूम्पको झट्का छुटिरहेको समय वैशाख १३ तथा १४ एवं २९ गते हल्लाको आतंक मच्चाइयो । ‘साँझ ६ देखि ८ बजेभित्र ९ रेक्टरभन्दा ठूलो भूकम्प हुँदैछ, बिबिसी सीएनएनले प्रसार गरेका छन्, तपस्वी गुरुमहाराज बाबाले पनि यस्तै भनेका छन्’ भन्ने अफवाह फैलाइयो । यस कुरालाई पत्याएर एक रोपनीको खुला जमिनमा एक तले पक्की घर भएका व्यक्ति पनि त्रिपाल र कम्मल च्यापेर टँुडिखेलको बास गर्न पुगे । घट्टेकुलोमा तरकारी बेचेर जीविका चलाउँदै आएकी एक महिलालाई पनि यस आतंकले गाँजेछ । अनि सिंहदरबारको भूकम्पले भत्काएको पर्खालभित्र शरणार्थीको रूपमा पुगिछन् । भोलिपल्ट बिहान आफ्नो घरमा आफैँ चिहाउन आउँदा ढोकाको ताला काटेर बाकस फोरिएको अवस्थामा एक तोला सुनको चुरी र तीस हाजर नगद चोरिएको चाल पाइन् । उनले हल्लाकै भरमा भूकम्पले भत्काएको पर्खालछेउमा रात बिताउँदा त्यस्तो ठूलो कम्पनको भुइँचालो गएन । तर, खाइनखाई जोहो गरेको आफ्नो सुनको गहना र नगद गुमाउँदा भूकम्पको भन्दा बढ्ता झट्का महसुस गरिन् ।

महाभूकम्पले डाँडा काटेर आफ्टर शक धक्का पनि शिथिल भई फेरि ठूलो परिकम्पन वैशाख २९ गते आएकाले तथाकथित अध्येताहरूले भनेको सुनियो ‘संवत् १९९० मा ८ दशमलब ४ रेक्टरको भूकम्प आएको थियो । अहिले अधिकतम ७ दशमलब ८ स्केलको मात्र गएकाले १९९० को जत्तिकै ठूलो भूकम्प आउन अझै बाँकी छ । सय वर्षको चक्र पूरा हुन अझै केही वर्ष बाँकी भएकाले आगामी दिनमा ९० सालको हाराहारीकै महाभूकम्प आउँछ ।’
यस्ता अर्धअध्येताको भनाइलाई ऐतिहासिक तथ्यका आधारमा जवाफ दिन सकिन्छ । संवत् १८९० मा ७ दशमलब ८ स्केलको महाभूकम्प छुटेको थियो । तर, त्यत्रै अथवा त्यसभन्दा बढी पैमानाको महाभूकम्प सय वर्षपछि मात्र भएको थियो । अनि यसको ८२ वर्षपछि हालै ७ दशमलब ८ रेक्टरको भूकम्प भएको छ । त्यसैले अब वैशाख १२ को जत्रै अथवा यसभन्दा ठूलो रेक्टरको महाभूकम्प छुट्न नब्बे÷सय वर्ष लाग्छ भन्न सकिन्छ । नयाँ महाभूकम्प छुट्न पृथ्वीको भित्री भागमा ऊर्जा सञ्चित हुनुपर्छ । ऊर्जाको सञ्चिति प्रचुर मात्रामा भइसकेपछि मात्र त्यो ऊर्जा ‘रिलिज’ हुन विस्फोट हुने गर्छ र त्यसैको परिणाम अर्को भूकम्प जान सक्छ । अहिले नेपाल रहेको पृथ्वीभित्रको ऊर्जा विनाश भइसकेको अवस्था छ । यस्तो प्रचुर ऊर्जा सञ्चित हुन लामो समय लाग्छ । यद्यपि महिनाँैसम्म पनि आफ्टर शक आउन सक्छ ।

विगतका भूकम्प प्रकोपहरूको मात्रा तथा अन्तराल लेखाजोखा गर्दा अब हामीले आत्तिनुपर्ने अवस्था देखिँदैन । वैशाख १२ तथा २९ गतेपछि अब अरू ठूलो परिकम्पन आउन सक्दैन होला भन्ने भय र त्रासको मनस्थिति हट्दै गएको छ । अब त पुरिएर मरिसकेको लासलाई पत्ता लगाएर कसरी निकाल्ने, सडेगलेका लासबाट उत्पत्ति भएको र हुनसक्ने रोगव्याधी महामारीको कसरी सामना गर्ने, बाँचेकालाई त्यस्ता रोग लाग्न नसक्ने प्रबन्ध कसरी गर्ने भन्नेतर्फ नै ध्यान केन्द्रित गर्नुपर्छ । घरविहीन भूकम्पपीडितलाई कसरी बासको प्रबन्ध गर्ने भन्ने योजनातर्फ लाग्नुपर्छ ।

हाइटीबाट शिक्षा महाभूकम्पपछि पुनर्निर्माणको कुरा हामीले क्यारिबियन मुलुक हाइटीबाट शिक्षा लिनुपर्छ । १२ जनवरी २०१० मा ७ रेक्टरको महाभूकम्पबाट त्यहाँ दुई लाखभन्दा बढी मानिस मरेका, तीन लाख घाइते भएका, १० लाख घरविहीन भएका थिए । त्यहाँ विदेशी सहायता ओइरिएको थियो । तर, राजनीतिक अस्थिरताले र सुनियोजित योजना सरकारले दिन नसकेकाले पुनर्निर्माणको कामले गति लिन सकेको पाइँदैन । दुई लाखजना अझै पालमै गुजारा गरिरहेछन् । महाभूकम्पको दश महिनापछि सात लाख २० हजारजना हैजाबाट प्रभावित भएका थिए ।

संकट र अवसर हालैको महाभूकम्पले संकट मात्रै होइन अवसर पनि ल्याएको छ भन्ने कुरामा ध्यान पु¥याउनुपर्छ । १९९० सालको महाभूकम्पपश्चात् काठमाडौँको मुटुमा नयाँ सडक (जुद्ध सडक) निर्माण भएको कुरालाई उपमाको रूपमा हृदयंगम गरी नयाँ निर्माणको योजना हामी आफैँले कोर्न सक्नुपर्छ । ध्वस्त भएको गाउँवस्ती कसरी पुनर्निर्माण गर्ने र घरविहीन भूकम्पपीडितलाई बासको कसरी प्रबन्ध गर्ने भन्नेतर्फ दिमाग खियाउनुपर्ने समय आएको छ । यसका लागि दीर्घकालीन तथा अल्पकालीन योजना कागजमा मात्रै होइन क्रियाशील कार्यान्वयनमा पनि आउन सक्ने गरी कोर्ने क्षमता हामीमा रहनुपर्छ ।

