Awakening Border Demarcation Work

ब्यूँताइएको  सीमांकन  कार्य

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Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

 

 

Nepal-India border demarcation work was carried on from 1981 to 2007. It was stopped till 2014. But after the visit of the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi to Nepal, the demarcation work has been awakened or re-vitalized.

 

A four tier mechanism has been established:

1. Foreign Secretaries Level.

2. Border Working Group (BWG) in Survey Director/Surveyor General Level.

3. Survey Officials Committee (SOC) in Deputy Director/Surveyor General Level.

4. Field Study Team (FST) in Chief District Officer/District Magistrate Level.

 

Foreign Secretaries will work to find out the solution of Kalapani and Susta dispute/encroachment areas with the technical inputs.

 

Field Study Team has the mandate to work jointly in the field to:

a) to identify the lost border pillars with the GPS technology.

b) to construct the lost border pillars in situ.

c) to repair the damaged pillars.

d) to maintain No-man’s land (Dasgaja) e) to solve cross-holding occupation.

 

During the last demarcation period for 27 years, the demarcation teams had ignored the local authorities to make present as a witness in the field. So strong neighbour encroached the land of weak neighbouring farmers. 90 percent of the conflicts and disputed are related to this type of occupation.

 

This is a crucial matter to be taken by the field study team. So now the demarcation team must not ignore the Chairman of Village Development Committee from Nepali frontier and Sarpanch of Panchayat from Indian frontier as witnesses. Since the local frontier bodies and people are the watch dog of the boundary line and to maintain the No-man’s land between two countries.

 

नेपाल र भारतबीच सन् १९८१ देखि २००७ सम्म संयुक्त सीमांकनको काम भएको थियो । तीन प्रतिशत कार्य बाँकी छँदै दुई देशबीचको रेखांकन गर्ने काम मृतप्रायः भएको थियो । तर सात वर्षपछि अर्थात् नरेन्द्र मोदी भारतको प्रधानमन्त्री पदमा आसीन भएको दुई महिनापछि २०१४ अगस्ट ३-४ मा उनको नेपाल भ्रमणपश्चात् संयुक्त सीमांकनको काम ब्युँत्याइएको छ । ब्युँत्याइएको कार्यले अब गति लिन सुरु गरेको छ । बौरिएर ब्युँतिएको संयुक्त टोलीले यही फागुनको दोस्रो सातादेखि वीरगन्ज, विण्राटनगर र भैरहवाबाट आफ्नो काम सुरु गरिरहेछ ।

 

ब्युँतिएको सीमांकन कार्यअन्तर्गत बाँकी रहेको काम सम्पन्न गर्न चार संयन्त्र सिर्जना गरिएका छन् । पहिलो, दुवै देशका परराष्ट्र सचिवस्तरको संयन्त्र । दोस्रो, नापी महानिर्देशक तहको ‘बोर्डर ओर्किङ ग्रुप । तस्रो, उपमहानिर्देशक हैसियतको ‘सर्भे अफिसियल्स कमिटी’ र चौथो, प्रमुख जिल्ला अधिकारी/डीएम पदको ‘फिल्ड स्टडी टिम ।’ यस्तो संयन्त्रको सबभन्दा तल्लो तह अर्थात् ‘ग्रासरुट लेभल’ मा रहेको क्षेत्रगत संयुक्त टोलीले भर्खरै काम प्रारम्भ गरेको छ । यस्ता टोलीअन्तर्गत पहिलो टोलीले झापा, मोरङ, सुनसरी जिल्लाको कार्य गर्ने बुझिन्छ भने दोस्रो टोलीले चितवन, बारा, पर्सा तथा तेस्रो टोलीले कपिलवस्तु, रुपन्देही, नवलपरासीको काम गर्ने क्षेत्र तोकिएको छ । खटिएका यस्ता टोलीलाई पाँच काम सुम्पिएको छ । १) हराएका/लोप भएका सीमाखम्बा जीपीएस पद्धतिबाट पत्ता लगाउने । २) पत्ता लागेका खम्बा पुनः निर्माण गर्ने । ३) भत्के/बिग्रेका खम्बा मर्मतसम्भार गर्ने । ४) दसगजा क्षेत्र सफा राख्ने । ५) अन्तरसीमा जोतकमोत दखल -क्रस होल्डिङ अकुपेसन) समाधान गर्ने ।

