China-India Doklam Dispute

Thursday Talk

Doklam dispute should make us serious about

protecting our land at tri-junctions


July 20, 2017 15:30 PM Mahabir Paudyal

Buddhinarayan Shrestha. Photo: Bijay Gajmer/Republica/Nagarik

Cartographer and scholar on border issues Buddhi Narayan Shrestha brings with him 27 years of experience working in the government’s Department of Survey and 21 years of experience in private land-surveying. Republica’s Mahabir Paudyal caught up with the veteran expert on Nepal’s borders to get his views on the current standoff over Doklam tri-junction between India, China and Bhutan. Are there similar tri-junctions between India, China and Nepal? If yes, how can Nepal forestall a Doklam-like situation?

How do you as a border expert see the current standoff between India and China over Doklam? 

The conflict surfaced after China started building a road connecting Yadong with Sigatse, both in Tibet. India reacted, saying that the road passed through Bhutanese territory and sent its troops to stop construction. China retaliated by saying that since it was constructing road within its own territory, there was no need for India to be concerned. This led to a war of words between India and China. Chinese troops then entered the scene and destroyed two Indian bunkers. While this is one cause of China-India standoff, it also is related with impending boundary issues between China and Bhutan. The conflict is concentrated 20 kilometer northeast of the tri-junction between India, Bhutan and China.

In your view who is in the wrong, India or China? 

The answer is obvious. India thinks of Bhutan as its protectorate. India looks after defense and foreign affairs of Bhutan. Since the issue is related with border and thereby border security, India intervened. But in the event of a dispute, it should have been between Bhutanese and Chinese troops. Interestingly, however, both Indian and Chinese troops have refrained from using arms. They do not use even hands to ward off each other. They push away opponent soldiers using their chests. This conflict is thus unlikely to escalate into an armed war. This looks more like a prestige issue for both India and China. India wants to prove to the world that it is superior to China. And China wants to show that it is second only to the US in terms of economic, military and political powers.

Could you tell us a little bit about the Doklam region and why it is a contested area?

The Anglo-China Convention of 1890 had agreed to follow the ‘watershed principle’ while demarcating the boundary between Bhutan and China. They agreed to make the highest line of the mountains boundary markers. Borders were demarcated based on this convention in 1895 and a 220 kilometer-long-boundary line was drawn. But later disputes emerged over this territory. Then in 1998 Bhutan and China signed an agreement whereby the two countries agreed to maintain the status quo. China is building road over the land the two countries had agreed to leave as status quo. India claims that even that ‘status quo’ land belongs to Bhutan and China has no business occupying Bhutanese land. China is now building road on no-man’s land within Chinese territory of Doklam region. Bhutan has reacted to Indo-China conflict most diplomatically, saying that the areas agreed to as status quo should remain status quo. Indirectly, Bhutan seems to be telling China: let us not fight over this issue.

But what does international law say? 

Laws and principles on international borders are based on whether the countries to border dispute have border treaty and whether they have abided by provisions of those treaties. In terms of the border disputes between Bhutan and China, there have been two agreements, one in 1892 and another in 1998. The dispute now is not over whether China has built roads in Bhutanese territory but why did it build on no man’s land.
Indian stand on this issue would perhaps be justified if it also refrained from building roads on no man’s land. India itself has built a road along its no man’s with Nepal, on the stretch between Ilam district’s Mane Bhanjyang and Pashupati Nagar. The road passes close to Junge pillars. So what India opposes in Doklam, it has been doing vis-à-vis Nepal. Nepal can raise this issue with India by citing international laws on borders.
What is the significance of ‘no man’s land’ in international borders?
According to principles of international borders, no man’s land does not fall under sovereignty of either bordering country. It is a sensitive space, so much so that if a person makes it a hideout after committing a serious crime in one country, security forces of that country cannot take him under control. If they do, it will contravene international principles. The idea is when a person from one country commits a crime and hides in no-man’s land, he won’t be able to survive there for long and he will enter the territory of either country, in which case he will be apprehended.

Do we in Nepal have a sensitive tri-junction point like Doklam? 

We have two such tri-junctions in Nepal. One lies in Kalapani-Limpiyadhura-Lipu Lekh area, which we have already lost. India and China fought a war in 1962 after a dispute erupted when India asked China to honor the McMahon line drawn by Sir Henry McMahon in 1914. Neither Tibet nor China had agreed to this line because they said it had been drawn ‘arbitrarily’ by British India. When Tibet became part of China, China raised this issue with India many times. India insisted that China should follow McMahon line and China rejected the proposition outright. The dispute escalated into a full-fledged war in 1962 and Chinese troops pushed Indian troops far beyond the McMahon line. The Chinese advanced up to the area which they considered Chinese territories and stopped there. Indian troops then started looking for a safe spot to check possible Chinese incursions in the future. They found this spot in Kalapani, where they set up a camp and where they are based even today. We lost this tri-junction to India because of war between India and China. This is one glaring example of how Nepal suffers when India and China fight.

Another such tri-junction lies in Jhinsang Chuli of Taplejung district. Nepal, India and China meet in this strategic point. So there should be a tri-junction marker there. But there isn’t. This is because when China-Nepal borders were being settled in 1961/62, border boundary pillar number 79 was erected 14 kilometers from the tri-junction point, inside Nepali territory.

All three countries which share tri-junction should agree to demarcate the tri-junction point. Nepal had written to India to send its representative for this purpose but India refused perhaps because it had only just emerged from the war with China. The tri-junction point could not be demarcated in Kalapani-Lipu Lekh either because of the same reason.

Could we also lose Jhinsang Chuli tri-junction just like we lost Lipu Lekh?

Perhaps. Jhinsang Chuli is just 150 kilometers west (sky distance) from Doklam. Since there is  no tri-junction pillar and since our border pillar (79) has been erected 14 kilometers west from the border, if one day India and China agree on some infrastructure project there, we might lose this part of our territory as well. So, yes, we might lose Jhinsang Chuli the way we lost Lipu Lekh.

