Border Issue on Priority

Border Issue on Priority

By Diwakar

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

प्राथमिकतामा सीमा मामिला

कालापानी, सुस्ताजस्ता समस्याबारे गहिरो अध्ययन गरी प्राविधिक समितिलाई निर्देशन दिन

दुवै देशमा उच्चस्तरको ट्रयाक-टु विज्ञ टोली गठन गर्नु सान्दर्भिक हुन सक्छ।

महाशक्तिका रूपमा उदीयमान भारतका प्रधानमन्त्री नरेन्द्र दामोदरदास मोदीको साउन १८ मा हुने नेपालको औपचारिक भ्रमणको पूर्वाधार मिलाउन दुवै देशका परराष्ट्रमन्त्रीले नेतृत्व गरेको नेपाल-भारत संयुक्त आयोगको बैठक साउन १० गते काठमाडौंमा सफलतापूर्वक सम्पन्न भएको छ। बैठकपछि नेपालका परराष्ट्रमन्त्री महेन्द्रबहादुर पाण्डे र भारतका विदेशमन्त्री सुष्मा स्वराजबीच २६ बुँदे सहमतिपत्रमा हस्ताक्षर भई संयुक्त प्रेस विज्ञप्ति जारी गरिएको छ।

संयुक्त विज्ञप्तिअनुसार छलफलका क्रममा पाँचवटा विषयगत क्षेत्र निर्धारण गरी विभिन्न ५२ एजेन्डा बैठकमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको थियो। यस्ता विषयगत क्षेत्रमध्ये नेपाल-भारत सीमा मामिलालाई प्राथमिकता दिइएको छ। यद्यपि राजनीतिक, आर्थिक सहयोग तथा पूर्वाधार, व्यापार तथा पारवहन, ऊर्जा तथा जलस्रोत र संस्कृति, शिक्षा एवं मिडिया पनि विषयगत क्षेत्रभित्र परेका छन्। बैठकले नेपाल-भारत सीमा कार्यदललाई क्षेत्रगत काम चाँडोभन्दा चाँडो प्रारम्भ गर्न निर्देशन दिएको छ। संयुक्त बैठकको निर्णय भएलगत्तै कार्य सुरु गरिहालिने बुँदा भएकाले सीमा मामिलालाई दुवै देशले महत्त्वपूर्ण तत्त्वको रूपमा लिएको बुझ्न सकिन्छ।

बैठकमा नेपाली पक्षबाट कालापानी, सुस्तालगायतका विवादास्पद सीमा नक्सांकनका विषयमा कुरा उठाउँदा भारतीय पक्षले कालापानी र सुस्ता सीमा विवादलाई जटिल भएको धारणा व्यक्त गरेको कुरा सञ्चारमाध्यममा आएको थियो। तर यो समस्या सम्बन्धमा भारतीय विदेशमन्त्री सुष्मा स्वराजले नेपालको एक इन्च भूमि पनि लिने भारतको नियत नभएको धारणा राखेकी थिइन्। त्यसपछि कार्यदललाई तत्काल स्थलगत काम थाल्न निर्देशन दिइएको थियो।

यहाँ जिज्ञासा उत्पन्न हुन्छ, सीमा मामिलालाई किन प्राथमिकता दिइयो? यसको जबाफ हुन सक्छ, सीमा मामिला निकै संवेदनशील विषयवस्तुसँग गाँसिएको छ। जस्तो- सीमांकन, सीमा व्यवस्थापन, सुरक्षा चासो, सपुर्दगी सन्धि, सन् १९५० को सन्धि आदि। नेपाल-भारतबीचको बाँकी सीमांकन सम्बन्धमा नवगठित सीमा कार्यदलले खासगरी पाँच बुँदामा विशेष ध्यान पुर्‍याउनुपर्ने देखिन्छ।

प्रथमतः कालापानी, सुस्ताजस्ता बाँकी क्षेत्रको रेखांकनलाई प्राथमिकताको सूचीमा पार्नुपर्छ। दोस्रो, तयारी १ सय ८२ थान स्टि्रप म्याप (सीमा नक्सा) यथार्थ छन्, छैनन्- जाँचबुझ गर्नुपर्छ।तेस्रो, यी नक्सा र नयाँ नक्सांकनको काम समाप्त भएपछि सीमा प्रोटोकल तयार पार्नुपर्छ। सीमा नक्सालाई पूरक सामग्रीका रूपमा संलग्न गरी संयुक्त हस्ताक्षरका लागि प्रोटोकल तयार गरिनुपर्छ। चौथो, लोप भएका र गरिएका कतिपय सीमा खम्बा पुनः स्थापना गर्ने तथा मर्मत गर्ने काम हुनुपर्छ। पाँचौं, कतिपय स्थानमा स्पष्ट नभएका दसगजा क्षेत्र छुट्याउनुपर्छ।

सीमा नक्सा तयार पार्नका लागि बाँकी तीन प्रतिशत सीमारेखाको अंकन गर्न नेपाल-भारत संयुक्त प्राविधिकस्तरीय सीमा समिति (नापी विभागको महानिर्देशक र भारतीय सर्भेयर जनरलको नेतृत्वमा) गठन गर्न दुई देशबीच साउन ३ गते नै कूटनीतिक पत्रचार आदान-प्रदान भइसकेको छ। सात वर्षअघि विघटन गरिएको संयुक्त सीमा समिति पुनः गठन गर्न लागिएको खुसीको कुरा हो। दार्चुलाको कालापानी-लिम्पियाधुरा तथा नवलपरासीको सुस्ताजस्ता बाँकी रहेको क्षेत्रको काम यथाशक्य चाँडो पूरा गरी शतप्रतिशत सीमांकन सम्पन्न गरिनु दुवै देशको मर्यादाको कुरा हो। कालापानी समस्याबारे पुराना नक्सा, ऐतिहासिक दस्ताबेज, कागजातअनुसार महाकाली नदीको मुहान यकिन गरी सधैंका लागि मुद्दाको छिनोफानो गरिनुपर्छ। सुगौली सन्धिअनुसार नेपालको पश्चिमी सीमा पूरै काली नदी हो।

सुस्ता सीमा अतिक्रमणबारे आधिकारिक नक्सा दस्ताबेज नभेटिए दुवै देशले दावा-विरोध गरेको समुचा क्षेत्रको संयुक्त नक्सांकन तयार गर्नु समस्या समाधानको उपाय हो। एउटै टेबलमा बसी नक्साउपर आपसी छलफल गरेर सन् १८१६ मा सुगौली सन्धि गरिएका समय नारायणी नदी बगेको धार पहिचान गर्दै नदीको दायाँ-बायाँ जंगे खम्बा ठोकी समस्या निराकरण गरिनु प्राविधिक दृष्टिकोणले उपयुक्त हुन सक्छ।