 

Buitayeko Simankar

 

यी काम संयुक्त रूपमा नियमित तरिकाले गराउन क्षेत्रगत टोलीलाई प्राविधिक निर्देशन प्रदान गर्न बोर्डर ओर्किङ ग्रुपको संयुक्त बैठक गत असोज २-३ गते काठमाडौंमा भएको थियो भने सर्भे अफिसियल्स कमिटीको बैठक पुस १५-१६ मा भारतको देहरादुनमा गरिएको थियो ।

 

यतिका तहका संयन्त्र निर्माण भएर विभिन्न संयुक्त बैठकबाट निर्णय गरेर निर्देशन प्रदान गरिए तापनि क्षेत्रगत कार्य गर्ने फिल्ड स्टडी टिमले आफूलाई तोकिएको काम निर्बाध रूपमा पूरा गर्न सक्छन् या सक्दैनन् ? टोलीलाई सुम्पिएको पाँच काममध्ये तीन काम निकै पेचिला र गहन छन् । यसमध्ये पनि अन्तरसीमा जोतकमोत दखल निकै जटिल हुन सक्छ । अन्तरसीमावर्ती क्षेत्रका बलियो किसानले जानीनजानी निर्धो किसानको जमिन मिचेर ओगटेका छन् । किनकि कतिपय पकेट क्षेत्रको जमिनमा सीमारेखा स्पष्ट रहेको छैन । दसगजाको स्टि्रपर जंगेखम्बाको उपस्थिति त परकै कुरा हो । सीमाको एकातर्फको निमुखा निर्बल किसानको कागज-प्रमाण, तिरो-तिरान भएको जग्गा सीमापारिका बलियोबाङ्गो सँधियारले दखल गर्ने, मिच्ने र ओगट्ने प्रवृत्ति रहेको छ । यस पंक्तिकारको अध्ययनअनुसार नेपाल र भारतबीच एकहत्तर स्थानमा सानाठूला सीमा विवाद, दाबा-विरोध, अतिक्रमण मामिला रहेको छ । यसमध्ये करिब ९० प्रतिशत यही अन्तरजोतकमोत दखलले भूमिका खेलेको छ । उदाहरणार्थ, बर्दिया थपुवा गाविस ७ रामफल थारूको कित्ता नम्बर १८१ को १ बिघा ७ कठ्ठा जग्गासहित अन्य ६ परिवारको करिब १२ बिघा जमिन सीमापारिका भारतीय कृषकले कब्जा गरी भोगचलन गरिरहेको कुरा प्रकाशमा आएको छ । यस्ता समस्या निराकरण गर्न पुराना नक्सा दस्तावेजको सहायता लिई जमिनमा स्पस्ट रेखांकन हुनु वाञ्छनीय रहेको छ भने दसगजा क्षेत्र पनि कायम गरिनुपर्छ । अनि बलियो सँधियारले निर्धोको जमिन ओगटेको भेटिए भोगचलन फिर्ता गराउने संयन्त्रको विकास हुनुपर्छ ।

 