Lipu Lekh is sensitive in terms of security, trade and transit but Jhinsang Chuli is not such a sensitive strategic point as it’s a snowy region. But so was Doklam. It is a ridgeline, not a transit point, nor is there human habitation. Who would have thought Doklam could be a bone of contention? We cannot rule out the possibility of tri-junction trouble in Jhinsang Chuli as well. What has happened in Doklam today could happen in Jhinsang Chuli of Taplejung.

Tension may arise between India and China over Lipu Lekh as well because this is also a tri-junction. What if Chinese troops come to Lipu Lekh from Taklakot and Indian troops of Kalapani proceed to Lipu Lekh. The ensuing battle could displace the remaining Nepali people living around Kalapani. Doklam dispute should make us serious
about protecting our land at tri-junctions.

You talked about Nepal’s raw deal on Kalapani. Nepal had removed Indian military missions from its northern areas in the late 1960s. So why couldn’t we also remove Indian military from Kalapani?

There were 18 Indian check posts, including in Humla, Gorkha, Solukhumbu, Taplejung and many other northern border points. These check posts were set up while Matrika Prasad Koirala was the prime minister in 1953. It was only in 1968, when Kirti Nidhi Bista became the prime minister, that these check posts were removed. There are conflicting accounts of why Nepal did not remove Indian troops from Kalapani.

It was reported in one weekly that Rishikesh Shah, who was foreign minister at the time, asked King Mahendra why Nepal had not removed Indian troops from Kalapani. The king was reported as saying: ‘Let them be, I have offended India enough’. After around three weeks of this report, Sailendra Kumar Upadhyay denied that the king said anything of the kind. He rubbished Rishikesh Shah’s statement. So why Nepal could not remove Indian troops from Kalapani in the 1960s remains a mystery.

We have longstanding border disputes with India. Why have those disputes not been resolved?

There have been prolonged border disputes over Kalapani and Susta. In Kalapani (Limpiyadhura, Kalapnai, Lipulekh), 370 square kilometers of land are disputed. In Susta, 145 square kilometers are in dispute. These are the two biggest disputes. The disputes have lingered because India does not agree to the border maps presented by Nepal. And India often presents a map that is unacceptable to Nepal. Nepal says the 1853 border strip map, which shows Kalapani area within Nepal, should be considered authentic. But these are the territories India is occupying and so it refuses to recognize even the authentic map. India once brought up a map from 1857 which shows Kalapani, Lipu Lekh and Limpiyadhura as falling within India. Nepal cannot agree to this. This is why disputes remain.

From what you said, Nepal has been steadily losing its territories, from Kalapani to Susta. What can we do to secure our lands from foreign encroachment?

We don’t take border encroachment seriously. But it’s a grave issue. If, say, a square kilometer of our land has been encroached, people living there are either displaced or become foreigners in their own land. They lose their habitat as well as their Nepali identity. When India occupied Kalapani, Nepalis living in villages like Nabahi, Dang, Gunji, Tulsi Nyurang and Kuti were displaced. They were forced to leave behind their lands and homes.

Every inch of our territory is important. If slowly more and more areas of Nepal are encroached, great many Nepalis will be foreigners in their own land. Nepal’s size will shrink and its very existence may come under threat. This is why Nepal should take its borders seriously. The joint technical team of India and Nepal should sit together and set up all the proposed 8,553 border pillars. So far only 4,200 pillars have been erected. Of these around 1,700 pillars have either been flattened, buried or even uprooted. In some places there are no border pillars at all. When there are no border pillars, our land becomes highly susceptible to encroachment. So the first thing Nepal should do is to set up those pillars in consultations with India. Of 147,181 square kilometers of Nepali lands, 606 square kilometers are either disputed, or encroached upon or already lost. Nepal must flex its diplomatic muscles to bring them back. Besides, we need to make proper arrangements for border security. India has deployed 45,000 border security personnel along the border with Nepal. But Nepal only has 5,600 Armed Police Force personnel patrolling border areas. This shows how we take border security for granted.

Protecting its territory has been one key challenge for Nepali state historically. How should Nepal go ahead in the days to come?

We need to learn from history. We have lost our lands both when India and China are on friendly terms and when they are in discord. When India and China fought in 1962 we were shortchanged over Kalapani. When they stood together in 2015, they bypassed Nepal while signing the Lipu Lekh deal. When they were on good terms India recognized Tibet as Chinese territory and China recognized Sikkim’s merger into India. Now that they are not on good terms they are fighting over territory that does not even belong to either of them.

This is why Nepal must deal with India and China extremely carefully. This is the right time for Nepal to put these concerns to China. The Chinese are very happy to make Nepal a part of the OBOR framework. Nepal should now ask China to extend the rail network to Kathmandu, Pokhara and Lumbini. It should ask China to immediately open Tatopani border. It should also ask China to open the border points in Korala, Hilsa, Kimathanka and Olanghcungola so as to facilitate trade between the two countries.

But on Doklam, Nepal should stay neutral. We need to learn from Nepal’s handling of the issue in 1962. Nepal had supported neither India nor China. Nor had it opposed any one. Nepal should do the same now.

Republica Daily


Nepal-India Open Border


Nepal-India Open Border:

Challenges to Peace and Security


Buddhi Narayan Shrestha




The border between Nepal and India is open for centuries. It is going on traditionally and culturally.  However, the border has been misused by unwanted elements. It has affected the peace and security of the inhabitants of both the frontiers. Due to illegal cross-border activities, human rights to live and to perform business have been violated.



In fact, open border has both opportunities and challenges. Opportunities of the open border have been regarded as convenience in movement across the international border without any hassle. There have been facilities of quick response during hazard, natural calamities and social activities.


On the other side of the same coin, there are many challenges of the open border regime to maintain peace and security and protection of human rights on both frontiers. Some of these are human trafficking, cross-border terrorism and criminal activities, trafficking of narcotic drugs, smuggling of goods and machinery, illegal transaction of small arms and gun-powder, trans-border theft, robbery through the open border.



Abdul Karim Tunda, one of India’s most wanted top twenty Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorists was arrested on August 16, 2013. Yasin Bhatkal, co-founder of the Indian Mujahideen, a militant group banned in India, and one of India’s most wanted terrorism suspect was arrested by Nepal police near India’s border on August 28, 2013; and they were handed over to India unofficially.