जहाँसम्म ९७ प्रतिशत सीमांकन भई १ सय ८२ थान तयारी सीमा नक्सामा हस्ताक्षर गर्ने कुरो छ, माथि उल्लिखित ३ प्रतिशतको काम पनि सम्पन्न गरी एकैपटक हस्ताक्षर गर्नु अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मान्यता तथा अभ्यास अनुकूल हुन जान्छ। किस्ताबन्दीमा हस्ताक्षर गर्ने प्रावधान अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सिद्धान्तमा रहेको पाइँदैन। तयारी सीमा नक्साको कतिपय ‘रेड लाइन’ सीमारेखा यथार्थपरक छैन भन्ने कुरो उठेकाले त्यस्ता शंकास्पद सेक्टरको पुरानो आधार नक्सा र जमिन सीमा भिडाई गल्ती रेखा खिचिएको भेटिए सुधार संशोधन गर्ने अधिकार संयुक्त सीमा समितिलाई प्रदान गरिनुपर्छ। संयुक्त सीमा टोलीले २६ वर्ष रेखांकनको काम गर्दा दुवै देशका सीमावर्ती स्थानीय बासिन्दालाई जमिनमा सीमा नदेखाएका कारणले अन्तरसीमा जोतकमोत दखल भई सीमा अतिक्रमण हुन पुगेको छ। अब यस्तो गल्ती गरिनु हुँदैन।

Simana Sketch

नेपाल-भारत सीमा नक्सामा ८ हजार ८ सय ५३ सीमा खम्बा चित्रण गरिएका छन्। तीमध्ये ३ हजार २ सय ७७ खम्बा जमिनमा स्थापना गरिएकै छैनन्। स्थापना भएका ५ हजार ५ सय ७६ खम्बामध्ये पनि ४ सय ९९ खोलाले बगाएको, २ सय २ जमिनमा लोप गरिएको, १ सय ८९ जीर्ण अवस्थामा रहेको र ६ सय ८४ खम्बा साधारण मर्मतसम्भार गर्नुपर्ने कुरा तथ्यांकले बताउँछ। लोप भएका र बगाएका सीमा खम्बा पुनः स्थापना गर्ने र जीर्ण खम्बा मर्मत गर्ने काम संयुक्त टोलीलाई दिइनुपर्छ। दुवै सीमावर्ती दसगजा क्षेत्रको अतिक्रमण हटाई सफा राख्ने अधिकार संयुक्त टोलीलाई प्रदान गरिनुपर्छ। सशस्त्र प्रहरी बलको तथ्यांकअनुसार भारततर्फबाट ६० स्थानमा र नेपालतर्फबाट ४२ स्थानमा दसगजा मिचिएको छ। एउटै गाउँबस्ती दुई देशतर्फ परेको खण्डमा पनि दसगजा चिन्ह अंकन गरिनु वैज्ञानिक हुन आउँछ।

कालापानी, सुस्ताजस्ता समस्याबारे गहिरो अध्ययन गरी प्राविधिक समितिलाई निर्देशन दिन दुवै देशमा उच्चस्तरको ट्रयाक-टु विज्ञ टोली गठन गर्नु सान्दर्भिक हुन सक्छ। नेपाली विज्ञ भारतका प्रबुद्ध वर्गसँग सिधै टेलिफोन वार्ता गर्न सक्ने हैसियतको हुनु फलदायी हुन जान्छ। स्मरणीय छ, भारतको विदेश तथा सामरिक नीति कस्तो हुनुपर्छ भनी केहीअघि दिल्लीले आठजना प्रबुद्ध विज्ञहरू राखेर एउटा अध्ययन गराएको थियो। यस्तो अभ्यास नेपालमा विभिन्न विषयमा गरिनुपर्छ। यद्यपि, हालै सम्पन्न संयुक्त बैठकमा हालसम्मका सन्धि, सम्झौता अध्ययन, समीक्षा एवं पुनरोवलोकन गरी प्रतिवेदन तयार पार्न दुवै देशका पााच-पाँच सदस्य रहने अध्ययन समूह गठन गर्ने सहमति भएको छ।

अब सीमा व्यवस्थापनको कुरा गरौं। नेपाल र भारतबीचको खुला सीमा अवसर र चुनौतीका रूपमा छ। यद्यपि चुनौतीको मात्रा धेरै छन्। यिनै चुनौतीलाई सम्बोधन गर्न सीमामा हुने अतिवादी समूहको गतिविधिलाई निगरानी राख्ने, अन्तरसीमा अपराध तथा विध्वंसात्मक क्रियाकलापलाई नियन्त्रण गर्ने, जाली भारतीय नोट सीमापार हुनमा रोक्ने, लागूपदार्थ तथा मानव तस्करी एवं व्यक्ति अपहरण गर्न नदिने

संयुक्त आयोगको बैठकमा निर्णय भएको कुरा प्रकाशमा आएको छ। यसलाई कार्यान्वयन गर्ने संयन्त्रलाई चुस्त बनाइनुपर्छ।

यसैगरी संयुक्त बैठकमा सीमा सुरक्षा संयन्त्रबारे गहन छलफल हुनुका साथै सुपुर्दगी सन्धिबारे कारबाही अगाडि बढाउन र १९५० को सन्धि पनुरावलोकन, समायोजन, अद्यावधिक या संशोधन गर्न अध्ययनका लागि समूह गठन भएको छ। यसका लागि मिहिनेती गृहकार्यको आवश्यकता पर्छ। राजनीतिक ऐक्यबद्धताको खाँचो पर्ने हुन्छ।

वास्तवमा यी बुँदाहरू सीमा व्यवस्थापनसँग सम्बन्धित विषय हुन्। दुई देशबीचको सीमा खुला भएकोले यी सबै कार्य तदारुकतासाथ हुन सकेको पाइँदैन। यसबाट दुवै देशको सुरक्षा संयन्त्रमा बेला-कुबेला प्रश्नचिन्ह ठडिन पुगेको छ। सुरक्षा संयन्त्रको प्रसंगलाई लिएर होला, खुला सीमाबाट अवाञ्छित गतिविधि हुने गरेकोबारे प्रधानमन्त्री सुशील कोइराला मोदीको शपथग्रहण समारोहमा दिल्ली गएका बखत २७ मे २०१४ का दिन साइडलाइनको भेटघाट क्रममा भारतीय प्रधानमन्त्री नरेन्द्र मोदीले ‘खुला सिमाना रहेका दुई मित्रवत् मुलुकले आपसी सुरक्षा चासोमा बढी ध्यान दिनुपर्छ’ भनेका थिए। यसैकारण दुई देशबीच हालै सम्पन्न परराष्ट्रमन्त्री स्तरीय संयन्त्रमा सीमा मामिलालाई प्राथमिकता दिइएको कुरा बुझ्न सकिन्छ।

Cartoon Gallery on border issues

     Cartoon Gallery on the border issues

I have borrowed the cartoons from various newspapers and magazines. I have added the headings and caption on the top and down sides of the cartoon. I have mentioned the source of the cartoons.