वैशाख १२ गते महाभूकम्प छुटेको पाँच घन्टाभित्रै भारतीय र अर्को दिन चिनियाँ उद्धार सामग्री ल्याइँदै तीसौँ मुलुकले उद्धारसहित राहतका सरसामान उदारतापूर्वक ल्याए र वितरण गरे । यद्यपि राहत पाउनुपर्ने कतिपय पीडितले पाउन नसकेका होलान् । अब नगद सहायताको ओइरो लाग्न थालेको छ । लन्डनको गोर्खाली चेली जोआना लुम्लेले वैशाख २१ सम्ममा पाँच अर्ब रुपैयाँबराबरको नगद एक्लैले संकलन गरिसकेकी छन् । एनसेल कम्पनीले एक अर्ब कबोलेको छ । धेरै संस्था तथा व्यक्तिले करोडौँ करोड कबुलेका छन् । यी तथ्यांक प्रतिनिधिमूलक उदाहरण हुन् । यसबाट पुनर्निर्माणका लागि रकम कलमको खाँचो नहुने देखिएको छ । तर, अब खाँचो छ यथार्थवादी योजना र व्यवस्थापनको । योजनामा हामी पछि प¥यौँ भने ‘आफूले बनाएको आफ्नै घरले आफैलाई किचेर उठ्न नसकेको’ जस्तै नेपाल कहिल्यै माथि उठ्न सक्दैन । निर्णय गर्ने त राजनीतिकस्तरबाट हो । नेताहरूको ऋषिमन हुनुप¥यो । हाम्रो जनमानसका कोही व्यक्ति लोभीपापी पनि छन् । तर, स्वदेशी तथा विदेशी सहायता पटक्कै दुरूपयोग हुनु हुँदैन । अधिकारवाला पदाधिकारीहरूले पुनर्निर्माणको काममा आएको अर्बौं रुपैयाँमा दस प्रतिशतको ¥याल चुहाउने प्रवृत्ति देखाउनु हुँदैन ।
अब कसरी पुनर्निर्माण गर्ने ?

१० अर्ब रुपैयाँको थैली बोकेर जोआना लुम्ले नेपाल आइन् भने नेपाल सरकारले उनलाई स्वागत गर्दै त्रिभुवन अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय विमानस्थलमै एउटा मेनु उनको हातमा थमाउन सक्नुपर्छ । उदाहरणार्थः ‘कृपया तपाईं गोर्खा जिल्लाको बारपाक क्षेत्रमा जानोस् । भूकम्पबाट घरविहीन हुन पुगेका त्यहाँका तीन सय ५० परिवारलाई यसैसाथ तोकिएको डिजाइन र निर्धारित मापदण्डअनुसार एकीकृत आवास निर्माण गरिदिनोस् जुनचाहिँ वातावरण मैत्री, स्वस्थकर, भूकम्पप्रतिरोधक, नेपाली संस्कृतिमूलक होस् । तपाईं अर्कोपटक नेपाल आउँदा त्यहीँको होम स्टेमा बिदा मनाउन सक्ने खालको निर्माण हुन जावोस् । तपाईंको टोलीको साथमा हाम्रा नेपाली प्राविधिज्ञ पनि त्यत्तिकै संख्यामा संलग्न हुनेछन् । सरकारीस्तरबाट तपाईंको कामको मनिटर गरिनेछ । निर्धारित समयमा काम सम्पन्न भएपछि त्यसको विवरण र त्यसमा भएको खर्चको प्रतिवेदन प्रस्तुत गर्नुहोस् । नेपाल सरकारले तपाईंलाई धन्यवादको स्वर्णपत्रद्वारा सम्मान गर्दै फूलमालाले मैत्रीपूर्ण बिदाइ गर्नेछ ।

यस्तै प्रकारको निश्चित मेनु हाम्रा मित्रराष्ट्र, अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय दातृ संघसंस्था, स्वदेशी घराना, एनआरएन, औद्योगिक कम्पनी, उदारमना व्यक्ति विशेषलाई दिनुपर्छ । जसमा कि एकै क्षेत्रमा धेरै संस्था÷टोली गएर औलत दौलत पार्ने अवस्था नआओस् र अन्य क्षेत्रमा अभाव र निर्माणमा कमी हुन नपाओस् ।

Mahabhukampa

Occurrence of Great Earthquake was Known

Occurrence of great earthquake was known

Sunauli Pillar east of Belhiya Crossing PointBuddhi Narayan Shrestha

According to research and analyses of the GPS data on crustal deformation and tectonic movement, geologists, seismologists and researchers of the world had cautioned and alerted to Nepal that a great earthquake is due in this region.  The next earthquake will be released even tomorrow or within a year or five-ten-fifteen years period. But it will not go later than 2034. Because the last great earthquake in Nepal had occurred in 1934.

Really, a great earthquake of 7.8 Richter Scale was released on 25 April 2015 at 11.56 AM. More than 8,000 people lost their lives. More than 19,000 people have been injured. 400,000 people have been homeless. Nearly 290,000 houses have been either damaged or collapsed. This type of wreckage have been made due to carelessness of the government and general people. It was also due to lack of awareness to the village people. Whatever and however it should have been, it is already done. Now we have to reconstruct the damaged structures and built new structures for those who lost their homes and residents.