अब लागौं दसगजा क्षेत्र सफा राख्नेतर्फ । जंगे सीमाखम्बा लामो दूरीमा गाडिनाका कारण र बीचबीचका सहायक खम्बा लोप हुनु र नासिनुका कारण कतिपय सेक्टरमा दसगजा साँप्लोको अत्तोपत्तो छैन । कतिपय स्थानमा दसगजा क्षेत्रमा आवाद गरिएको र बस्ती बसेको छ । एउटै गाउँको बीचबाट सीमारेखा दगुरेको पाइन्छ । अन्य कतिपय ठाउँको गाउँबस्तीमा रहेका सीमाखम्बामा भैंसी बाँध्ने प्रयोजन गरिएको छ । उदाहरणार्थ, करिब पाँच सय घरधुरी रहेको एउटै सिङ्गो बस्तीको करिब तीन सय घरलाई नेपालतर्फ बाराको बतरा गाविस ७ अन्तर्गत घोडासहन गाउँ भनिन्छ भने बाँकी दुई सय घरबस्ती भारतको पूर्वी चम्पारण जिल्ला हरपुर ग्राम पञ्चायतमा पर्छ । देश छुट्टै भए पनि गाउँ एउटै छ । यस्तै, झापा भद्रपुर नजिकको जंगेमूल सीमाखम्बा नं. १ र महेशपुरको ३ नं. को दसगजा क्षेत्रमा भारतीय एसएसबीले क्याम्प खडा गरी चलन गरिरहेको छ । सशस्त्र प्रहरीले २०७१ असार २ गते गृह मन्त्रालयलाई बुझाएको प्रतिवेदनअनुसार भारतीय पक्षबाट ६० र नेपालबाट ४२ स्थानमा गरी १ सय २ ठाउँमा दसगजा मिचिएको छ । यस्तो अवस्थामा दसगजा क्षेत्रलाई सफा राख्न टोलीले निकै मिहिनेत गर्नुपर्ने अवस्था आउँछ । अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सीमा सिद्धान्तअनुसार दसगजा क्षेत्र भनेको निर्जन, आवादरहित, मानवविहीन हुनुपर्छ ।

 

तेस्रो गहन कामचाहिँ हराएका/लोप गरिएका सीमाखम्बा पत्ता लगाई यथास्थानमा पुनःनिर्माण गर्नु नै हो । अहिलेसम्म १ सय ८२ थान नेपाल-भारत सीमानक्सा तयार पारिएका छन् । नक्सामा ८ हजार ५ सय ५३ सीमाखम्बा अंकन गरिएका छन् । तीमध्ये ४ हजार ३ सय ६० मात्र जमिनमा ठडयाइएका थिए । यसरी स्थापना गरिएकामध्ये १ हजार ३ सय २५ खम्बा हराएका छन् । यहाँ जिज्ञासा हुन्छ, लोप भएका यस्ता सीमाखम्बाहरू फिल्ड स्टडी टिमले सुगौली सन्धिका सन्दर्भमा अंग्रेजले रेखांकन गरेकै स्थानमा पुनःस्थापना गर्छन् या गर्न सक्दैनन् ? यसका लागि पुराना कोअर्डिनेट अर्थात् अक्षांश-देशान्तर-उचाइका तथ्यांक आवश्यकता पर्छ । यस्ता तथ्यांकअनुसार पनि नयाँ खम्बा यथास्थानमा गाडिन्छन् या केही वरपर सारिन्छन् । दुवै सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रका स्थानीय जनता यसलाई शंकाको नजरले हेर्ने गर्छन् । यिनीहरूले शंका गर्ने ठाउँचाहिँ के रहेको बुझिन्छ भने सन् १९८१ देखि २००७ सम्म दुवै देशबीच सीमारेखा अंकन गर्दा क्षेत्रगत प्राविधिक टोलीले कहिल्यै पनि स्थानीय जनतालाई राखेनन्, उनीहरूलाई सीमारेखा देखाएनन् । त्यसैले अब पनि पुनःस्थापना गरिने सीमाखम्बा यथास्थानमै यथार्थ रूपमा खडा गरिन्छन् भन्ने के विश्वास ? कञ्चनपुर जिल्ला परासन गाविस प्याराताल क्षेत्रका दुवै सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रका स्थानीय जनताले भनेको कुरा यस पंक्तिकारले सुनेको छ, ‘रेखांकनका समय मास्के थर भएका नापी अधिकृत आउँथे, अमिनलाई के कस्तो निर्देशन दिन्थे कुन्नि ! एकजना चेनम्यानलाई आफ्नो बि्रफकेस बोकाएर हिंड्थे । हामीले यहाँको सीमारेखा कहाँबाट गुज्रन्छ हजुर भनी सोधनी गर्दा नकराउनोस् तपाईंहरू, सर्भेयरले गरिहाल्छ नि !’ अनि सर्भेयरहरू कहाँ बस्थे के गर्थे हामीलाई केही थाहा पत्तो हँुदैनथ्यो ।

 