101The embrace of both the head of governments is warm. But it seems that the relation is rather cold on the border issue. During the sideline meeting in Colombo SAARC Conference on 26 July 1998, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala talked to the Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. After returning to Kathmandu, PM Koirala narrated to the Nepali media persons ‘I talked to the Indian PM that there are proofs of historical maps and document which tells ‘Kalapani belongs to Nepal.’ I cannot say that it was the positive achievement, but I guess Vajpayee understood well what I wanted to tell him.’ So the issue of Kalapani tends to reach at the prime ministerial level, but the issue comes down to the lowest level of administration without any decision.
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102

India is a good neighbour of Nepal, but it seems that intention is rather bad. Kalapani-Limpiyadhura of Darchula district has been encroached by India, just after the end of Indo-China border war of 1962. The Nepali territory is being occupied imprudently by India, who cares whatever the rest of the world says. The lean and thin prime minister of Nepal seems to be unoffending with the shameless counter-part.
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103People are sensitive on the Kalapani border issue. They go to the political leader asking for the solution of the problem. Nepali political leader is lethargic and his advisor is not well qualified. The advisor is presenting advice to the leader ‘Tell the people that India must go back from Kalapani, as we have proofs. Why do you get afraid ? Later on, we shall not produce documentary proof, when we talk with India.’
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104Susta of Nawalparasi district has been encroached by India since more than fifty years. But India is never realizing that Nepali territory has been encroached. Nepali people are astonished with the behaviour of the Indian authorities.
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105One political leader regards him superior to other leaders. They are fighting themselves each others. But India is encroaching Nepali territory, as a mouse excavates the soil and makes holes in so many places.
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106There is a good relation between Nepal and India. But India shows the utmost insanity. India is chasing the Nepali farmers of Susta as similar as the demented bull chases the down running deer.
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107

. Nepal land border is going to be turned into water boundary. Nepali frontier is getting inundated due to the construction of barrages, embankments and structures by India; just close to the borderline and No-man’s Land. The Masonry Junge Boundary Pillar is going to be submerged. We should not get the pillar tumbled down. If the Junge Pillar is intact, our descendants will protect our boundary.
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108

In connection to the writing of new constitution, Madhes based political parties are demanding one single Federal State for the whole of Tarai plain on the issue of State Restructuring and delineating various States in relation to Federalism. They are making slogan that if there is no ‘One Madhes’ there will be ‘No Nepal.’ General people are thinking, if one Madhes is formed, there is a possibility to form also ‘One Bhot Pradesh.’
◊ ◊ ◊

109

Our leaders are passive on the issue of Susta Encroachment by India. They think if they raise the voice of Susta issue with their counterparts, they will be tumble down from their post. So they don’t want to hear on the Susta issue.
◊ ◊ ◊

110New constitution writing elapsed four years without finalizing some of the issues raised in the Constitution Assembly Meetings. The issue of ‘One Madhesh One Federal State’ was one of them. The political parties could not reach into conclusion on this matter. And the Constitution Assembly was dissolved pre-maturely some hours before the completion of its time period.
◊ ◊ ◊

 

 

 

 

Masonry ( Junge ) Boundary Pillar

 

Issue of Junge pillar PP- 1 of Bhadrapur

     The Nepalese people believe that Junge pillars are the main boundary monuments erected on the boundary line between Nepal and India. But field level Indo-Nepal joint border survey team regarded the Junge as the reference pillar (RP) while they were working on the Mechi riverine sector during December 1995.

BP-1 PP Trijunction

      The team was demarcating the then course of the river Mechi with the help of a map of 1874 AD that bears the heading and internal details on Persian script. They started to erect new boundary pillars in the Bhadrapur area of Jhapa district ignoring the Junge pillars, the existing main BPs. By this action, the boundary line has been shifted towards Nepal nearly one kilometre west of Junge permanent pillar (as it is inscribed PP-1) and Nepalese territory has been encroached. As a result, half of the compound of Bhadrapur High School came under Indian territory. This caused much hue and cry not only among the local people of Bhadrapur but also other parts of Nepal including the capital city and it became the national issue in 1996. In the mean time Bhadrapur municipality issued a white paper highlighting the issue and problem. Ministers, political leaders, MPs, government officials, members of social organizations, research institutions and intellectual council visited the area. An advocate, Balkrishna Neupane filed a writ-petition in the Supreme Court on the Mechi border dispute.

 

     After all these activities, Chief District Officer of Jhapa made a public notification on 21 March 1998 that it will be examined by the Nepalese survey team at first and the matter will be put in the next joint meeting of Nepal-India survey team. At the joint meeting it was decided that the issue would be resolved in a spirit agreeable to both the sides after the joint field inspection. The joint survey team worked along the border of Jhapa district during field season of 1999-2000 as well, but the problem remained as it is. As a result, neither the status of masonry Junge permanent pillar (PP) nor newly erected subsidiary pillar has been determined. And this is the main issue concerning the status of Junge pillar.

 

Description of Junge pillar

      Junge pillars are the masonry pillars, the construction of which started was just after the Treaty of Sugauli-1816, with a view to demarcate the border between Nepal and India. It is regarded as the main boundary pillar with its shape and size. The dimension of Junge pillar is 2.2 metres in height and its diameter is 3 metres in round shape. Its foundation is 1 mtr deep under a rectangular platform of 2 mtr by 1 mtr. The pillar is constructed with bricks, mortar of brick-powder and limestone and glued materials. It is a pre-cast monument homogenously round in shape with its top round and smooth slope. A ditch normally 2.5 mtr deep and 1.5 mtr wide is dug around the pillar to protect it from man, animal and other objects. It is painted with lime water to be seen distinctly from far off distances. In the explanation index of the map entitled British Boundary on the Northern Frontier of Zillah of Poornneea in North Behar-AD 1818, the dimensions (shaft, decretion, foundation, width, depth etc.) of Junge pillar have been mentioned with a picturesque drawing. Close to this drawing a sentence “pillars of Masonry along the Boundary connection the Ditch at the angle” has been written. The people believe that Junge pillars are the historical monuments of the border between Nepal and India. These are the pre-cast pillars having its serial number inscribed on the upper portion, as the pillar PP-1 is located east of Bhadrapur, Jhapa district on the way to Galgalia railway station, India.