महाभूकम्प आउँछ भन्ने थाहा थियो

बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ

 

स्वेदेश तथा विदेशका अध्येता तथा अनुसन्धानकर्ता, भूवेत्ता तथा भर्ूगर्भविदहरुले पच्चीसौं वर्षेखि भन्दै आएका थिए ‘नेपालमा महाभूकम्प आउँदैछ ।’ उनीहरुले भनेका थिए, ‘त्यो महाभूकम्प भोलिनै आउन सक्छ । एक वर्षा अथवा पाँच-दश-पन्ध्र वर्षभत्र हुनसक्छ । अर्थात् संवत् २०९० साल कट्दैन ।’ नभन्दै २०७२ वैशाख १२ गते नै महाभूकम्प टुपलुक्क आइपुग्यो नेपाली जनताको घरदैलोमा । कडा शनिबार परेको सप्तमी तिथि दिनको ११.५६ बजे ७ दशमलव ८ रेक्टर स्केल क्षमता भएको गोर्खाको बारपाकलाई केन्द्रविन्दु बनाएर महाभूकम्प छुट्यो । त्यस घडीको महाभूकम्प र त्यसको दर्ुइ घन्टापछिको ५.७ र तीन घन्टामा ५.९ रेक्टरको मझौला वर्गको भूकम्प भयो । भोलिपल्ट अपरान्ह १२.५४ बजेको ६.९ स्केलको ठूलो वर्गीकरणको भूकम्प एवं् त्यसपछिका १७ दिनसम्म साना वर्गका १६२ वटा परिकम्प -आफ्टर शक) ले नेपालको २५ जिल्लालाई प्र्रभावित तुल्यायो । अठारौं दिन अर्थात् बैशाख २९ गते १.५२ बजे ६.८ रेक्टरको ठुलो वर्गको परिकम्पन गयो । शान्त मनस्थितिमा पुग्न लागेका जनतालाई यसले फेरि त्रास र सन्देह उत्पन्न गराएको छ ।

 
यस्तो प्रकारको महाभूकम्प आउँछ भन्ने कुरा थाहा पाउँदा पाउँदै पनि भूइँचालोमा परेर ८ हजारभन्दा बढी नेपालीको ज्यान गयो । उनीहरुलाई महाभूकम्पले मारेको होइन । तर उनीहरु आफ्नो घरले आफैलाई किचेर मरेका हुन् । घर र अन्य संरचना भत्केर त्यसको सामग्री अर्थातर् इटा, ढुंगा, दलिन, छाना उछिटिएर आउँदा १७ हजार जना र्घाईते भएका छन् । करिव ४ लाख जना घरविहीन हुन पुगेका छन्् । आखिर यतिका क्षती किन हुन पुग्यो – यसको जवाफ हुन सक्छ, हामी सजग र जागरुक नभएर । भौतिक संरचनाको निर्माणमा सजग नभएर २ लाख ८९ हजार संख्यामा घर पाताल हुन पुग्यो । एउटै परिवारको ४ जना संगै बसी खाना खाँदाखाँदै भूकम्प छुट्यो । तिन जना जुठो हातै अतालिदै भर्‍याङबाट तलतिर दौडिएर बाँचे । चौथो जना अज्ञानतावस भान्साको बेसिनमा हात धुन पुग्दा त्यहीँ किचिएर मरे । यसलाई भूकम्पप्रति जागरण आउन नसकेको र चेतना अभिवृद्धि गराउन नसकेको भन्दा अरु केही भन्न सकिँदैन । अग्ला भवन बनाउँदा त्यस मुनिको जमिन -माटो) को भारवहन क्षमता आँकलन नगरिएको र प्रविधियुक्त प्राविधिक नजर नपुर्‍याएका कारण काठमाडौं कपनमा सात तले क्षेत्रको सात तलेभवन गर्लाम् गर्ुलम् ढलेर ३० जना ठाउँको ठाउँ मर्न पुगे र चालिसौं जना घाइते भए ।

Saat tale

 

Ghaite
करिब तीन दशक अघिदेखी विदेशी वैज्ञानिकहरुले नेपालमा सम्भावित भूकम्प सम्बन्धी अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान तथा मनिटरिङ गर्दै आएका थिए । खोज अध्ययन अनुसार साढे चार करोड वर्षेखि भारतीय उपमहाद्वीपको प्लेट युरोसियन -तिब्बती) प्लेट मुनी घुस्ने घस्रने क्रम जारी रहेको र त्यसको गति अद्यापी प्रति वर्षडेढ दर्ुइ सेन्टिमिटर रहेको कुरा प्रकाश पारेका थिए । यस्तै, पोखरा, दाङ, काठमाडौं उपत्यकाको उत्तर तथा दक्षिणमा पर्ूव-पश्चिम तन्केको महाभारत सिवालिक श्रृंखला ३ मिलिमिटर उठ्दै गएको र हिमालय करिब २ देखि ७ मिलिमिटर प्रत्येक वर्षअग्लिदै रहेको आँकलन गरिएको थियो ।

 
यस्तो अनुमानको अध्ययन अनुसन्धानको सिलसिलामा अमेरिकी भर्ूगर्भविदहरुले नापी विभागको संयोजकत्वमा सन् १९९१ मा नेपालको विभिन्न ४५ स्थानमा ग्लोबल पोजिसनिङ सिस्टम -जिपिएस्) स्याटेलाइट र्सर्भेक्षण तथा १० ठाउँको भू-आकर्षा र्सर्भेक्षण गरेका थिए । सन् १९९२-९३ मा नेपाल, तिब्बत, भारतको एकै साथ व|mस्टल डिफर्मेशन सम्बन्धी र्सर्भेक्षण गरी तथ्यांक स्थापना गरिएको थियो । यस्तै, भारतको रक्सौलदेखि चीन -तिब्बत) सीमाको मितेरी साँघुसम्मको राजमार्गीय समतलन र्सर्भेक्षणको १२ वर्षो तथ्यांकसमेत संगणना गरिएको थियो । यस्ता तथ्यांक प्रशोधनबाट पत्ता लागेको निचोड सन् १९९४ मा अमेरिकाको जर्नल अफ जियोफिजिकल रिर्सच र सन् १९९५ मा जर्नल अफ नेपाल जियोलजिकल सोसाइटिमा प्रकाशित गरिएको थियो । र्सार्वजनिक जानकारीका लागि काठमाडौंको हिमाल हिमालयन म्यागेजिनको मे/जुन १९९४ को अङ्कमा सारसंक्षेप उल्लेख गरिएको थियो । त्यसको निचोड थियो ‘भारतको उत्तरी मैदान भन्दा माथिल्लो क्षेत्र खतरापर्ूण्ा प्रकृतिको रहेको कुरो विवादरहित छ र यो निश्चित छ कि आउँदो केही दशाव्दिभित्र ८ दशमलव ५ म्याग्निच्युड बराबरको महाभूकम्प जानेछ, जुनचाहिँ इतिहासको सबभन्दा डरलाग्दो प्रकोप हुनेछ । नेपालमा पटक-पटक साना-ठुला भूकम्प जानुको कारणचाहिँ नेपाली भूमिको सिधै पृथ्वीको भित्री भागमा बढी तापक्रमका कारण पग्लिएर रहेको तरल पदार्थमाथि तैरिएर रहेको भारतीय ल्पेट, युरेसिएन ल्पेर्टतर्फ घुस्दर्ैगई टेक्टोनिक हलचल मचाउनु नै हो । यसरी भारतीय ल्पेट नेपालको उत्तरमा अवस्थित तिब्बती ल्पेर्टतर्फ घुस्ने गति भएका कारणले बेलाबखतमा भौगर्भिक बनौटमा गडबडी उत्पन्नभई नेपालमा भूकम्प जान्छ ।’