Indian criminal Bablu Dubey, who did 36 crimes in India sneaked Nepal through open border, was arrested by Nepal Police on May 29, 2013. Aasin Miya was arrested with Rs. 6.9 million Indian fake currency notes on May 28, 2012 in Bara district border. Similarly, Nepal Police arrested Amit Sarraf of Raxaul, an Indian national, with smuggled gold in Parwanipur from Indian border bound bus on May 19, 2014.


On the other hand, Nepali industrialist Ganga Bishan Rathi was abducted from Biratnagar, Nepal and he was taken to Siliguri, India and was killed on January 10, 2013 after 23 days of his abduction. Maiti Nepal, a social organization, rescued 264 girls and women (15-28 years old) during 2013 in the Belahia-Sunauli border crossing point. They were supposed to be sold in Indian brothels.



So far as the reactions on open border system are concerned, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi said on 20 February 2016, while meeting with the visiting Nepali Prime Minister KP Oli: ‘We will not allow terrorists and criminals to abuse our open border. Security agencies of two countries will intensify co-operation.


In this context, Prime Minister KP Oli has said on 22 February: ‘Open border is a common asset of Nepal and India. Both sides should maintain security of No-man’s Land, so that spirit of open border remains alive in practical terms under all circumstances.


Indian External Minister Sushma Swaraj said on 28 July 2014 ‘Open border has been misused for criminal activities in the border areas, such as human trafficking, import and export of illegal drugs, smuggling of Fake Indian Currency Notes etc.’


Indian Ambassador to Nepal Ranjeet Rae said on February 17, 2014 ‘India and Nepal are very close friends and neighbours that share an open border. But someone commits a crime in one country and runs to the other. This is a problem for both countries.’


Means to resolve the issue

In the context of the challenges created by open border, some alternative measures should be implemented jointly in order to maintain internal and external peace and security system, and to make Indo-Nepal border safe and secure:

  1. In the first phase, a mechanism should be developed to monitor by the CCTV cameras, in the border check-points, installed into a narrow corridor. Travelers should walk through that corridor speaking his/her name, address, purpose of crossing the border and number of days he/she is travelling. It should be monitored digitally from the inner room.


  1. As the second alternative, travelers should produce ID card, while crossing the international border point, that should be scanned and let the genuine passengers go through immediately. If it is found defaulter, they should be interrogated in a separate room.


  1. Ultimately, the border should be fenced with 360 exit/entry points (distance of more or less 5 km) to maintain peace and security. The inhabitants should travel 2-3 km to reach the exit/entry points. American Poet Robert Frost has written ‘Good neighbours make good fences.’


Concluding remark

For the security reason, Nepal-India international border must be regulated slowly and unknowingly in a phase wise basis to restrict the terrorists, control smugglers, check criminals, obstruct human traffickers, stop narcotic holders, vigilant to smuggler of fake Indian currency notes. But there must not be any delayed for genuine passengers to cross the international border. Visa system should not be introduced because of the perspective of age old friendship between the government to government and people to people level relationship.


It is to be noted that ID card system has been implemented on the air route since October 1, 2000 after the high jacking of Indian aircraft flown from Kathmandu. So it is imperative to introduce ID system also in the surface route, in the perspective of Islamic State (IS) terroristic activities in India’s neighbouring countries Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is mentionable that there is no treaty or agreement to make the border open between Nepal and India.


Meaning of Signature on OBOR

Meaning of Signature on OBOR

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


Nepal and China signed on the framework agreement on ‘One Belt One Road’ Project initiated by China on 12 May 2017. The memorandum has stated to strengthen the co-operation on connectivity sectors including transit, transport network, logistic system and related infrastructure development such as railways, roads, civil aviation, hydro-power grid, information and communication. This MOU was signed just two days before starting the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ Conference in Beijing.

Nepal delayed nearly three years to sign on the MOU. It was because of the fact that Nepal was in a mood to ‘Wait and See’ to India whether it would support the Chinese ‘One Belt One Road’ Project. Finally, India was not in a position to participate the Beijing conference as well. In the mean time Nepal could not bear the political, diplomatic and intellectual pressure. So it was signed on the last moment.

Whatever and however it may be, it is signed and signed by Nepal as a neighbour of China. Because the neighbour cannot be changed. The neighbour should be congenial from both the sides. The most important thing is: now Nepal must chalk down the priority to obtain benefits from ‘Belt and Road Initiative.’

Regarding the road/rail link, Nepal is connected with China by road, specially Kerong-Rasuwagadhi road. Chinese railway line will be approached to Nepal border through Lhasa-Shigatse-Kerong to Rasuwa by 2020. Now Nepal must present its own plan to the neighbouring countries, whether Nepal will construct the railway line to connect the Chinese border railway point to Raxaul Indian Broad-gauge Railway line via Galchhi Junction point of Nepal. Alternatively, the rail line from Kerong-Rasuwa will reach to Galchhi and the Indian rail line from Raxaul-Birganj will also come and meet at the Galchhi point. And the Chinese and Indian Railway shall make a big  ‘Hand Shake’ each other in Galchhi Junction of Nepal. This will be the equi-nearness of Nepal to both the neighbouring countries.

Similarly, Nepal has to make a proposal to China to connect other six Nepal-China border crossing points such as Olangchunggola, Kimathanka, Lapchi, Larke, Korala and Yari Hilsa for trade and commerce purposes as well. These will enhance the economy of the people of eastern and western Nepal due to connectivity, to obtain the Chinese goods and material in a cheaper price than of these days.

If Nepal could be able and capable to prepare the national plan of such activities unanimously, the signature on OBOR framework agreement will be fruitful for the general people of Nepal. If not, the signature may be regarded as only to complete the formality between Nepal and China. The detail of this write-up in Nepali script has been copied and pasted in the following image :-

Kantipur 74-2-2

Jange – Buddhe


This book is a collection of autobiographical write-ups related with Jange (Jumbo) Pillar; and Nepal-India border issues. Most of the chapters of this book are related to the boundary of Nepal, whether it is connected to any person or any reference material or any occurrence that may be belinked with incidents. The book includes the subject matters of the  boundaries, boundary literature, biography, auto-biography and philosophy of life in some extent.