 16- Jhapa Junge Pillar- 2 copy

            Masonry (Junge) Pillar PP-1 of Bhadrapur works as the Tri-junction point of Bihar-West Bengal-Nepal Border. Unfortunately, India regards this Junge Pillar as a reference pillar, not the main boundary pillar. The debate between Nepal and India was raised till 2000. But this issue has been stranded.

 

            Recently, Special Security Bureau or Sashastra Sena Bal of India has occupied this Junge Pillar and they have constructed thatched house ignoring the area of No-man’s Land.


Updated Border Encroachment and Dispute of Nepal- 2013

Updated Border encroachment, conflict and dispute

   of  Nepal with two neighbouring countries- 2013

71 Border Encroachment- 2013

          There are 75 districts in Nepal. Among them 26 districts have been adjoined with the southern neighbour- India. Likewise, 15 districts have been bordered with the northern neighbour- China. Two districts are common to both neighbours.

            Length of the Nepal-India and Nepal-China borderline has been computed as 1,880 kilometres and 1,439.18 kilometres respectively.

            There are encroachments, disputes, conflicts, claims and counter-claims in 71 spots and its total area is 60,662 hectare of land in 23 districts along Nepal-India border. Most of these are related to cross-holding occupation by the people of the other frontier. Dhanusha, Baitadi and Dadeldhura are dispute free districts.

            Ten years ago, total number of such encroachments and disputes had been 53 spots and its area was 60,000 hectare in 21 districts. Now it shows that18 disputed spots have been increased with additional 662 hectare of land and 2 more districts within a period of last ten years.

            So far as the northern neighbour or China is concerned, two border issues have been emerged for the last six years. One of them is located at north of Lapchigaun in Lamabagar area of Dolakha district. There is a controversy on the location of Border Marker Number 57. Disputed area consists of 6 hectares of land.

            The second issue is the height of Sagarmatha (Mount Everest). China has proposed and forced to write the height as 8844.43 metre on the Nepal-China Strip-map. But Nepal is firm to mention the traditional height as 8848 metre. China has pressed to take the rock height of Quomulungma (Mount Everest). In contrary, Nepal has pleaded to take the snow height, as the snow height has been maintained for all the mountains of the world. So the issues have been entangled and stranded.

  The detail of the unresolved spots and pockets of Nepal-India and Nepal-China border have been tabulated as below:

 

Number

of disputes / encroach- ment

 

Name of

district

Municipality/

VDC- Ward Number

Spots of disputes, conflicts and encroachment

Area in hectare (approximately)

Encroached date (approx)

1

Darchula

Byas- 1 and 2

Kalapani-Limpiyadhura (encroached during India-China border war)*

37,000

November 1962

2

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality-9

Khalla Masita of western Brahmadevmandi and portion of Siddhanath temple×

15

1972

3

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality-10

West of Brahmadev Bazar (east of Tanakpur Barrage or area of submerged boundary pillar 2 and 3 and portion of Tanakpur afflux bund**

222

 December 1991

4

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality- 11

The land to be obtained on the exchange of land, given by Nepal to construct the Sharada Barrage*   

15

1928

5

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality- 11

Land from Banabasa embankment to the canal of Gadda Chauki×

30

1979

6

Kanchanpur

Rauteli Bichawa, Jhilimili

Various spots of Suklaphanta wildlife conservation area and near to missing  boundary pillar (BP) number 229*

330

2001

7

Kanchanpur

Rampur Bilaspur-1

Portion of Bhuda village, Patalchula Nala and portion of Pachue village×

14

1978

8

Kanchanpur

Laxmipu-5

30 meter wide strip, south of Fatiya Gaon, near to BP- 200**

3

2007

9

Kanchanpur

Tribhuvanbasti-4

Kankadi Tal area near to the origin of Suheli Nala (Brook) i.e. land of  Karna Bahadur Sunar, Nika Nepali and Man Bahadur Sunar**

2

2007

10

Kanchanpur

Parasan-7, 8, 9

Pyara Tal (Nala) area (individual and government land from southern portion of Pyara Tal to fallen BP-195 and 6.6 hectare land belonged by Bichfanta National Secondary School)**

980

1978, 2003, 2005 and 2006

11

Kailali

Fulbari-

Forest area cut by Indian (course changed by Mohana river area located south of Fulbari village)**

5

2000

12

Kailali

Lalbojhi-8

Kauwakheda area (land of 25 families including Pratap Singh Saud)*

212

2004

13

Kailali

Bhajani-9

Kusumghat area (land of 48 persons including Biru Bika)*

39

3 January 2005

14

Bardiya

Rajapur-

South of Rajapur settlement area near to the eastern branch of Karnali River*

10

21 august 2006

15

Bardiya

Bhimapur-

Disputed area regarding present and the then course of Nakuwa Nala (brook)×

10

1983

16

Bardiya

Khairi Chandanpur-

South of Khairi village located near to the bank of Geruwa River*

4

 

17

Bardiya

Gulariya Municipality- 4, 9, 10

Chaugurji area in between old BP- 63 and 64; and the land east of Thapuwa*

7

 

18

Bankay

Holiya- 8, 9

Holiya area, located west of River Rapti and the land located north-west of BP- 19**

42

2001

19

Bankay

Narainapur-

Kerbariya Nala area located south of Narayanpur and north-west of Ghordhoriya×

9

2006

20

Dang

Koilabas-2

Along the road from Koilabas Bazar to India and the land adjoined to BP- 39/600**

25

1983

21

Kapilbastu

Krishnanagar-

Krishnanagar Bazar in the northern portion of No-man’s land of BP- 67/1*

1

 

22

Rupandehi

Ajma-

Marchawar area (South of Ajma settlement and west of Dano River along BP- 30)*

50

1999

23

Rupandehi

Siddhartha Nagar Municipality-

Belhiya border crossing area (Indians have constructed huts and houses along 10 meter wide strip)*

5

 

24

Nawalparasi

Susta- 1 to 4 and 6 to 9

As the river Narayani changed its course towards Nepal frontier, Indians have encroached the river left over area*

14,500

1845, 1941, 1954, 1964, 1975, 1986 and 2008

25

Chitawan

Rastriya Nikunja-

East of Tribenighat and south of Balmiki Ashram that Indians cut the forest and encroached the land*

170

1979

26

Chitawan

Madi Kalyanpur-

Portion of Madichure along Dara Nala**

4

 