वास्तवमा स्थानीय जनताको भनाइ ठीकै हो । उनीहरू सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रमा बस्छन् । सीमान्त भूभागमा उनीहरूको जग्गा जमिनरूपी सम्पत्ति रहेको छ । सीमाको जगेर्ना गर्ने काम मूलतः उनीहरूकै हो । सीमासम्बन्धी समस्या कहीँकतै पर्न गयो भने उनीहरूले नै सरकारी निकायलाई खबर दिन्छन् । तर विडम्बना सीमा रेखांकनको प्राथमिक जानकारी उनीहरूलाई दिइँदैन । यसैले लुप्त सीमाखम्बा पुनः स्थापना गरिंदा स्थानीयबासीलाई रोहवरमा राखी जानकारी गराउनु भनेको दुवै देशबीचको सीमाको संरक्षण गर्नु हो भन्ने हुन सक्छ ।

 

यी त भए क्षेत्रगत काम गर्ने प्रमुख जिल्ला अधिकारी र भारतीय डीएमको नेतृत्वमा रहेको टोलीको क्रियाकलाप । अब अन्त्यतिर परराष्ट्र सचिवस्तरमा बनेको संयुक्त संयन्त्रको कुरा गरौं । यस संयन्त्रलाई कालापानी-लिम्पियाधुरा, सुस्ताजस्ता जटिल समस्या समाधानका लागि प्राविधिक विवरण हासिल गरी कार्य गर्न दुवै देशका प्रधानमन्त्रीले संयुक्त निर्देशन दिएका छन् । तर जिज्ञासा उठ्न सक्छ, कसरी समाधानको बाटो पहिल्याउने ? सीमासम्बन्धी ‘क्रोनिक प्रोब्लम’ समाधान गर्न विषयवस्तुको अध्ययन, मनन, विश्लेषण गरी निचोड निकाल्न सक्नुपर्छ । यसका लागि मिहिनेत र समय आवश्यक पर्छ । के बहालवाला परराष्ट्र सचिव -ट्रयाक-वान् डिप्लोमेट) ले समय निकाल्न सक्लान् ? के उनीहरूको सहयोगीद्वारा मद्दत पुग्ला ?

 

कालापानी सुस्ता समस्या समाधान गर्न नेपालले पहिलो कुरो पुराना नक्सा, दस्तावेज, भनाइ, विगत घटनाक्रम अध्ययन गर्नुपर्छ । यस कुरालाई मननगरी डकुमेन्टेसनका साथ दस्तावेज तयार पारिनुपर्छ । यस्ता सामग्रीलाई तर्कपूर्ण, तथ्यपूर्ण र संवादपूर्ण तरिकाले विश्लेषण गरिनुपर्छ । विश्लेषणपछि ठोस निचोड र वैकल्पिक निचोड निकालिनुपर्छ । यी निचोडहरूमा राष्ट्रियस्तरका नेताहरूसँग अन्तरक्रिया गरी उनीहरूवाट पनि अनुमोदन गराउन सक्नुपर्छ । त्यसपछि मात्र ती निचोडलाई सीमासम्बन्धी राष्ट्रिय नीतिका रूपमा लिनुपर्छ । अनि जोसुकैले जहाँ र जहिले पनि यसै सीमा नीतिको परिधिभित्र रही सीमा समाधानको बाटो समात्नुपर्छ ।

 

अन्त्यमा, सीमांकनको काम सफलताका साथ सम्पन्न भइसकेपछि पनि सीमाको संरक्षण गर्ने प्राथमिक कार्य स्थानीयबासीकै हो । त्यसलाई कार्यान्वयन र खम्बा मर्मत सम्भार गर्ने दुई देशको संयुक्त कार्य हो । दुवै सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रका स्थानीय बासिन्दाले चलखेल नगरे दुई देशबीचको सीमा जहिल्यै पनि यथावत् रहन सक्छ । त्यसैले उनीहरूलाई सीमा सम्बन्धमा प्रशिक्षित तुल्याउनुपर्छ र एकआपसमा सदा सौहार्द रहने वातावरण बनाउनुपर्छ । प्रजिअ/डीएमका नेतृत्वमा हालै सुरु भएको क्षेत्रगत सीमा टोलीले गरेको कामको सिलसिलामा भारतको सीमावर्ती ग्राम पञ्चायतका सरपञ्च र नेपालपट्टकिा गाउँ विकास समितिका अध्यक्षलाई साक्षीका रूपमा राखिनुपर्छ । नत्र ब्युँत्याइएको सीमांकनको काम फेरि मूच्र्छा पर्न सक्छ र फेरि कहिल्यै नव्युँतिन सक्छ ।