Jange means-   Janga Bahadur, Former Prime Minister of Nepal, who initiated to                                       construct masonry ‘Jumbo Border Pillar.’

Buddhe means-   Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, who is making study and research on the Jange         (Jumbo) Border Pillar.



Publisher: Makalu Publishing House

Dillibazar, Kalikasthan

Post Box No. 3880

Phone: 01-4435-148



Copyright: © The author

Lay-out: Gyanu Maharjan

Printing: Sopan Press, Dillibazar

First Edition: July 2016

Price Rs. :

ISBN : 978-9937-622-58-5




By- Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Boundaries – Boundary Literature

Biography – Autobiography – Philosophy



Table of Contents

  1. Author’s Expression 1-8


  1. Preface by critic Khekob 9-58


  1. Buddhe goes on counting the Jange (Jumbo) Border Pillars 59 -130

– Missing the Jange Pillar of Banawasa   64

– Nepal’s flag is missing   64

– whatever seen the position of Jange pillars at Thori   65

– Conducted the counting of Jange pillars to the Parliamentarians Team   68

– Land ownership certificate just a scrap of paper   70

– Fallen Jange border pillar near Pyarataal   72

– Embraced to Jange pillar   74

– Jange pillar into the water bed   76

– Jange claimed 160 Bigha of land   77

– Accompanied the Hon’ble  Minister at Susta   78

– Did you talk the wedding matter of your daughter ?   87

– 19 big-gun salute to Jange   89

– Sleeping as Nepali at night, turned into Indian getting up the following morning   93

– Nearabout to be shooted by a gun   95

– Status of Jange border pillar   103

– Pension pay nearly lost   108

– Nepali land has been injured   112

– Jange traveled towards London   113

– Buddhe makes salute to Jange   120

– Jange’s journey to France   123

– It is said, lonely Jupiter planet is false !   12 9


  1. Who said what on the boundaries from Jange to Buddhe’s time period 131-148


  1. Buddhe’s own synopsis related to the border 149 – 186

– Time did not favour to make available my book to Jagadish Ghimire   151

– Condoliece to late Dr. Dayanand Bajracarya 152

– Thinking of twelve hundred Rupees gone doing nothing    155

– The moment I heard that I received Madan Prize   156

– Let everybody make memory to Purnaprakash Yatri    158

– The event of receiving Madan Prize   159

– Conferred Madan Prize and the Indian Embassy   160

– Greediness to receive Madan Prize second time   161

– Would hesitate to honour and felicitate

– Conferred Letter of Felicitations and Letter of Appreciations  in lieu of hesitations   163

– Establishment of boundaries data set and its details   164

– Border business and the Indian Ambassador   166

– Episode of book release   167

– Your article has not been found to read!   169

– I must response ‘Yes Sir’ while the boundary calls me   179

– Dr. Washburn had intended to make me available American Green Card   180

– Matter of measuring the height of Mt. Everest   182

– Twin daughters have been taken out of the boundary   183


  1. Expressions relating to Madan Prize and others 187-201

– Buddhe’s expression during the time of honouring by Madan Prize   187

– Welcome address by the Chairman of Madan Prize Trust   190

– My responsibility has been added by the honour   192

– Continuing  journey on boundary studies   194


  1. Buddhe’s philosophy of life through his own mouthpiece 202-251

– Whatever happens, it happens for goodself   202

– Give me high thinking   210

– Let it destroy all types of enemies   212

– Advantage to the calf during the fighting of bulls   214

– How it comes, it goes in the same way   218

– Wanting to be a low profile and back bencher   21 9

– Virtue (good work) should be done by ourselves   223

  • Work to prepare new series of boundary demarcated Basic Topographical Maps  224
  • Topographical mapping work of Lumbini Zone and Susta border 22 9
  • GPS surveying work for the first time in Nepal 232
  • Post of Dirctor General converted from administrative to technical service  236
  • Could not create the post of Survey Officer in the District Survey Offices  239
  • Oh, public and government lands of Pokhara have been massively registerd as private land  240

– Age bar does not obstruct to knowing and learning further   242

  • Learnt to drive motor car at the age of 67 243
  • Learnt computer technology at the age of 53 246

– May fulfill, if it is determined enough   249

  • Promised not to wear pants before passing SLC Examination   249
  • Moustache was not shaved for 12 years   251


  1. Fund was created by Jange for the natural calamities 252-269

– Description of 25th April 2015 earthquake   254

– Number of earthquakes occurred in the historical period in Nepal   257

– Comparative account  of the earthquakes  between 1934 and 2015 AD   259

– Buddhe’s own experience about 2015 earthquake   263

– When will occur the next earthquake in Nepal ?   267


  1. Even the leaders recognize Buddhe 270-315

– Pushpa Kamal Dahal ‘Prachanda’  in the context of Kalapani   270

– Madhav Kumar Nepal referring to Susta   272

– Sushil Koirala regarding the source of River Mahakali   273

– Sher Bahadur Deuba and Border Struggle Book   274

– Jhala Nath Khanal in the context of Lipulek   275

– KP Sharma Oli with the saying: no other than the same episode of border   278

– Bam Dev Gautam regarding new constitution and Kalapani Long March Episode   283

– Bidyadevi Bhandari in the context of border issue   289

– Dr. Ram Baran Yadav regarding the the Book Boundary of Nepal   290

– Dr. Baburam Bhattarai concerning the height of  Mount Everest   291

– Narayanakaji Shrestha with the episode of  Border Marker Number-57   293

– Mahendra Bahadur Pandey concerning Lipulek border pass   296

– Kirtinidhi Bista with reference to Kalapani border checkpoints   300

– Narayan Man Bijukchhen regarding national boundaries   302

– CP Mainali in the context of including Lipulek boundary   303

– Chitra Bahadur KC regarding his fellowmen training and federalism episode   305

– Kamal Thapa regarding also the context of 1950 Treaty episode   306

– Upendra Yadav concerning open border   308

– Mohan Vaidya Kiran  in the context of stressing Let us go to Lipuleka episode   311

– Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat regarding quiet diplomacy in Lipulek   313


  1. Who says what on Buddhe 316-351

– Dr. Basanta Gautam   316

– Jack Starmar   318

– Prof. Dr. Mohan Prasad Lohani   323

– Sudha Shrestha   326

– Chetendra Jang Himali   328

– Dr. Ram Dayal Rakesh   330

– Prof. Dr. Surendra KC   333

– Raju Mrgendra Joshi   340

– Dirgha Raj Prasai   342

– Gopal Koirala ‘Tyagi’   343

– Dr. Mati Prasad Dhakal   346

– Hiranya Lal Shrestha   347

– Giri Narayan Rajbhandari   349


  1. Buddhe in the eyes of journalists 352-399


  1. If someone wants to know Buddhe 400-462

– Books published   403

–  Articles published   404

– National / International Presentation   417

– Radio / television interviews   423

– Newspaper interviews   444

-News published   446

– National / international seminar conferences   450

– Membership in professional and social organizations   452

– Award / honor / letter of appreciation and testimonials   453

– Medal and decorations   456

– Consulting services and professional works   457

– Government and other services   46 9

– Country / State Visit   461


  1. List of reference 463


  1. Photo Gallery 465

Text of Pilgrims Book House, Kathmandu, Nepal



Author:Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Publisher:Makalu Prakashan Griha

Publish Year:2016

Edition:First Edition

Cover:Paper Back

Subject:Nepali Autobiography / Memoir / Nepali Non-Fiction / Nepali Politics


Remarks:B&W Photographs and Tables.


Size:138 x 216 mm


Price:USD 7.35



Buddhi Narayan’s Book Launch


Jange – Buddhe


Authored by-  Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


Jange means-   Janga Bahadur, Former Prime Minister of Nepal, who initiated to construct masonry ‘Jumbo Border Pillar.’

Buddhe means-   Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, who is making study and research on the Jange (Jumbo) Border Pillar.


The book ‘Jange – Buddhe’ was launched jointly on 9 August 2016 in a colourful function by the distinguished personalities- Nation Poet Madhav Prasad Ghimire, Senior Culture Expert Satya Mohan Joshi and noted critic Eminent Prof. Dr. Abhi Subedi amidst a grand programme in Kathmandu.



Six television channels had covered and aired the news the same evening and mostly next morning as well. Various daily and weekly newspapers such as Kantipur, Nagarik, Annapurna Post, Nayapatrika, Gorkhapatra, Rising Nepal, RSS (National News Agency) etc had published the news next day. Some online media such as Radio Nepal, image FM, Hami Nepali, Nepal Aaja, Purbeli News, Thaha Khabar, Sambad Media, Nepal News, Faith Nepal, Maitri News,, etc had carried the news. Kantipur Television (Rise and Shine Program) had interviewed Shrestha the following morning.  Some weekly and monthly and other magazines such as Nepal Weekly, Madhu Parka, Kanoon, Garima etc have published the review of the book. Followings are the news and views covered by media:-



The book has described about the Jange (Jumbo) boundary Pillars that Janga Bahadur Rana has contributed to protect the boundary of Nepal by constructing the jumbo boundary pillars wisefully and efficiently during the British dominance in overall South Asia. The book has transmitted the message that Nepali people should be aware to protect border and frontier against the encroachment by neighbouring countries. Janga Bahadur brought back around 6.7 per cent of total territory of the nation from the British India, which was a part of lost territory during Sugauli Treaty.


Most of the historians use to tell-  Nepali people understand Janga Bahadur Rana as a cruel administrator who started the oligarchy regime in Nepal. Yes, this is as one side of the coin. But the other side of the same coin is that he was a nationalist, obedient of legal state, as he had prepared and announced the Penal Code of the nation, for the first time, to maintain rule and regulations of the laws by all. On top of these items, he was a crusader of border’s protection, as he had erected and established the ‘jumbo boundary pillars’ to protect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Nepal.


During the program, author of the book Buddhi Narayan Shrestha spoke that this book is a collection of autobiographical write-ups related with Jange (Jumbo) Pillar; and Nepal-India border issues. Most of the chapters of this book are related to the boundary of Nepal, whether it is connected to any person or any reference material or any occurrence that may be belinked with incidents. The book includes the subject matters of the  boundaries, boundary literature, biography, auto-biography and philosophy of life in some extent.


Shrestha further spoke-  ‘needless to say, the Greek word  auto-biography’ is understood as autos means self, boas denotes life and graphe is the writing. At the same time British poet and critic Stephen Spender has defined that auto-biography is the story about oneself, written by himself. Thinker George Smitch has said that auto-biography is written by those who have spent public life and have played the important role in the historical events who have gained fame or defame, that represent the society. In this perspective he said, ‘I would like to mention that it is not me to tell you, but the readers of my book will evaluate whether this is or not the auto-biography as well, after they read the book. It is indeed a border literature that also reflects the philosophy my life as well. I have tried to add some literary flavour to the topic of boundary of Nepal,’


Lauding the contribution of Janga Bahadur, Shrestha said ‘While 160 Bighas land of  Jamunah area of Banke District border area was encroached, Janga Bahadur sent a protest letter to the British Government  on 7 April 1862. It is to be understood that ‘many kings and prime ministers came and went since the demise of Jung Bahadur but none of them corresponded with India even there was the encroachment of thousands of hectare of land’ rued Shrestha. He said, his new book was his memoir that chronicled his struggles to protect the borders in relation to the Jange Pillars.



The author of the book highlighted that on the basis of field study, 1,880 km long Nepal-India boundary is delimitated on the map with 8559 boundary pillars. However, only 4360 pillars have been erected on the ground so far. Among them 946 Jange Pillars had been constructed during British rule in India. Of 4,360 erected pillars, 499 have been washed away by the rivers. Besides, 202 Jange Pillars have been destroyed, disappeared and vandalized. In addition, 189 pillars have been in dilapidated condition.  Furthermore- 684 main, subsidiary and minor border pillars have to be repaired and maintained. According to him, these data have been chalked down on his recent book. So it depicts more or less a kind of condition and situation of the Jange Pillars along Nepal-India border.