27

Parsa

Thori (Nayabasti)-

Thute Khola, Thute Khola, South-east of Thori Bazar and Thori River and the area where  BP- 64 was washed away by the river**

70

1995, 2010

28

Parsa

Janaki Tola-9

Western part of Dasauta village (from BP- 419/20 to 420/13)××

7

June 2009

29

Parsa

Mahadevpatti- 6

Laxmipur Pipra area (south of the road which leads to Jaya Mangalpur)×

135

July 2009

30

Parsa

Birganj Municipality-

East of Customs office near to Ahir Tola and BP- 390 along Sirsiya River*

10

 

31

Parsa

Birganj Municipality-19

Chamar Tola of Inarwa near Miteri bridge (old Junge Pillar 33 to 35 were not recognized as main boundary pillar)**

6

February 2002

32

Parsa

Birganj Municipality-6

Portion of the 27.71 Acres of land from Miteri Bridge to Prewo Tola, bought by Nepal Government Transport Corporation from India on 29 June 1924×

5

1990

33

Bara

Dakchhin Jhitkaiya-6, 8

West of Katihariya and Fulbariya and east of Pasaha River adjoined with No-man’s land of BP381/31**

30

2003

34

Rautahat

Jokaha-7

Southern portion of Jamuna Jayanagar village that Indians cut the forest trees×

15

 

35

Sarlahi

Tribhuvan Nagar-

Tribhuvan settlement area located east of Jhim River, 70 metre wide strip from BP- 25 to 35, 38 and 39**

4

 

36

Sarlahi

Narayanpur-

Portion of Sangrampur village located at west of Hardi River**

8

1980

37

Mahottari

Samsi-

Portion of Kanawa Haat Bazar area. located west of Samsi Bazar area and east of BP- 313/3**

5

 

38

Mahottari

Siswa Kataiya-

West of Siswa Katiya settlement (original BP- 11 shifted to 50 metre north)**

9

2001

39

Siraha

Madar-

Inarwa Tola of Madar and southern portion of Chandraganj (southern area of the road from Siraha Bazar to Indian frontier)×

7

 

40

Siraha

Inarwa-

Western portion of Thandi and Bhati Balan River (land along the road from Thandi village to India)×

4

 

41

Saptari

Deuri-

Suwarnapatti area ( 50 meter wide strip along the river Kharag, shifting the pillar to Nepal side)×

40

 

42

Saptari

Baniyani-

Bardahi village area, near to Bhutahidhar river**

14

 

43

Saptari

Chhinnamasta-3

Near to Balarampur, south of Sakhada Bhagawati temple*

10

 

44

Saptari

Lalapatti-

Govindapur area (shifted Junge BP 60 to 100 metre towards Nepal*

33

 

45

Saptari

Tilathi-

Kunauli area Nepal’s government fallow land along the road from Kunauli to Nirmali Railway Station (demolished BP- 223/13)*

40

 

46

Saptari

Gobargadha-

Various spots from Bishnupur to Shivanagar area**

8

 

47

Saptari

Gobargadha-

Southern area of Gobargadha (west of River Koshi and south of Gobargadha)*

30

 

48

Sunsari

Hariharpur-9

Bhantabari-Kataiya ( 500 metre east of Koshi Barrage and south of East-West Highway, where there was a border wooden gate previously)**

15

1982

49

Sunsari

Kaptanganj-

Portion of Shivaganj and Pakariya×

8

 

50

Sunsari

Sahebganj-

South of Sahebganj habitation and west of Katlaha River×

20

 

51

Morang

Biratnagar Sub-metropolitan City- 20

Part of Budhnagar, near to industrial area of Rani Jogbani border*

7

March 1999

52

Morang

Rangeli-

Wouka and Chopraha inhabitation near to the road to India from Rangeli Bazar×

 

13

 

53

Morang

Bardanga-

Part of Doriya located at east of Sonapur settlement and east of Bakraha (Luna) River*

15

 

54

Jhapa

Korobari-2, 4

Cultivated land of 33 families of Korobari area, shifting BP-140*

41

 

55

Jhapa

Pathamari-

Near to Pathamari village located west of River Mechi (Sub-Customs Office and some cultivated land)*

10

 

56

Jhapa

Maheshpur-2

Encroached east of Dol Gaun and India planned Indira Housing Project*

10

March 2000

57

Jhapa

Bhadrapur Municipality-

Eastern portion of Bhadrapur School playground that leads to Galgaliya railway station of India (degraded the status of Junge main boundary pillar PP-1 to reference pillar)**

27

1994

58

Jhapa

Jyamirgadhi- 1, 2

Kalikhajar area, lands of Jetha Rai, Pradip Karki, Ishwsori Rai have been encroached+

10

12 November 2011

59

Jhapa

Mechinagar Municipality-11

Bhansa Khola (Upreti village) at Kankarbhitta area, located at the western bank of River Mechi and encroached 67 metre span of Mechi Bridge*

41

December 2006

60

Jhapa

Mechinagar Municipality-

Nakalbanda area consisting of Madanjot and Warisjot, shifting the BP-46 to Nepal side×

15

 

61

Jhapa

Bahundangi-

Patapur of Tiring located north of Bahundangi habitation**

20

1940

62

Ilam

Shree Antu-8

Gufapatal area encroached by Indian Forest Office and Chhabbise area encroached by Jawahar Nawodaya School of India**

9

1981

63

Ilam

Pashupatinagar-4, 5, 9

Phatak area encroached by Indian Customs and Police Post building; and 240 sq mtr vacant land. SSB 29th Battalion encroached Hile Penal area and Pul Khola area.  India constructed graveyard and Buddhist Monastery near Simana Bazar of Nepal. Indians encroached Panch Mile area and also six homes of Nepali at Hile Bhajyang, including government Sub-Customs Office**

15

2004, 2008 and 2010

64

Ilam

Gorkhe-9

Manebhanjyang Simana Bazar area and foot trail- road of Gairibas area**

4

2005

65

Ilam

Maimajuwa-

Sandakpur hill top and 12 kilometre strip of Meghma-Tumling-Kalpokhari area**

54

 

66

Panchthar

Prangbung- 6

Portion of Aahal Gairi area and Aahale Bhanjyang**

14

2006

67

Panchthar

Chyangthapu-

Chiya Bhanjyang Singhalila range to Kabru and Talung. (Border line shifted to western side, ignoring the highest watershed, from Phalut to Kabru and Talung)×

4,100

2003, 2004

68

Taplejung

Timbuk Pokhari-

Eastern hill of Timbuk Pokhari that encroached the watershed area by constructing Singhalila Park*

400

 

69

Taplejung

Kalikhola-

Eastern portion of the origin of  river Kabeli Khola and Lamay Khola×

800

 

70

Taplejung

Yamphudin-

Eastern portion of Kabru area, taking the border as the lower watershed range×

600

 

71

Taplejung

Lelep

Part of Tumling habitation (the area east of Lelep and Yamphudin Village Development Committees××

220

 

A

Dolakha

Lamabagar

North of Lapchigaun, controversy on the location of Border Marker Number 57 with China.