Cordiality in the border

Cordiality in the border

(Gist of this article in English is given below just after this image)

Nagarik Sima Sauharda 71-11-18

In the bygone days, Indian Special Security Bureau (SSB) had misbehaved to the Nepali people in the border. There are many such instances. But after the rise of Narendra Modi as the Prime Minister of India, the SSB has shown the cordiality to the Nepali frontier people who cross the Nepal-India border time and often. This cordiality has shown that the time has been changed.

 

But on the other hand , India has constructed and been constructing 1,600 kilometre long east-west border road, just close to the Nepal border. The main objective of this road construction is said as to make easy the movement of the SSB, showing for security concern reason. The road is on an average 5 metre high and almost 30 meter wide. The newly constructing border road has obstructed the natural flow of some of the rivers of Nepal that flows to India. As a result, Nepali frontier areas have been inundated/submerged and it has created negative impact to Nepal and Nepali people losing their agricultural land & house and property.

 

To resolve this issue, India must adopt some measures to drain out the blocked water from nepali higher land to lower land of India by constructing additional and sufficient bridges, culverts, drains and outlets. India must show in action cordiality to the people and government of Nepal in the field of smooth draining out the blocked water mass from Nepali frontier to India, as the SSB has shown decent behaviour recently in the border area. India-Nepal cordiality would be further expanded and broadened, if the water blockage problem in the Nepali frontier area, due to construction of road by India, is solved.

International Conference on Border Regions in Transition

Conference France-Belgium

Republic Nepal’s Border Issues and Solutions

Republic Nepal’s Border Issues and Solutions

Interview published in Jana Parichaya National Weekly

Ganatantra Nepal Sima Samasya

Burning Wound in the Boundaries

Burning Wound in the Boundaries

(Interviewed to Border Researcher Buddhi Narayan Shrestha by Surendra Paudel and Santosh Rimal for Nagarik Daily and published in page-2 on 24 January 2015. The main caption is below after this image).

Nagarik_02

 

Kalapani and Susta are the main disputed areas between Nepal and India. Both the parties are insistent in their pace, however, atempt was made time to time to resolve the matter in a friendly manner. The technical boundary committee formed in 1981 was inoffensive on this issue.

Nepal-India joint field study team under the Boundary Working Group is going to start the work in the field from the second week of February 2015 –  to identify the missing boundary pillars, to establish the pillars for demarcation and to repair the old and damaged pillars.

Canadian Assistance in Land Resources Mapping

Canadian Assistance in Land Resources Mapping

 

Susta DagarmaBuddhi Narayan Shrestha

Border Researcher and
Madan Puraskar Winner

Canada is 10,576 nautical kilometre far from Nepal. And Canada is 67 times larger than Nepal in area. But in the case of population, Canada has only 35 per cent more people than Nepal. The highest point in Canada is the Mount Logan that bears 5959 metre and Nepal has the Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) 8848 m highest peak in the world. However, both the countries have very good relationship. Nepal-Canada diplomatic relation was established on 18 January 1965. Canada has provided grant assistance to Nepal for the formulation and implementation of various projects, and Land Resources Mapping Project (LRMP) is one of them.

 

The LRMP was a project to produce an exact and accurate inventory and analysis of the land resources, present landuse and land capability of Nepal as a basis of rational development planning at the national, regional and local level. It was a program designed to assist the development process. It has provided basic resources use and capability information on the land resources of Nepal, in a detailed and comprehensive nature. As such, the maps, data and information have been used in the planning and implementation for overall economic development of Nepal.