 
यिनै तथ्यताको सर्न्दर्भमा यस पंक्तिकारले आगमन मासिकको २०५३ वैशाख अङ्कमा ‘अर्को भूकम्प कहिले -‘ शिर्षमा लेख प्रकाशित गरेको थियो । त्यस लेखको निचोड थियो ‘नियमित आकस्मिकता अर्न्तर्गतको विध्वंसकारी महाभूकम्प ढिलो चाँडो अवश्यम्भावि भएकोले त्यस्तो प्रकोपबाट बढी भन्दा बढी मात्रामा जोगावट तथा सुरक्षा कसरी गर्न सकिन्छ भनी बेलामौकामा नै आवश्यक प्रवन्ध र पर्ूवाधारको संरचना तयार गर्दै जानर्ुपर्छ । भूकम्पबाट हुने क्षति न्युनिकरण तथा प्रतिरोध योजनाहरु समय छँदै तर्जुमा तथा कार्यान्वयन गर्नु मानव कल्याणका लागि लाभदायी हुन्छ । भुँइचालोका कम्पन सहन सक्ने क्षमताका भवनहरु सक्षम इन्जिनियरको सुपरिवेक्षणमा मात्र निर्माण गर्न पाउने आचार संहिता तथा बिल्डिङ कोडको विकास गर्नुपर्छ । सुरक्षित सहरहरु निमार्ण्र्ाारी यथेष्ट मात्रामा खुला स्थानको प्रवन्ध गर्नुपर्छ । देशको कुनाकाप्चामा स्वास्थ्य केन्द्रको नेटओर्क विकास गरिनर्ुपर्छ । आकस्मिक सुरक्षाका उपायबारे शिक्षा प्रदान गर्दै जानर्ुपर्छ । नियमित आकस्मिकताको रुपमा महाभूकम्प आइलागेमा यसबाट कमभन्दा कम धनजनको क्षति हुने सुरक्षा उपायको प्रवन्ध गर्दै जानर्ुपर्छ ।’

 
यसैगरी सम्भावित महाभूम्पबाट हुने क्षति न्युनीकरण तथा प्रतिरोध योजना समय छँदै तर्जुमा गरी कार्यान्वयन गर्नुपर्छ । उच्च जनघनत्व भएका क्षेत्रमा भवन निर्माण आचारसंहिताको पर्ूण्ा पालना गर्नु गराउनु पर्छ । सुरक्षित सहर निर्माण गर्दा यथेष्ट मात्रामा खुला स्थानको प्रवन्ध गर्नुपर्छ भनी यसै पंक्तिकारले २०६८ असोज १० को दैनिक पत्रिकामा पनि प्रकाशित गरेको थियो ।

 
भर्ूगर्भविद्हरुले पनि भूपरतका व|mस्टल डिफर्मेशन, भूस्खलन र दरार श्रंृखलाको पहिचान गर्न पश्चिम नेपालको ३० स्थानमा जिपिएस् र्सर्भेक्षण कार्य गरी महाभूकम्प आउँदैछ भनी सचेत गराएका थिए । प|mेन्चहरुले सन् १९८५ देखि नै नेपालमा भूकम्पको गतिविधि मनिटर गर्दै आइरहेका थिए । यसै सिलसिलामा खानी तथा भर्ूगर्भ विभाग अर्न्तर्गत सर्ुर्खेत र काठमाडौं केन्द्र बनाई नेपालको १७ स्थानमा भूकम्पमापन स्टेशनहरु स्थापना गरिएको थियो । यसै अर्न्तर्गत यही वैशाख १२ गतेदेखि छुटेको महाभूकम्प र यसका आफ्टर शकको विवरण राष्ट्रिय भूकम्पमापन केन्द्र लैनचोरले जनमानसलाई दिंदै आएको छ ।

 
देश विदेशका निकै अनुसन्धानकर्ताहरुले नेपाल भूकम्पीय जोखिममा रहेको क्षेत्र हो भनी र्सतर्क गराउँदै आएका थिए । कहाँ, कत्रो र कतिखेर भूकम्प जान्छ भनेर भन्न सकिन्न । तर निकट भविष्यमै भूकम्प छुट्न सक्छ भनेका थिए । यसरी कुनै पनि बेला भूकम्प आउँछ भन्ने थाहा पाउँदा पाउँदै पनि भूकम्पबाट वढी भन्दा बढी मात्रामा बच्न बचाउनसक्ने प्रवन्ध प्रभावकारी रुपमा हुन सकेन । भूकम्पबाट जोगिने चेतना जागरण सम्बन्धमा सरकारी तथा अन्य संघ संस्थाले गरेको तयारी अधिकांश कागजी र कोठे छलफल मै सीमित भएको प्रमाणित भएको छ । प्रत्येक वर्षमाघ २ गते आयोजना गरिदैं आएको चेतनामूलक भूकम्प दिवस कार्यक्रममा ‘झटपट झोला’ तरिका अर्न्तर्गत प्रत्येक घरमा एउटा झोलामा केही विस्कुट, चाउचाउ पुरिया, चकलेट, पानीको बोतल, औषधी, सिठ्ठी, र्टचलाईट, हाते रेडियो राखी भरेङ नजिकै झुन्डाइ राख्नु र भुइँचालो हुँदा त्यो झोला टिपेर झटपट बाहिर निस्कनु भनिएको थियो । ‘डक कभर एन्ड होल्ड’ तरिका अर्न्तर्गत भूकम्प आउँदा आफ्नो टाउको दर्ुइ घुँडाको बीचमा निहुर्राई हातको चाममुठीले थिचि हाँसजस्तै गुडुल्किएर टेबल मुनि तथा ढोकाको सङ्घारमा ओत लाग्नु भनी सिकाइएको थियो । तर वैशाख १२ को भूकम्पमा कतिले झटपट झोला लिएर दौडिए – कति जना हाँस जस्तो गुडुल्किएर बसे – भक्तपुर जेला टोलकी चण्डेश्वरी गाइजुले पुरिएको तीन दिनपछि मात्र भाग्यवस उध्दार पाउन सकिन् । उनले झटपट झोला उपयोग गरेकी भए किचिएर रहेकै अवस्थामा बेस्सरी बजाएको सिठ्ठीको आवाज बाहिर सुनिएर समयमै उध्दार पाउन सक्थिन् । बजाइएको रेडियोको आवाज भत्केको थुप्रो बाहिर सुनिएर र भग्नावशेषको प्वालबाट राति बाहिर देखिएको र्टच लाइटको प्रकाश देखेर चाँडै उध्दार पाउन सक्ने थिइन् ।