6

February 2007

B

Solukhumbu

Sagarmatha

Controversy on the height of Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) with China. China proposed its height as 8844.43 metre but Nepal is firm on the traditional height as 8848 metre.++

Height conflict

February 2007

*    Survey Department (21 April 2009), Brief Account on Nepal-India and Nepal-China Boundary

      Surveying-Mapping (Briefing to IRHR Committee members), Kathmandu

◊    wikipedia.org/wiki/kalapani/susta

**  Study Tour Report on Nepal-India Border Issues, (Vol. I-IV, April-May-July-August 2010),

      Constitution Assembly, International Relations and Human Rights Committee, Kathmandu.

×      Dr. Shastra Dutta Pant (2006) Nepal-India Border Problems, Kathmandu, pp 36, 45, 51.

××   Chetendra Jung Himali (2002) Mahakaliwari Mahakalipari (Nepali), Kathmandu, pp 65-66.

+    Republica Daily, 14 November 2011. 

++  Republica Daily, 10 April 2010.

   Kantipur Daily, 31 August 2009.

                                                     ♣

Book Review: Sima Sangram (Border War)

Book Review : Sima Sangram (Border War)

Authored By:

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Reviewed By:

Senior Advocate Laxmi Prasad Upreti

Review- Sima Sangram

 

Border War

Book on

                   Sima Sangram (Border War)

Launched

Front Cover Final

00

A book entitled ‘Sima Sangram (Border War)’ written by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha and published by Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd was launched amidst a colourful program on 1 April 2013. The book was released jointly by the Renowned Culture Expert and three times Madan Prize Winner Satya Mohan Joshi, Chairperson of Avenues Television  Bhaskar Raj Rajkarnikar and Editor-in-Chief of Kantipur Daily Sudheer Sharma.

2

3

During the book release program, the writer of the book Buddhi Narayan Shrestha said that the commentators will speak later the strength and weakness of the book; and what topics have been included and what are the lacking and short comings in the book. However, I would like to say something on the reasons of writing this book.

4

Many of my friends and well wishers used to enquire me that the northern neighbour of Nepal, that is China also might have encroached the Nepali territory. Why don’t you write it ? Secondly, as everybody knows that India, the southern neighbour has encroached the territory since long. Whether the encroachments have been stopped or resolved or increased in the current period. They were asking me to write and renew the position of our border business activities. So I have written this book with the title as ‘Sima Sangram (Border War)’ to pacify the inquisitiveness of my friends, colleagues and Nepali civic society.

Now let me first tell you on the border business of Nepal with China. After the boundary agreement in 1960 and boundary treaty in 1961, border demarcation was made during 1961-62. During the joint demarcation, there were claims, counter-claims, conflicts and disputes on 32 spots including the Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world. But it was settled amicably with a view of friendliness, brotherhood, equality, mutual respect, spirit of Panchasheel; and Nepal and China have the equal rights in the international arena, no matter the country has small or large territorial area and more or less population. It is commendable that all the controversies and disputes were settled for ever in the technical level. But the issue of Mount Everest was settled in the Prime Minister level. During the visit of Chinese Prime Minister Chou-en-Lai to Nepal, it was settled on 28 April 1960. In a press conference in Singha Darbar Gallery Baithak, the Chinese Prime Minister told that ‘we had some conflict on the issue of Mount Everest. On this issue we studied the hand made paper map and documents provided by the Prime Minister of Nepal Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala in the technical, administrative, political and diplomatic level; and the government of China came into conclusion and made decision that ‘Mount Everest belongs to Nepal.’ So all the demarcation work was completed in less than two years period.

However, some of the Nepali settlements like Chyanga and Lungdep of Kimathanka VDC of Sankhuwasabha district and some grazing lands for example of Humla and Dolakha districts were demarcated on the Chinese side. It may be due to the ignorance or slackness of Nepali team members, not paying attention to the problem. On the other side of the coin, some Chinese territory was demarcated belonging to the Nepali side. But most of these areas were snow covered steep and rocky area. Whatever it may be, it was all settled for all and there is no issue on it.

5

Currently, there are two issues between Nepal and China. The first is the border marker number 57 of Lapchigaun of Lamabagar area of Dolakha district. There is a claim and counter-claim on six hectares of barren land. The Nepali team says that the border marker was established in the wrong place in the Nepalese frontier. The Chinese team responded that it was monumented during 1961-62 demarcation period. So there is no point to remove the marker and establish on the Chinese frontier.

The other issue is the height of Mount Everest. The Chinese team pleaded that the height of the Everest must be taken as 8844.57 meter and this height should be written on  the Nepal-China strip-map. They have argued that China re-measured the height of Everest (Quolongma) and it is taken to the rock height.

The Nepali side responded that there is no point to reduce the height of Everest (Sagarmatha), short by 3.43 meter. Various countries of the world have regarded the height of Everest as 8,848 m. It should be taken the snow height. Nepali side is pleading that if we take the rock height of Everest, then we must take the rock height of other mountains as well; like Lhotse, Manasula, Kanchanjungha etc. Mount Godwin Austin or Mount K-2, the second highest mountain in the world of Pakistan has been measured with snow height. Taken into consideration to all these references, there is no point to reduce the height of Everest. And the issues have been stranded for the last six years between Nepal and China. Whatever it may be, the issue should be resolved talking with each other in a cordial manner.

Regarding the border issues with the southern neighbour, there were encroachments, disputes, conflicts, claims and counter-claims on 53 spots, a decade ago. Now the number of disputed spots have been increased to 71 places. Ten years ago, the total area of conflicts was 60,000 hectares of land in 21 Nepali districts; and now it has reached to 23 districts as 60,662 hectares. In such a way the disputed area, number of spots and number of districts have been increased by 662 hectares, 18 spots and 2 districts respectively within a period of ten years. I have mentioned the sources from various information of the government offices, Constitutional Assembly Committees and independent researchers.

The book has been targeted mainly to the readers who have interest on the national boundary issues. Similarly, this book will be useful for the College and University students who have been engaged on research, study and thesis writing on the boundaries. It is also worth reading for those who are interested on the Himal of Nepal, mountain passes and border crossing-points of Nepal with the neighbouring countries.