 

As everybody knows that land is the major resources of Nepal. However, Nepal has the potentiality of roughly 83,000 MW hydro-electric power resources, second to Brazil in the world. But only 680 megawatt of the power potentiality has been harnessed till this date. On the other side, more than 50 percent of the total land resources has been utilized by the Nepali farmers. The economy of Nepal is based almost on agriculture. Nearly 75 percent of the total population derives its main form of livelihood from the land and they are engaged in agriculture and agricultural activities. But Nepali farmers have not used their lands according to the capability of the land (soil), pattern of the land use and suitability of the crops. If the land would have been utilized by the farmers according to its potentiality, capability and suitability; it could boost the agricultural production. As a result, per capita income of the Nepali farmers could be increased and the GDP of the nation would go up. For this, it is necessary to have knowledge how to manage the resources of the land appropriately; on which land what type of crop would be more suitable and productive in the particular season of the year. All these information with data have been generated in various types of land resources maps which were prepared with the help of Canada government.

 

The LRMP, a joint project of Nepal Government and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), was established in 1978. The project was designed and implemented to provide basic, consistent, country wide data for land resources policy and planning in Nepal. Studies were carried out from 1980 through to 1985 and were based on aerial photography taken in 1978 and 1979, that completed a land resources survey covering all of Nepal. The project produced land use maps, land system maps and land capability maps at a scale of 1:50,000 with the data. The maps and accompanying data for all of Nepal were completed by the end of 1985 and reports were published and handed over to Nepal Government in 1986.

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A comprehensive and uniform basic data have been generated by land resources maps. Data and information generated by these maps have been served as a fundamental basis for project management, administration and planning on a national, regional, district and local level. Potential areas for agriculture, irrigation, forestry have been delineated to estimate the forest plantation areas, to estimate the fertilizer requirements for various areas, to calculate livestock fodder requirements proportioning agricultural and forest sources and so on. As a matter of fact, land resources maps and data have presented the real pictures of the degree of slope of land, depth of soil mentioning the actual capability of the land. All these information have been very useful for the development of agriculture and agro-based industries.

 

The main components of the LRMP were specially three major mapping series focused on land utilization, land capability and land system (soil). All the mapping series were based upon the interpretation of 1;50,000 aerial photographs supported by extensive field checking and sampling.

 

Land Utilization Map

The land utilization maps have computed the land use such as agricultural and non agricultural land, grazing and fallow land, forestry land and lands covered by rocks and boulders and perpetual snow. The cultivated agricultural lands are categorized and sub-divided into Tarai cultivation, hill slope cultivation and valley cultivation (valley floor, Taar, alluvial fans and lower foot-hill slopes). By using the land use map, one can find specially the wheat, paddy, maize lands showing the coverage of land under certain particular crop in a particular season.

 

Land utilization map series has defined the then current use and condition of the land; whether it is under forest, used for grazing or for crop production. In other words these maps have covered both agricultural and forestry landuse. It is commendable that land utilization mapping provided the first detailed statistics for current landuse in Nepal. This land use survey was supported by an extensive farmer survey, which was correlated with the cropping systems. In order to optimize the benefits from agricultural landuse and development of the land and water resources with minimum damage to the ecology, LRMP had made a comprehensive survey of the resources of the country and their present conditions and utilization.

 

Land Capability Map

The land capability maps have presented the degree of slope of land, nature of soil, temperature and moisture conditions which are of special significance for determining the appropriate land uses in a particular area of the district. These maps have also provided information regarding suitability of lands for irrigation agriculture.

 

Land capability mapping was based on the land features, in conjunction with climotological aspect, which describe the basic potential and constraints for land use in various parts of the country. Land had been evaluated for other uses including perennial cropping, fuel and fodder production, timber extraction, grazing and watershed protection. Land capability classification is qualitative, based mainly on the physical productive potential of the land. In the context of the capability, lands have been divided into seven different classes.

 

Land System Map

The land system map has provided a mythology for describing detailed information regarding land forms (soil), its texture, feature and the nature of the terrain. Land forms have been differentiated on the basis of patterns of physical structure, geological materials, slope and arable agricultural limits. Seventeen different types of land forms have been detected under the land system of Nepal.

LRMP Map-

Extensive studies were made to identify forestry and nursery, potential forest and plantation yields, irrigation potentiality leading to basin water requirements, estimated fertilizer requirement, predict the availability of rice straw for a paper mill, calculate the value lost through agricultural disruption caused by domestic water supply canals, predict food shortage and judge the potential effectiveness of food for work programs.