 
यी कुरा जेजस्तो भए तापनि जे हुनुपर्ने या नहुनुपर्ने भइसक्यो । महाभूकम्पको एउटा युगको अन्त्य भएको छ । अबको दिन भनेको विपद् व्यवस्थापनको हो । पुरिएर रहेका जिउँदो अवस्थामा भेटिने समय गुज्रिसक्यो । मरेकाको काजक्रिया गर्ने तिथि नाघिसक्यो । अब भनेको घाइतेको औषधीमुलोमा प्रभावकारी कार्य गर्नु हो । नगद सम्पत्ति पुरिएर झिक्न नसकिएकालाई खानपिनको प्रवन्ध गर्नु हो । घर भत्किएर बस्नै नहुनेलाई अस्थायी बासको चाँजोपाँजो मिलाउनु मुख्य कुरो हो । सरकारले मरेकाको काजक्रिया गर्न र बाँचेका पीडितहरुलाई राहतस्वरुप थोरै भए पनि नगद सहयोगको घोषणा गरेको छ । घर बनाउनलाई थोरै व्याज दरमा ऋण प्रवाह गर्ने प्रवन्ध मिलाइएको छ । भूकम्पपीडितका लागि यो एउटा त्राण हो । राहत वितरण गर्दा छट्टुले रकम कलम नउछिट्याउन् । दाताले दिएको मनकारी सहयोग पाउनुपर्नेले मात्रै पाउन् । यसका लागि चेक एन्ड ब्यालेन्सको सशक्त संयन्त्र स्थापना गर्नुपर्छ ।

 
प्राकृतिक प्रकोपले क्षत विक्षत पारेको संरचनाको पुनर्निर्माण मात्र होइन नव निमार्ण्र्ाानि गर्ने योजना बन्नर्ुपर्छ । १२ मे २००८ मा दक्षिणी चीनको सिचुआन प्रान्तमा ७.९ रेक्टर बराबरको भूकम्प आउँदा ७० हजार जना मरेका थिए । भूकम्पपछि क्षत्रि्रस्त क्षेत्रबाट २४ किलोमिटर टाढा याङचाङ नामक नयाँ शहर निमार्ण्र्ाारी ४० हजार जना भूकम्पपीडितलाई ८ रेक्टर स्केलको भूकम्प धान्ने आवासको प्रवन्ध गरिएको थियो । यद्यपि निमार्ण्र्ााे क्रममा २२ करोड ८० लाख डलर गैरकानुनी तरिकाले ट्रान्सफर गरी दुरुपयोग गरिएको थियो । नव निर्माणमा नेपालले यस्ता घटनाबाट पाठ सिकेर धनराशी नचुहुने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्छ ।

 
विध्वंस भएको संरचना पुनर्निर्माण गर्दा निजी निवास निर्माणलाई प्राथमिकता दिनुपर्ने र्सवव्यापि कुरो हो । यसपछि र्सार्वजनिक विद्यालय भवन, सरकारी संरचना र सांस्कृतिक तथा ऐतिहासिक सम्पदाको पालो आउँछ । भूकम्प प्रतिरोधक घर, भवन, अपार्टमेन्ट, हाउजिङ कमप्लेक्स, सपिङ मलको मापदण्ड राष्ट्रियस्तरमा तोकेर मोडेल -नमूना) तयार गरी मुलुकभर लागु गर्न सक्नर्ुपर्छ ।  नवनिर्माण अर्न्तर्गत भूउपयोग वर्गीकरणलाई दृष्टिगत गर्दै जमिनको क्षमताअनुसार माथिल्लो पहाडी क्षेत्रमा एकीकृत वस्ती विकास, मध्यपहाडी क्षेत्रमा नगर विकास र मैदानी भागमा सहरी विकासको अवधारणालाई साक्षात्कार गर्ने योजना तर्जुमा तथा कार्यान्वयन गरिनर्ुपर्छ ।

Earthquake epicenter in Nepali territory

                                       भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दु नेपालको सीमाभित्र

                                                                                                         बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ

२०६८ असोज १ गते आएको भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दु नेपाल र भारत -सिक्किम) को सीमामा पर्छ भनी बिभिन्न सञ्चार माध्यमले प्रसारण गरे । तर अमेरिकी भर्ूगर्भ र्सर्भेक्षण संस्थाले प्रकाशित गरेको भौगोलिक तथ्यांक संगणना गरी नक्सामा अंकन गर्दा भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दु पर्ूण्ातः नेपालको सीमाभित्रै परेको देखिन्छ । यो केन्द्रविन्दु ताप्लेजुङ जिल्ला लेलेप गाउँ विकास समितिको मर्ेरा वस्तीपर्ूव ६ हजार ८ सय ८ मिटर अग्लो अन्निदेशा हिमालबाट १९ दशमलव ७ किलोमिटर गहिर्राईमा रहेको देखिन आउँछ । ६.९ रेक्टर स्केलको भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दु नेपाल-भारत सीमाबाट ९ किलोमिटर पश्चिम र नेपाल-चीन सीमारेखाबाट १८ किलोमिटर दक्षिण अवस्थित भएकोले दर्ुइ देशबीचको सीमामा भएको भन्न मिल्दैन । यो केन्द्रविन्दु काठमाडौबाट २ सय ७२ किलामिटर पर्ूव र सिक्किमको ग्यान्टोकबाट मङ्गन तथा कन्चनजंघा हुँदै ६८ किलोमिटर उत्तर-पश्चिममा नेपाल सरहदभित्र परेको छ । यद्यपि यस भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दुनजिकै सिक्किमको धेरै वस्ती रहेकोले त्यहाँ धेरै धनजनको क्षति हुन पुगेको हो ।