Besides, security concern agencies, especially the border security force and other organizations such as Armed Police Force, Nepal Police, Nepal army, local administration and Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs could use this book as basic source of information and knowledge on the boundary of Nepal with India and China. Similarly, the book will be helpful for the Survey Officers who are engaged on the border demarcation business. This book can be utilized by the surveyors during the preparation of Public Service Commission Examination for service entry and competitive post promotion.

Nepali youths have to become aware of the shrinking of Nepali territory, whether it might have been pushed from the Chinese side or Indian side. National boundary is the integrity of the country. If the boundary shrinks or encroachment continues, it may ultimately challenge to the existence of the nation. It is the responsibility of the government, general public and more so the youths to secure the Nepali territory intact.

In the book release function, Culture Expert and three times Madan Prize Winner Satya Mohan Joshi highlighted on national boundary issues and mentioned tendency of the Nepali political leaders. Joshi said, he is very much obliged to the publisher and writer of the book in writing and publishing such a nationalistic book. He further said, there is no understanding of the border issues in the present political leadership. This book of Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is an important document of border consciousness. As the chief guest of the program, Joshi urged the government has to safeguard Nepali territory from the Indian clutches. He appealed that the time has come for our youths to play the role as the protector not to let shrinking Nepali territories.

13

Culture Expert Satya Mohan Joshi further said, Junga Bahadur Rana was the most far-sighted in view of the protection and preservation of national boundary of Nepal. J B Rana has done a very commendable job retrieving back the lost territory of the districts of Banke, Bardiya, Kailali and Kanchanpur from the British East India Company. It is worth mentioning that he did not accept the new territory of four districts unless it was demarcated by Masonry (Junge) Pillars with ten yard strip No-man’s land on both the sides.

In comparison to Junga Bahadur Rana, the then King Mahendra was not far-sighted on the border issue. While returning from China visit, the King directly went to Tundikhel KhariKo Bot (Parade Ground Khari Tree) and the King said, ‘it is a matter of happiness that half of Sagarmatha (Everest) is ours and the remaining half belongs to China.’ The King had said that the peak of Sagarmatha is ‘half and half.’ In this aspect Satya Mohan Joshi said, the King is not nationalistic. He should bring the peak of Everest to our side.

He recalled that the United Nations Population Division had invited to the then government of Nepal to enumerate the population of Nepal in connection to establish the census data- how much is the world population ? Since the population of even small countries like Nepal would not have been included in the world census, the global population census statistic would not be completed. He mentioned that Thir Bahadur Rayamajhi, Nara Kanta Adhikari, Keshar Bahadur Karmacharya, Hridaya Nath and Satya Mohan Joshi (he himself) were included in the census enumeration team of Nepal. We had participated as Officer Level personnel from Census Department of Nepal. An international training center was established in New Delhi to impart training for the uniformity in all the countries.

9

At first, population data of eastern Nepal was taken in 1952 and western Nepal was covered in1953. At that time census population was enumerated in a symbolic method. During that period the inhabitants of hilly and mountainous region like Kalapani was counted in a rough estimate. Now Kalapani area has been encroached by the neighbour. Their eyes have been rooted in Kalapani. Our political leaders are sleeping. It is a gesticulation that Nepali territory has been encroached. But we are silent and mum.

At the end of his talk Satya Mohan Joshi said, whatever it may be- this book Sima Sangram (Border War) has brought us border awareness. This writer of the book has worked as a ‘Border Watch Dog.’ If Buddhi Narayan Shrestha stops barking on the border issues, Nepal will sink. Boundary is very important for the sovereignty of nation. National boundary must be protected by us, the Nepali people. We should work as Army men for the protection and preservation of our boundaries.

As a co-launcher of the book, Chairman of the Avenues Television Bhaskar Raj Rajkarnikar made public that various challenges and criticism have to be born while televising and raising the border issues of Nepal through the electronic media. Buddhi Narayan Shrestha’s written achievement as book has inspired us to work and go further ahead in the border related aspect. Rajkarnikar opined that he is pretty sure that the present book ‘Sima Sangram’ will help to let understand the border issues to the Nepali people and to carry on study and analysis by the researchers.

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This book will be useful to the electronic media to expose and solve the border issues of Nepal. At the same time the present book has created a wave on the border matter. Everybody must understand that boundary is an integral part of the nation. For this purpose, Avenues Television has utilized the experience and knowledge of Buddhi Narayan Shrestha on the matter of border business and we have provided information to the Nepali people through him.

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Sometimes there are complaints from the so called friends, while Avenues Television raises the border problems. They say, why you have raised the question of borders and frontiers ? In response, we use to make a counter question- ‘While we televise the actual situation of our border, why you feel your border uncomfortable ?’

Another co-launcher of the book Sudheer Sharma, Editor-in-Chief of Kantipur Daily expressed that the book is an energetic source of information even for the journalism.

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He praised Buddhi Narayan Shrestha for his comprehensive effort to review Nepal’s border issues. Shrestha’s articles and write-ups with the related reference, data, date and actual incidents  are clear in language, straight forward in subject matter and easy to read. So we heartily publish his articles in our Kantipur Daily. This is the reason we have given him space in our daily newspaper. With the eyes of journalists, we can regard Buddhi Narayan Shrestha as the ‘Watchman of the national boundary of Nepal.’ His work is incomparable, so we must be grateful to him.

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As Sudheer Sharma recalled his memory of ten years ago while going for reporting on the Kalapani border encroachment area he said, border encroachment issue will not get substantive decision until and unless the state leadership is active. We are entangled into the internal boundaries, like the boundary of Federal States; by which the state agency who looks after our international boundary is ‘disabled and defunct.’

As a commentator on the book, Former Ambassador Hiranya Lal Shrestha expressed his comment that the first and foremost work to protect the national boundary of Nepal should belong to Nepali Army man. He opined that the former Maoist rebellions who have been engrossed in the Nepali Army contingent should have been deputed for the security of national boundary. Army should be involved in the Joint Boundary Committee. As it is known that Military Officers usually keep account about border security.

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He pointed out with a sharp criticism to the political leaders of Nepal that our leaders are mum even while the national boundary has been encroached and violated by the neighbours. He made a point that Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is the true border ‘Watchman’ without government uniform. He has been monitoring the border for its protection. He is a patriotic intellect to save the border. His present book has the holistic comparative study of the border problems.

We should formulate integrated border development program in the border areas. We should develop border towns and Ex-Army men should be inhabited in the frontier area. Frontiers on both the sides must be peaceful, stable, crimeless and free from terror to march ahead for prosperity. We should be careful against disintegration. We must be vigilant and self respectful for the security of our national border.