He further reiterated that Nepal’s 26 districts, out of 75, have been adjoined with Indian territory. There are encroachments, disputes, conflicts, cross-holding occupations, claims and counter-claims in 23 districts, having 71 spots and places. The total area of these issues have been enumerated as 606 square kilometer. The largest portion of encroachments are Lipulek-Kalapani-Limpiyadhura of Darchula district with 370 sq km; and second one is Susta area of Nawalparasi district with 145 sq km; and the rest 69 spots have been calculated as 91 sq km. All these data have been included in the book to make it lively. He has also suggested some means and ways to resolve the border related issues as well, while speaking.




Lastly, the author thanked all those who joined the book release program from different sections of the society-  for example academicians and university teachers, former government bureaucrats, former Army Commander-in-Chief, former Police Officer, former AIG of Armed Police Force, former Chief of Intelligence Department,  former Chief Election Commissioners, former Royal Palace Secretary, former Commissioners of Commission of Investigation of Abuse of Authority, literate, poets, Film Director, renowned national singer, people’s singers, electronic and paper media persons, friends, class mates and other gentlemen and ladies. He expressed his gratitude to all who had spared their valuable time to attend the book release function.


On the occasion, critic Prof. Dr. Abhi Subedi said,  although the term ‘border’ sounded abstract, Shrestha talked about tangible border symbolized by the Junge pillars. He noted that Junge pillar signified Nepalese power and freedom and this was a reason, why the country’s independence remained unchallenged for centuries.


‘Junge pillars carry the political, legal, ethical and historical dimensions. They do not only symbolize the nationality of hill-origin people, they offered a sense of security to the Terai people living near the Nepal-India border,’ added Subedi. He said that Shrestha was a lone figure to defend the sanctity of border.

He added, readers who are interested on border related issues, Buddhi Narayan’s book will be useful and effective. The write-up depicts a balanced adjustment of the literature, history and auto-biography beautifully. It is the ability of the author to make the difficult subject matter, like the boundaries, to be readable in the literature form.


Abhi Subedi further said in the program: Shrestha has written history, making an image to the Jange Pillar. Boundary formation and deletion work is being continued in the world. Our erased border is constructed after the Treaty of Sugauli. Politics, legality, historic and egoism have been made on that treaty. The book has caught the Jange Pillars that have been remained in the form of ‘Pole’ of Nepal’s freedom.

As a chief guest of the book release function, renowned Nation Poet Madhav Prasad Ghimire addressed lauding Shrestha: ‘I just sang the song for the glory of nation but Shrestha has accomplished concrete deed to the service of the nation. He has disseminated authentic information about the Jange Pillars set up along the borders.’


Ghimire said: British India, who won most of the countries of the world, but Nepal was able to preserve and arouse its independence. It is indeed, Nepal’s identity must be preserved.  Political leaders must maintain the territorial integrity of the nation wisefully. It should not come into agitation while working for the shake of nation. Let us not bend to any of the neighbouring countries. Getting together each other, leaders must make harmony to preserve country’s sovereignty.


Nation Poet Ghimire further said, it is not only to expand road and construct buildings in Kathmandu, but also we must be aware to make our border managed. We must have great responsibility upon our nation. As such, Buddhi Narayan has submitted himself to his work and contributed greatly to the motherland.

As a special inaugural guest of the program, Senior Culture Expert Satya Mohan Joshi said, Shrestha’s book has heralded a new type of writing in Nepal. ‘It is the start of writing the people’s history. It generates a feeling of nationalism among the people.’


Joshi further said, now the country has gone to republican system. The country will remember the bad and good history of not only the work of King and Kingship, but also the work of the leaders of these days. In this context, the book has brought forward the history of the boundary of Nepal to make aware to the leaders and general people.

Joshi further spoke in the program: now the history will not work only saying that certain Malla King had constructed certain temple, but it needs to construct the sovereign history of the desire of the people.


Drawing a comparison between Jung Bahadur and other prime ministers, he made a jibe: ‘While Jung Bahadur took back the lost territory from the neighbour, but many other Nepalese Prime Ministers just donated Nepal’s rivers to other.’

In connection to his speech, Cultural Expert Joshi expressed as a complaint that the State has neglected upon Prithvi Narayan Shah and Janga Bahadur, who had contributed on the construction and preservation of the nation. But the state requires attention to maintain their statues which have been in a condition of abandonment.


In relation to the book Joshi said, Buddhi Narayan has presented much work to cultivate the national spirit, energy, enthusiasm and freshness by writing the book ‘Jange – Buddhe.’ It has provided an opportunity to Nepali to know the history of boundaries.

Prof. Dr. Khem Koirala, who conceived the title of the book, said writer Shrestha had reified the notion of nationalism at a time when an abstract nationalism was rife. He opined-  the attempt of Janga Bahadur to protect the boundary of Nepal and the study of Jange (Jumbo) Pillars made by Buddhi Narayan are as similarly courageous.


Patriotism to the nation has been disappeared as the boundary and border pillars have been as abstract. In this context, the book is useful to create awareness to protect patriotism, national  feeling and nationality. Koirala said, if someone wants to know about Buddhi Narayan and what he is doing, what types of contribution he is making; the book will furnish the information.  He expressed that it was his privilege to write the preface of the book.


Managing Director of Makalu Prakashan Griha Basudev Dhakal said during his welcome speech that Buddhi Narayan Shrestha has raised his voice  through his work writing various books such as Boundary of  Nepal, Border War, India-Nepal Frontier Barrage, Knowledge on Boundary,  Border Management of Nepal as Nepal’s geography and border-related books. He has written  hundreds of articles, dozens of timeless compositions for the readers.


Acknowledging  his high value contribution,  he has been awarded more than three dozen national and international honors and awards such as Madan Puraskar (Prize), Itihas Shiromani Baburam Acharya Sodh Samman , Amar Singh Thapa Memorial Award, News24 Television Respect Felicitation, Dev Shamsher Felicitation, Yogi Naraharinath Trust Appreciation, Eduard Dolezol Award (Austria), Letter of Appreciation from International Federation of Surveyors (Copenhagen) etc.