भूकम्प ज्ञान
असोज सक्रान्तिका दिन साँझ ६.२६ बजे ५० सेकेन्डसम्म कम्पन ल्याएको ६.९ रेक्टरको भूकम्प ठूला दर्जामा गनिन्छ । भर्ूगर्भवेत्ताअनुसार ४ भन्दा सानो स्केलको भूकम्पलाई सानो -सामान्य) भनिन्छ भने ४ देखि ५.९ सम्मकालाई मझौला, ६ देखि ७ सम्मको ठूलो र ७ भन्दा माथिकालाई महाभूकम्प मानिन्छ । भूकम्प नाप्ने स्केललाई ‘रेक्टर म्याग्निच्युद’ भनिन्छ । दर्ुइवटा भूकम्पको नापमा एक रेक्टर स्केलको अन्तर भयो भने ती दर्ुइबीचको शक्ति ३२ गुणाले फरक हुन्छ । जस्तै-  ५ रेक्टर स्केलको भूकम्पले फ्याँक्ने शक्तिभन्दा ६ रेक्टरको भूकम्पले फ्याँक्ने शक्ति ३२ गुणा ठूलो हुन्छ । त्यसैले ५ रेक्टर स्केलको ३२ वटा भूकम्प जानु र ६ रेक्टरको एउटा भूकम्प जानु शक्तिका हिसाबले बराबर हुन्छ । यस्तैगरी ७ रेक्टरको एउटा भूकम्प जानु भनेको ५ रेक्टरको १ हजारवटा भूकम्प जानु जत्तिकै हुन्छ ।

पृथ्वीको भित्री भागमा कुनै हलचल पैदा भएपछि त्यसको तरङ्ग सिधै पृथ्वीको सतहतर्फ आउँछ । यसरी आएको तरङ्ग सिधामाथि सतहमा ठोक्किएको ठाउँलाई भूकम्पको केन्द्र विन्दु -इपिसेन्टर) भनिन्छ । पृथ्वीभित्र तरङ्ग उत्पन्न भएको ठाउँलाई हाइपोसेन्टर भनिन्छ । पोखरीमा ढुङ्गा फ्याक्दा ढुङ्गा डुबेको विन्दुबाट तरङ्गको गोलो छाल एकपछि अर्को ठूलो वृत्तमा छचल्कँदै गएजस्तो भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दुबाट तरङ्गको वृत्त बन्दै जान्छ र कम्पनको शक्ति क्षय भएपछि वृत्त बन्ने व्रिmया समाप्त हुन्छ । यसैले केन्द्रविन्दु र यसको नजिकका वृत्तमा धेरै विध्वंस हुन्छ । वृत्त जति ठूलो आकारको हुन्छ, त्यत्तिकै मात्रामा शक्ति क्षय हुँदै जोखिम पनि उत्तिकै मात्रामा कम हुन्छ ।


भूकम्पको कम्पन गति दर्ुइ प्रकारको हुन्छ । पहिलो, तलमाथि गरी उचालेको जस्तो हुन्छ । दोस्रो, दायाँ-वायाँ हल्लाउने तरङ्ग हुन्छ । उपमाका निम्ति जमिनमा गाडिएको एउटा काठको खम्बा सरक्क माथि उचाली छोडिदिएमा लगभग यसको आफ्नै ठाउँमा बस्छ । तर त्यस खम्बालाई दाहिने-देब्रे गतितर्फ हल्लाएर छाडिंदा खम्बा ढल्किएको हुन सक्छ, ढल्न पनि सक्छ । त्यसैले दायाँ-बायाँको टेडो तरङ्गले जताततै हल्लाई घरलगायत भौतिक संरचना भत्कने गरेको विशेषज्ञ बताउँछन् । हालैको भूकम्प तलमाथि तरङ्गको भएकोले कम क्षति पुर्‍याएको हुन सक्छ ।

ठुलो भूकम्प गएपछि सामान्यतया साना-साना भूकम्प -आफ्टरशक) जाने गर्छ । यसै अनुरूप आइतबार साँझमा गएको भूकम्पको ३० मिनेटभित्र ४.६ देखि ५.७ स्केलसम्मका १४ कम्पन भए । यसैगरी चौबिस घन्टाभित्र १ सय ३० आफ्टरशक आयो । यसमध्ये १५ वटा ५ स्केल बराबरका थिए । अर्कोतर्फ स-साना भूकम्प निकैमात्रामा गएपछि ठूला भूकम्प निम्तिन सक्छन् भन्ने पनि भनाइ रहेको छ ।

नेपाल, भारत र चीन -तिब्बत) को त्रिदेशीय सीमाक्षेत्र नजिक गएको हालैको भूकम्पले यी तीन देशबाहेक भूटान र बंगलादेशलाई पनि कम्पन गरायो । परिणामतः यो पंक्ति लेख्दासम्म भारतमा ६३, नेपालमा १०, चीन -तिब्बत) मा ७ तथा अन्य देशमा ३ गरी ८३ जना भूकम्पमा परी मृत्यु भएका छन् । हजारौं घाइते भएका छन् । पाँचौ हजार घर क्षति भएको छ ।

गृह मन्त्रालयअनुसार नेपालमा हालसम्म १० जनाको मृत्यु भइसकेको छ भने २४ गम्भीर घाइते अवस्थामा छन् । यस्तै करिब ८२ जना सामान्य घाइते भएका छन् । १२२ परिवार विस्थापित भएका छन् । भौतिक क्षतिका सम्बन्धमा १८८ घर पर्ूण्ारुपमा क्षति भएको छ भने २१६ घर आंशिक भत्केको अवस्थामा छ । मृत्यु हुनाको कारणमध्ये भूकम्प भएको थाहा नपाई घरभित्रै पुरिएर थिचिएर र केही मानिस कम्पनको अनुभव गर्नेबित्तिकै आत्तिएर भाग्दा मर्न पुगेका छन् । अन्य केही व्यक्ति उचाइबाट हामफल्दा र दौडँदा लडेर चिप्लिएर मरेका छन् ।