 

During the project implementation Nepal is divided into five Physiographic Reasons, according to its natural construction, ranging from the low lying sub-tropical Tarai, through the Siwalik to the snow covered High Himal as follows:
S.N. Physiographic Regions,  Per Cent,    Height in Metre
1.  High Himal =                     23 percent,   4000 – 8848 Metre
2.  High Mountain  =             20 percent,   2200 – 4000 Metre
3.  Middle Mountain =          30 percent,   800 – 2400 Metre
4.  Siwalik Low Hill =            13 percent,  200 – 1500 Metre
5.  Tarai plain  =                     14  percent, 60 – 330 Metre
Total = 100  percent

 

Categorization of land

Land Resources Mapping Project (LRMP) had adopted the categorization of land use as follows:
• Cultivated lands: All lands under agricultural practices.
• Non- cultivated inclusions: These are small pockets of land close to cultivated lands; too small to be mapped at a scale of 1:50,000. Although these pockets are not mapped separately from cultivated areas, there are nevertheless measured as a distinct land use category. They may contain barren areas, trees, shrubs, or grass.
• Grazing (grass lands): Large flat lands covered by grasses with the minimal number of other vegetation.
• Forested lands: It must have at least 10% crown cover but small pockets of plantation and burned areas are also included.
• Other lands: All land areas not included in other categories and may include rocky areas, lakes, ponds, waterways or settlements.

 
According to above mentioned categorization, data on basic land use categories as a whole of
Nepal have been computed and established as following land use categories:

S.N.           Types of uses,                                            Per Cent
1.  Cultivated Land (agricultural crops)                         21
2.  Non-cultivated (fallow) Land                                       7
3.  Grazing (grass land) Area                                           12
4.  Forest and Shrub Area                                                42
5.  Rocks, ice, water bodies, settlements and others   18
Total = 100

 

Computation of total area of Nepal

After the completion of the project, the total land area of Nepal was computed for the first time more scientifically. Before the LRMP various ministries, departments and organization of Nepal and international agencies had been mentioning the total area of Nepal differently. On the basis of LRMP data, the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) somehow adjusted and enunciated as the total land area of Nepal as 147,181 square kilometer. And this is followed by all and now it is established nationwide. Determination of the total area of Nepal was one of the major works of LRMP.

 

The total area of Nepal was calculated scientifically by planimetering the 266 map sheets and data using the international boundaries supplied by the government of Nepal. Area on map series had been measured, using compensating polar planimeters, an accuracy of ± 2 percent. The actual area measurements were carried out on ozalid copies of the maps. Each unit area was circumscribed a minimum of twice to ensure the required precision. The calculations applied to the planimetry data were rigorously checked, and the area totals of each sheet were verified as being within the acceptable limits.

 

LRMP data users

The value of the basic data for a wide range of uses was; as expected, recognized by different users. It is interesting to note that the maps and data prepared by the LRMP have been used by not only Nepal government organizations; but also by international organizations such as FAO, UNDP, UN-HABITAT, ADB, NGOs, INGOs and researchers; as the basic data on land and its information.

 

Ministry of Land Reform and Management (MoLRM) has established a National Land Use Project. They have used basically the LRMP data. However, they are preparing large scale land use maps and rather much more detailed land use database with the help of satellite images adopting the GIS technique with the help of basic data, information and maps prepared by LRMP.

 

MoLRM, with the consultation of Planning Commission has published the National ‘Land Use Policy’ of Nepal in 2012 on the basis of LRMP reports and data. The policy has been guided by the reports prepared by the LRMP. Now the government has classified the whole land of Nepal into six different types of land use areas as agricultural area, settlement (residential), professional business, forest and public use areas.

 

Last item

The maps and data had been generated in the manual format by LRMP. At the same time most of the reports were manual. This is one of the hindrances of the project. If it had been established in GIS database and maps produced in digital form, it would have been more valuable and user friendly that could be updated by the stakeholders.

 

It is because that the manually prepared reports and data sheets are out of available in the market. At that time limited copies of the paper copy reports had been prepared and it is now out of stock. Now the users have to find out the person who have this report and it should have to make photo copies which is cumbersome. However, some maps of the remote areas where there are no development activities are available in map sell depot of the market.