Dhakal said, it will not be exaggerated to say that as Janga Bahadur is named as ‘Jange’ while Buddhi Narayan should be named as ‘Buddhe’ as he has earned knowledge and done research, that has contributed for the protection of the country’s border, as he has brought forward the importance and fact & figure of the Junge Pillar to the society. The name Buddhe is not a symbol of negative example, but it is a metaphor filled with knowledge and wisdom, as the name has been synonymous. Lastly, I express my gratitude to the author for being given the opportunity to publish this masterpiece creation, entitled ‘Jange – Buddhe.’


Literate Tulsihari Koirala was the Master of Ceremony in the program. He conducted the program in a well manner. He highlighted some texts of the book in between the speeches of the speakers. He said, the book is an anthology of the border issues and incidents of Nepal experienced by the author.




At the back cover page of the book, short bio-data of the author has been inscribed as followings:


Name: Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


Birth Place: Okhaldhunga Rambazar-5. Presently: Ghattekulo Height, Kathmandu.


Study: Master Degree (Geography) Tribhuvan University, Land Surveying (Calcutta), Land Use Mapping  (Canada), Land Information System (Germany), Remote Sensing Technology (Japan), Ph. D. Research Fellow (Border issues of Nepal and means to resolve the issues) Tribhuvan university, Boundary Demarcation and Maintenance Training, University of Durham (International Boundary Research Unit) U.K.


Experience: Director General-  Land Survey Department, Managing Director-  Bhumichitra Mapping Company, Consultancy services on Surveying & Mapping and Study, Research, Writing, Presentation and Publication concerning the boundary of Nepal.


Creation: Books: Jange-Buddhe, Border War, India-Nepal Frontier Barrage, Boundary of Nepal, Border Management in the context of National Security, Border Management of Nepal, Knowledge on  Boundary and Cadastral Survey for Public Usefulness. And in co-authorship: Nepal-India and China Treaty, Nepal-India Relations Past Present and Future, International Boundary Making. And Knowledge on Earthquake (under publication).


Other Writing: Published near about 400 articles and write-ups in the context of boundary of Nepal, Border Management, National Security, Issues of Submergence and ways and means to resolve the issues.


Discourse & Presentation:  More than 120 presentations in US (five States), London, Moscow, Tokyo, Beijing, Seoul; and national organizations and associations, and to the Prime Minister, Ministers and Parliament Speaker on the border issues of Nepal and its resolvation.


Prize, Award, Felicitation: 21 prizes, award and felicitations including Madan Puraskar-2057, Eduard Dolezol Award- Vienna (Austria), Certificate of Appreciation (Denmark), Itihas Siromani Baburam Aacharya Research Felicitation, Dev Shumsher Excellent Journalism Prize etc.


Conference: Participated and presented some papers in more than 40 conferences at home and abroad such as Border Regions in Transition-XII and XIV Conference (Japan-South Korea and France-  Belgium), Boundary Demarcation and Maintenance (UK), Negotiating International Boundaries (UK), Border Management in an Insecure World (UK), International Federation of Surveyors Congress- FIG (UK, Australia, Malaysia) etc.


Professional Membership: Members of more than 15 national and international organizations and associations including International Boundaries Research Unit (UK), Association for Borderland Studies (Canada), International Real Estate Federation (France) and at home Nepal Institutions of Chartered Surveyors etc.


Travel: 31 countries of the world and 68 districts of Nepal (out of 75).



Expression of A Border Activist

Expression of A Border Activist

सीमा अभियन्ताको अनुभूति

यो कृति मूल रूपमा सिमानाप्रतिको चिन्ता, चासो, अध्ययन र भोगाइको स्वकथन हो ।





रामबहादुर रावल

दुई मुलुकका बीचमा बग्ने नदीको बीच भागमा सीमास्तम्भ हुनुपर्ने सिद्धान्त, अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय अभिसन्धि र प्रचलनबारे पढ्दा, त्यही ज्ञान अरूलाई बाँड्दा र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सभा/सम्मेलनमा प्रस्तुति–प्रवचन दिँदा बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठलाई चसक्क मुटुमा घोच्छ । किनभने, नदीको ओल्लोछेउसम्मै छिमेकका राष्ट्रिय झन्डा गाडेका, प्रहरी पोस्ट राखेका दृश्य आँखाअगाडि आउँछन् । एकपल्ट देखिएका सीमास्तम्भ अर्कोपल्ट जाँदा सोही ठाउँमा भेटिँदैनन् ।