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Political leaders do not have time to look after the national border. But Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is the vigilant and fore runner on the border matter to create awareness to the civic society. His book ‘Sima Sangram’ is a lively document of border awareness. The speed with which Indian aggression is continuing, a day will soon come the Indian aggression will arrive at Singha Darbar, if the leaders are mum and apathetic.

Open border between Nepal and India has been misused. There are smugglings of goods and materials through the open border. So the border should be regulated and fenced for the betterment of both the countries.

The other commentator Prof. Dr. Surendra KC of Tribhuvan University History Department said, large country like India has encroached the territory of small country like Nepal. If there are open and unrestricted movement, privileges and trans-migration of these days; there will be a remarkable short fall in Nepal’s population.

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Expressing his worriness Prof, KC opined that there will be an alarm of Nepal nationalism due to the free and open movement of the people through the international boundary. He further said, 95 percent of the border demarcation between Nepal and India has been completed. The remaining 5 percent on the various spots of the border has alarming questions. Our border on various spots have been encroached. It is a question mark that what is the expectation of the neighbour ?

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Prof. KC said, Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is vigilant on border activities. Shrestha is worried about the border encroachments. He keeps information where there are border issues. Wisdom and specialities are the great elements. For this we have to congratulate Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. With him, we have to be updated ourselves on the condition of our frontier and the tendency of border encroachment. Actually, History Department of the Tribhuvan University should take up these matters. But the department is reluctant.

In the beginning of the program, Chairman of the publisher of the book or Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd Arjun Kumar KC welcomed all the guests and dignitaries who were present in the book release function, on behalf of book publishing company and his own.

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He said, we have published the book ‘Sima Sangram’ written by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. We are proud of him. He believed us and we published his book. This book has full of national sentiment to create the awareness on the current situation of boundary and border issues of Nepal with the neighbouring countries.

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At the end of the program, as the Chairman of the function and Managing Director of Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd Mohan KC said, we are the business men and intend to earn some money by publishing the books. This is the general nature of the book publishers as business men. We are aware of the professional ethics and responsibility. But we are committed to the nationalism and national integrity rather than to earn something. So we publish the books which have national feeling and sense of sovereignty and integrity of the nation.

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With this perspective, we have published the book ‘Sima Sangram (Border War)’ authored by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. We are happy for this publication. We don’t mind if we don’t get anything from this publication. But we think it will help to preserve and protect the national boundary of Nepal. This is great for us.

If the intellect persons write on the national issues in any theme, we print and publish it for the sake of nation. We believe that we have to provide national and sovereign feeling as an education for the future generation.

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The publisher of the book further said, British authors had written and put down on the paper whatever the subject matters they liked, concerning our nation as well. And we have obtained that as for our reading materials and we have gained some knowledge. Now, we the Nepalese must write ourselves in any of the subject matters about us and our nation, as it may be the history. That should be truthful and based on reality and it will provide a clear picture for the future generation. In this context, we are happy to publish the book authored by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. We call the other intellectuals and researchers to write books on nationalism for the development of our nation. We are committed to publish that sort of composition.

Master of Ceremony of the program (MC) Thakur Belbase, senior Journalist of Image FM 103.6 Radio said, the book ‘Sima Sangram’ is published by the Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd. The price of the book is Rs. 300. But right now it is available at the cost of Rs. 200 only for the respectable guests and audiences of this program.

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At the dead end of the program, traditional snacks were served with pop corn, onion Pakora, rosted potato with pickle. The venue and snacks were provided complementary (free of cost) at Bhojan Griha by the owner Bharat Basnet. He is the Chair person of Explorer Group Nepal. The organizer and Buddhi Narayan Shrestha thanked Basnet for his generosity. Everybody knows Basnet that he has a Movement of Nationality and he is the main activist of ‘Prithvi Narayan Shah the Great, who started to unify Nepal.’ Prithvi Narayan Shah formally established Nepal as a Himalayan State and thus Nepal was born on 17 November 1769.

Prithvi Narayan Shah

The book launching program was attended by more than 250 invitees and guests, various facets of the society consisting from ordinary people to the former Minister, retired Commissioners, former Ambassadors, University teachers. human right activists, former Army men, Armed Police Force, renowned musicians, senior Journalists, Chair persons of various organizations and institutions. Some of the representative participants were as followings :

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Former Minister Marshal Julum Shakya, Former Chief Election Commissioner Bhoj Raj Pokhrel, Former Chief Commissioner of Commission for investigation of Abuse of Authority Surya Nath Upadhyaya, Former Secretary of Ministry of  Home Affairs Chandi Prasad Shrestha,  Former IGP of Armed Police Force Sanat Kumar Basnet, Former Army Major Kuber Shrestha, Former SP Dr. Chuda Bahadur Shrestha, Former Rector of Tribhuvan University Dr. Surya Lal Amatya, Former Ambassadors Dr. Mohan Prasad Lohani, Pushkar Man Sing Rajbhandari, Dr. Bishnu Hari Nepal, Former Consulate General Tamla Ukyab, University Professors/Teachers Prof. Dr. Rama Basyal, Prof Dr. Gopal Pokharel, Dr. Raj Kumar Pokhrel, Dr. Ramesh Dhungel, Prof. Dr. Uma Kanta Silwal, Dr. Hari Prasad Shrestha, Human Rights Activist Dr. Ram Dayal Rakesh, Former SOS Director D B Thapa, Former Survey Director General Toya Nath Baral, Former Chairman of Nepal Bar Association Biswo Kanta Mainali, Senior Lawyer Sindhu Natha Pyakurel, Past President of Nepal Mountaineering Association Aang Tshering Sherpa, Energy Activist Ratna Sansar Shrestha, Former Chairman of Nepal Airline Engineer Sugat Ratna Kansakar, Former Director of Nepal Airline P N Vaidya, Former Registrar of Supreme Court Shree Prasad Pandit, Greater Nepal Activist and Film Director Manoj Pandit, Senior Journalist Bhairab Risal, Capital FM 94.3 Radio Director and Journalist Byakul Pathak, Renowned Musician and Folk Song Singer Raamesh Shrestha, Chief Tax officer Bala Ram Sapkota, President of Border Concern Civic Society Chetendra Jung Himali, President of China Study Center Madan Regmi, President of JICA Alumni Association of Nepal Engineer Dilli Ratna Shakya, President of Nepal Council of World Affairs Tika Jung Thapa, ICCN Chairperson Dr. Anjan Shakya, Travelogue Writer Prateek Dhakal and so many other dignitaries and high ranking persons.

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(Collected from Kantiur Daily, Kathmandu Post Daily, Gorkhapatra Daily, Annapurna Post Daily, Weeky Telegraph, Video, Avenues Television, News24 Television, Image Channel Television etc.)           

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