भूकम्प हुने कारण
पृथ्वीको भित्रीभागमा अत्यधिक तापक्रमका कारणले तरल रूपमा रहेका पदार्थहरू एकातर्फबाट अर्कोतिर बहावट भए टेक्टोनिक हलच पैदा हुन्छ । यसले गर्दा दरारको मात्रा धेरै सिर्जनाभई भित्र रहेको भूखण्डमा केही हलचल तथा गडबडि पैदा हुनथाल्छ । यस्तो गडवडिबाट उत्पन्न भएको कम्पन पृवीको सतहसम्म आइपुगेमा भूकम्प हुने गर्दछ । हाम्रो नेपालमा पटक-पटक साना-ठुला भूकम्प जानुको कारणचाहिँ नेपाली भूमिको सिधै पृथ्वीको भित्री भागमा बढी तापक्रमका कारण पग्लिएर रहेको तरल पदार्थमाथि तैरिएर रहेको भारतीय ल्पेट, युरेसिएन ल्पेर्टतर्फ घुस्दर्ैगई टेक्टोनिक हलचल मचाउनु नै हो । यसरी भारतीय ल्पेट नेपालको उत्तरमा अवस्थित तिब्बती ल्पेर्टतर्फ घुस्ने गति भएका कारणले बेलाबखतमा भौगर्भिक बनौटमा गडबडी उत्पन्नभई नेपालमा भूकम्प जाने भर्ूगर्भविदहरूको धारणा रहेको पाइन्छ । भूकम्पसम्बन्धी अध्ययन अनुसन्धान तथा मनिटरिङ गरिरहेका विदेशी वैज्ञानिकहरू अनुसार १६ करोड वर्षेखि भारतीय ल्पेट तिब्बती ल्पेटमा घुस्दै आएको छ । यो क्रम अद्यापि जारी रहेको छ ।

यस पंक्तिकार नापी विभागमा कार्यरत रहँदा अमेरिका कालोरेडो विश्वविद्यालयका भर्ूगर्भशास्त्री रजर बिलहामको नेतृत्वमा आएको एउटा टोलीलाई नेपालमा अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गर्न अनुमति प्रदान गरिएको थियो । त्यस टोलीमा नेपाली प्राविधिज्ञसमेत सम्लग्न गरी सम्वत २०४८ देखि नेपालमा विधिवत ग्लोबल पोजिसनिङ सिस्टम -जिपिएस) स्याटेलाइट र्सर्भेक्षण सुरु गरिएको थियो । यस र्सर्भेक्षणको मुख्य उद्देश्य नेपालको जियोडेटिक नेटओर्क सुदृढिकरण गर्ने र भारतीय ल्पेट तिब्बततर्फ घुस्ने गति अध्ययन गर्नु रहेको थियो । यसै अध्ययनको क्रममा करिब १५ करोड वर्षेखि भारतीय ल्पेट तिब्बती ल्पेटमा घुस्ने क्रम जारी छ र हालमा पनि प्रतिवर्ष२ सेन्टिमिटरका दरले पस्दैछ भन्ने कुरा बिलहामको संगतबाट धेरै नेपाली प्राविधिकसमक्ष उजागर भएको थियो । यसैगरी महाभारत श्रृंखला प्रतिवर्ष३ मिलिमिटरका दरले उठ्दै गएको र हिमाल करिब २ देखि ७ मिलिमिटर प्रत्येक वर्षअग्लिदै रहेको उनको अनुमान थियो ।

भारतीय ल्पेट उत्तर्रतर्फ घुस्ने क्रम रोकिएमा अथवा गति बढ्दै गए या एकाएक धेरै अनुपातमा वृद्धि भए ठूलो भूकम्प हुने सम्भावना रहन्छ । बेलाबेला सानातिना भूकम्पको झड्का नगए शक्ति संचितभई लामो अवधिपश्चात विनाशकारी रूपमा ठूलो भूकम्प आउनसक्ने हुन्छ । तर पनि दर्जनौं सानातिना भूकम्पको समयचक्रलाई टार्ने संभावनाचाहिँ निकै कम रहेको भूकम्पवेत्ताहरूको विचार रहेको पाइन्छ । यस मानेमा नियमित आकस्मिकताका रूपमा नेपालमा संवत् १९९० पछिको अर्को महाभूकम्प आउन बाँकी नै रहेको विश्वास भर्ूगर्भ अनुसन्धानकर्ताको रहेको छ । उनीहरूका अनुसार प्रत्येक १ सय वर्षो समयचक्रमा एउटा महाभूकम्प हुन सक्छ, जुनचाहिँ नेपालले पनि सहनुपर्ने हुन्छ । तर पनि हामीले बिर्सनु हुन्न कि भूकम्पको ठोकुवा भविष्यवाणी गर्ने विज्ञानको जन्म संसारमा हालसम्म भइसकेको छैन ।

अर्को महाभूकम्प
नेपालमा गएका भूकम्पको संख्या अध्ययन गर्दा संवत् १७९० देखि २०६८ असोजसम्म मझैालाभन्दा माथिल्लो दर्जाको भूकम्प १४ पटक गइसकेको छ । यसमध्ये १८९० भदौ १२ को ७.८ रेक्टर तथा १९९० माघ २ को ८.४ रेक्टर स्केलको महाभूकम्पले धेरै क्षति पुर्‍याएको थियो । हाल असोज १ को भूकम्प ७८ वर्षछिको सबभन्दा ठूलो भूकम्प मानिन्छ । यद्यपि यसको श्रेणी महाभूकम्पको होइन । यो भूकम्पको केन्द्रविन्दु नेपालको दक्षिणी सीमा नजिकै गंगाको उर्बरा मैदानी भागमा परेको भए कमलो भू-बनौटका कारण धेरै मात्रामा विनाश गर्ने थियो । तर भाग्यवस ताप्लेजुङको उच्चहिमाली क्षेत्रको चट्टानी भागमा परेको हुँदा भूकम्पको क्षमताअनुसार जति विनाश गर्नसक्ने हो त्यति मात्रामा भएन । काठमाडौंनजिक केन्द्रविन्दु परेको भए कहालीलाग्दो अवस्था सिर्जना हुने थियो ।