हो, सीमासम्बन्धी अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय नियम र सिद्धान्तहरू नेपालको हकमा लागू हुँदैन । कतिसम्म भने नेपालीहरू महाविपत्तिले थिचिएका बेला दुई ठूला छिमेकी नेपाली भूमि लिपुलेक उपयोग गर्ने कुरा आपसी सौदाबाजीमा टुंग्याउँछन् । ५० वर्षदेखि नेपालको कालापानीमा भइआएको भारतीय अतिक्रमणमा चिनियाँ छाप लाग्छ । भूराजनीतिको यो विशिष्ट विडम्बना संसारका अन्य मुलुकले सायदै बेहोरेका छन् । तर, यही मुलुकमा सबभन्दा बढी बिक्री हुने माल राष्ट्रवाद हुन्छ । जंगे र बुद्धे यही विडम्बनाका बीचबाट जन्मिएको कृति हो ।
राष्ट्रवादको खेती जसले जतिसुकै गरे पनि जंगबहादुर राणा (जंगे)पछिका कुनै पनि शासकले नेपाली भूमिको असल रूपमा रक्षा गर्न सकेका छैनन् भन्ने निष्कर्षमा नापी विभागका पूर्वमहानिर्देशक एवं सीमा–अभियन्ता बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ पुगेका छन् । र, सिमाना जोगाउन जंगबहादुरले जेजति काम गरे, त्यसैको कृतज्ञतामा उनले पुस्तकको नाम राखेका छन् । र, आफ्नो जीवनकर्म पनि मूल रूपमा सीमासम्बन्धी नै भएकाले जंगेसँगै आफ्नो नाममा अनुप्रास मिलाएका छन्, बुद्धे ।
श्रेष्ठको यो कृति मूल रूपमा सिमानाप्रतिको चिन्ता, चासो, अध्ययन र भोगाइको स्वकथन हो । उनी राजनीतिकर्मी, विधायक, सञ्चारकर्मी, अभियन्ताहरूलाई लिएर बेलाबेला सीमाछेउ पुगिरहन्छन् । नक्सालाई जमिनमा भिडाउँछन् । आजसम्म शासन सत्तामा पुगेका प्राय: सर्वोच्च, उच्च र मध्यम तहका नेताहरूले विभिन्न समयमा उनको राय–सुझाव लिएका रहेछन् । सबैजसो प्रधानमन्त्री, आधा–उधी मन्त्रीलाई घरैमा गएर सल्लाह दिएका रहेछन् । उनकै शब्दमा, सीमारेखा देखाउन, पथप्रदर्शन गर्न पाएपछि मख्ख पर्छन् र गिदीमा रहेको ज्ञान बाँड्न पाउँदा खुसी हुन्छन् ।
पुस्तकमा स्थलगत भ्रमणका क्रममा भेटेका सीमाक्षेत्रका बासिन्दाका सास्ती र वेदना पनि छन् । बर्दियाको चौगुर्जीमा प्रमुख जिल्ला अधिकारी, प्रहरी प्रमुखसमेतका सामुन्ने स्थानीय नुवाजत धोबीले कागज देखाउँदै रोइकराइ गरेको मर्मस्पर्शी प्रसंग छ, ‘हजुर, मेरो १० कट्ठा ७ धुर जमिनको लालपट्टा यही हो । जमिन भारतीय बासिन्दाले मिचेर खाइरहेको छ । मेरो जमिनमा टेक्न जाँदा पनि तेरो पैर भाँचिदिन्छु भन्छ ।’
नेपालको संसदीय टोलीका सदस्यहरूलाई भारतीय सीमा सुरक्षा बल एसएसबीका जवानले थर्काएका प्रसंग कुनै फिल्मका संवादजस्ता लाग्छन् । छोरीको बिहे पक्का गर्न भन्दै अरूको मोटरसाइकलमा सीमावारपार गरी नापनक्सा लिँदा, सीमास्तम्भ खोज्दाको अनुभूति रोमाञ्चक छन् । सिक्किमले श्रीअन्तु डाँडा क्वाप्प पार्न लागेको, राती सुत्दा नेपालमा, बिहान उठ्दा भारतीय भएको लगायतका प्रसंगले हाम्रो सिमानाको संघर्षमय कथा बोल्छन् ।
सन् १९९३ मा जापानी सहयोगमा नापी विभागले तयार पारेको स्थलरूप नक्सामा सुस्तालगायत सीमा क्षेत्रको यथार्थ चित्रांकन गरिएको रहेछ, जुन पल्टाउन अहिलेका शासकहरूले हिम्मत नगरेको र चिसो गोदाममा थन्क्याइएको श्रेष्ठले उल्लेख गरेका छन् । घुमिफिरी उनी बरू जंगबहादुरकै पालामा हाम्रो हैसियत थियो भन्नेमा पुग्छन् । कतिपयले जंगबहादुरलाई ब्रिटिसको बफादार भन्छन् । हालका प्रधानमन्त्री प्रचण्डले संसद्मै हुंकारसाथ यस्तै अभिव्यक्ति दिएका थिए । तर, श्रेष्ठ यो मान्न तयार छैनन् । उनले उल्लेख गरेको विवरण अनुसार जंगबहादुरले भारत सरकार विदेश विभागका फोर्ट विलियमलाई ७ अप्रिल १८६२ मा रोष प्रकट गर्दै चिट्ठी लेखेका थिए, १ सय ६० बिघा नेपाली भूमि मिचिएकामा । ब्रिटिस रेजिडेन्ट तत्कालै गभर्नर जनरलका तर्फबाट अंग्रेज सर्भेयरहरूले हटाएका सीमास्तम्भ पुन:निर्माण गर्ने सन्देश लिएर आएका थिए । र, जंगबहादुरले पुन:निर्माण गर्न बाध्य पारेका थिए ।
पुस्तकमा कहाँनिर गाम्भीर्य छ र कुनचाहिँ व्यंग्योक्ति हो भन्ने छुट्याउन मुस्किल छ । लेखक स्वयंको दाबी छ, ‘सिंहको गर्जनजस्तै गरी यो पुस्तकले बजार थर्काउनेछ ।’ उनले अनौपचारिक मौखिक भाषाको हदैसम्म प्रयोग गरेका छन् । गम्भीर र संवेदनशील विषयमा कलम चलाउँदा र महत्त्वपूर्ण तथ्यको उद्घाटन हुँदा पनि वाक्य टुंग्याउनीको ‘एछ’ प्रत्ययले खल्लो र लेखकीय दाबीलाई हलुका बनाइदिन्छ । भोलि कुनै अनुसन्धाता, अध्येताले सन्दर्भसामग्रीका रूपमा प्रयोग गर्ने कि नगर्ने भनेर यही ‘एछ’ प्रत्ययका कारण चारपटक सोच्नेछ । विषयवस्तुको विविधता र प्रस्तुतिमा अनेकताका कारण उनको यो पुस्तक र लेखन शैली ककटेल बन्न पुगेको छ । ५० पृष्ठको भूमिका र त्यति नै लामो ‘भक्सपप’ नराख्दा पाठक र प्रकाशक दुवैलाई सहुलियत मिल्ने थियो ।


यद्यपि, पुस्तकमा निराशा मात्र छैन । हामीले पनि खोजी गर्दै गयौँ भने ती हराएका, नासिएका सीमास्तम्भहरू यथास्थानमा पुन:स्थापित गर्न सक्छौँ भन्ने विश्वास पनि श्रेष्ठले ठाउँठाउँमा व्यक्त गरेका छन् । जसले भावी पुस्तालाई पनि बुद्धे–मार्ग पछ्याउन प्रेरणा दिनेछ ।


Sixty Years of Sino-Nepal Relationship


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