नेपालमा अर्को महाभूकम्प आएमा नेपाल अथवा खासगरी काठमाडौंको घना शहरी वस्तीको अवस्था कस्तो होला भन्ने दृश्यबारे केहीक्षण सोचौं । काठमाडौं उपत्यकाको जनसंख्या अहिले करिब ३५ लाख पुगेको छ । एक अध्ययनअनुुसार घरको संख्या २ लाखभन्दा बढि पुगिसकेा छ । डेढ दशक अघिसम्म असन, इन्द्रचोक, नयाँ सडक क्षेत्रमा घनावस्ती रहेको थियो । अहिले आएर उपत्यकाभित्र पचासौं असन-इन्द्रचोक सिर्जना भएका छन् । यस्तो अवस्थामा काठमाडौं छेउछाउ केन्द्रविन्दु रहेको ८ रेक्टर स्केलको भूकम्प पैदा भएमा ५ प्रतिशत वासिन्दाको ज्यान जानसक्ने, १२ प्रतिशत गम्भीर घाइते हुनसक्ने र २० प्रतिशत सामान्य घाइते हुनजाने अनुमान गर्न सकिन्छ । जाइकाले सन् २००२ मा गरेको संयुक्त अध्ययन प्रतिवेदनमा काठमाडौंको ६० प्रतिशतभन्दा बढी संरचना ध्वस्त हुने देखाएको छ ।

भूकम्पले सिमेन्टीका लठ्ठाधारी सलाईका डिब्बा आकारका अग्ला भवन रुख ढलेजस्तो गरी चाँडै ढाल्ने र यसका भुइँतलाका सटरयुक्त र फराकिला झयाल भएको भाग पहिले खसाउने छ । यसपछि लम्बाइ-चौडाइ समानभई चारै कुनामा ‘लोड बेरिङ’ गरिएका पिलर सिस्टमका अग्लो भवन ढल्ने छन् । ‘वाल सिस्टम’ का कम उचाइका घरहरूमा कममात्र क्षति पुग्छ । एक कुनाको गारो ढलेर व्हाङ्ग भए पनि बाँकी भाग जोगिन सक्छ । पुराना प्रविधिबाट दलिनमा चुकुल ठोकी गारो लगाई बनाइएका भुइँघरहरू निकै मात्रामा सुरक्षित रहन सक्छन् ।

अव्यवस्थित शहरी क्षेत्र तथा शहरको साँगुरो गल्ली भएका बस्तीमा बिजुलीका तार एकआपसमा जुधेर भयंकर आगलागी हुनसक्ने छ । पानीको पाइपलाइन भाँचिएर र टयुबवेलको पाइप दोब्रिएर पानीको हाहाकार्रभई चाँडै आगो निभाउन मुस्किल पर्नसक्छ । टेलिफोनको केबुलतार चुँडिएर, मोबाइल टावर ढलेर सञ्चार सर्म्पर्क आंशिक विच्छेद हुन पुग्छ । ढलेको भवनले बाटो छेकेर उद्धार गर्न पुग्नुपर्ने स्थानसम्म तत्काल पुग्न नसकिने अवस्था आर्इपर्नसक्छ ।

यसैगरी राजमार्ग धाँजापरी पुलहरू टुक्रिएर आवागमनमा बाधा पर्न सक्छ । जलविद्युत पोखरीका बाँध फुटी तल्लो भागमा बाढीप्रकोप हुनसक्छ । पहिरोले नदीको बहावट थुनिएर डुबान हुनसक्ने र कालान्तरमा फुटी होचो मैदानी क्षेत्रमा बाढीले विनास गर्नसक्ने सम्भावना पनि रहन सक्छ । त्रिभुवन अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय विमानस्थल धावनमार्ग बच्नसक्ने अनुमान भर्ूगर्भशास्त्री रजर विलहामले गरेको कुरा यस पंक्तिकारको कानमा अहिले पनि गुन्जिरहेको छ ।

यसबाहेक मृत व्यक्तिको लास दहन समयमा हुन नसकी हैजाजस्ता रोगव्याधी र महामारी बचेका मानिसमा फैलन सक्ने संभावना पनि रहन सक्छ । खाद्यान्न आपर्ूर्तिमा कमर्ीभई खान नपाउने हुनसक्छ ।

अन्तिम
नियमित आकस्मिकताअर्न्तर्गतको अर्को विध्वंसकारी महाभूकम्प नेपालमा आयो भने के गर्ने – प्राकृतिक आपद् विपद् र्टार्न सकिँदैन । तर यसबाट हुन आउने जोखिम कम गर्न सकिन्छ । यस्ता दैवीप्रकोप परेमा जनधनको बढी मात्रामा जोगावट तथा सुरक्षा कसरी गर्न सकिन्छ भनी बेलामौकामै आवश्यक प्रवन्ध र पर्ूवाधारको संरचना गर्दै जानर्ुपर्छ । यस सम्बन्धमा भूकम्पको क्षति न्युनिकरण तथा प्रतिरोध योजना समय छँदै तर्जुमा र कार्यान्वयन गर्नुपर्छ । उच्च जनघनत्व भएका क्षेत्रमा भवन निर्माण आचार संहिता तथा बिल्डिङ कोड पर्ूण्ा पालना गर्नु गराउनु पर्छ । सुरक्षित सहर निर्माण गरी यथेष्ट मात्रामा खुलास्थानको प्रवन्ध गर्नुपर्छ ।

यसका साथै देशको कुनाकाप्चासम्मका स्थानमा स्वास्थ्य केन्द्रको संजाल विकास गर्नुपर्छ । स्वयमसेवकको नेटओर्क फैलाउनु पर्छ । आकस्मिक सुरक्षाका उपायबारे विद्यालय तथा सामाजिक संस्थामा शिक्षा प्रदान गर्ने प्रवन्ध हुनर्ुपर्छ । जे होस् अर्को महाभूकम्पको प्रकोप आइलागेमा यसबाट सकेसम्म कम धनजनको क्षति हुने सुरक्षाका उपायहरू प्रवन्ध गर्दै लैजान सक्नर्ुपर्छ । भूकम्पीय प्रकोप तत्काल आइपरे आफू तुरुन्तै खुला स्थानतर्फजाने गरौं । घरभित्रै रहेको अवस्थामा भए टेबल, पलङ तथा ढोकाको सँघार जस्ता सुरक्षित स्थानमा टाउको दर्ूइ घुँडाको बीचमा पारी लुकेर बसौं । सकिन्छ भने एक तुम्लेट पानी र दर्ुइ-चार पुरिया विस्कुट चाउचाउ जोहो गरी तत्काल बोक्न सकिने ठाउँमा तयारी अवस्थामा राख्ने बानी बसालौं ।


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