 

The next issue is the scale of maps- as it is small scale on 1:50,000. As a matter of fact, the maps of the Tarai plain areas and valley areas; where there are much development activities and faster changes of land use such as Pokhara, Chitawan, Kathmandu valley; should have at least on the scale 1:25,000 or still on larger form in the metropolitan areas. To meet all these needs, now it is a felt need to formulate a project to make up-to-date all the maps in the digital format and to establish the data and information in the form of GIS database. It is because of the fact that in 1979 the agricultural land including forest and shrubs were computed as 81 percent and the built-up area was 13 percent. But in 2008, the agricultural land has been decreased to 58 per cent and built-up area (settlement) has been increased at a faster rate as 37 per cent. Forest cover area has been decreased from 42 per cent to 37 per cent. This is due to deforestation by the local adjacent inhabitants and also during Maoists insurgency period.

 

Reference:

1 National Sample Census of Agriculture-2011/12 (December 2013), Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu:6
2 Land Resources Mapping Project Nepal (October 1984), Kenting Earth Sciences Limited, Kathmandu:1
3 Summary Report (1986), Land Resources Mapping Project, Kenting Earth Sciences Limited, Kathmandu, Nepal:33
4 Summary Report (1986), Land Resources Mapping Project, Kenting Earth Sciences Limited, Kathmandu, Nepal:5

5 Economics Report(1986), Land Resources Mapping Project, Kenting Earth Sciences Limited, Kathmandu, Nepal: List of Table
6 A Summary of the LRMP Results (March 1986), Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Energy Commission, Kathmandu:1 and 27
7 Summary Report (1986), Land Resources Mapping Project, Kenting Earth Sciences Limited, Kathmandu, Nepal:40

 

Japanese Climb Nepali Mountains

Japanese climb Nepali mountains

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Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

 

himalayan range

Nepal is known as the ‘Himalayan Country’ all over the world. And Japan is called the land of the ‘Rising Sun as Nippon.’ The boundary of Japan is surrounded by the sea water, whereas the boundary of Nepal is surrounded by the land mass. Japan has over 6,000 smaller islands, of which over 430 are inhabited with mainly four islands as Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. Adversely, Nepal belongs thousands of mountains, hills and hillocks having three main physiographic regions as High Himal, Middle Mountain and Southern Tarai Plain. Nepal belongs Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world and Japan has its own tallest Mount Fuji.

 

Nepal belongs 1,310 peaks and pinnacles exceeding 6000 metre from the mean sea level. Japan has 363 so called mountains which bears less than 3776 metre to the lowest 85 metre height. Nepal has the highest mountain in the world as Sagarmatha (Mount Everest / Quomolongma) having 8848 metre whereas Mount Fuji with 3776 m is the highest mountain in Japan.

Everest-fuji

 

It is an interesting fact that the highest mountain of Japan may be regarded as the low mountain for Nepal. Japan is located 5,095 kilometre far sky distance from Nepal. However, both the countries have a very close relationship in mountaineering activities, no matter how far it is physically. The high Himalaya of Nepal has enchanted the Japanese expeditioneers and climbers. So, many Japanese mountaineers have successfully climbed the high mountains of Nepal.

 

Large numbers of mountain lovers from Japan are regular visitors to Nepal since the ascent of Mt. Manaslu by the Japanese mountaineer Toshio Imanishi on 9 May 1956. Many Japanese mountaineers have climbed the high peaks of the Himalayas, including Sagarmatha. Ms. Junko Tabei from Japan successfully reached the summit of Sagarmatha on 16 May 1975 and she became the first woman in the world to scale Sagarmatha. She is enthusiastically praised by the people of all around the world for her achievement. She has climbed Mt. Fuji and Matterhorn in the Swiss Alps as well.

 

It is commendable that Nepal Himalaya has become a great theatre of mountaineering activities in these days also for the Japanese. Indeed, the mountains of Nepal have many facets that will continue to engage human endurance and ingenuity for generations to come. Mountains of Nepal Himalaya be used as a field where people from different countries can enhance their spirit of adventure, while also makes a strong appeal and effort for the conservation of the Himalayan environment and ecology.

 

The Himalaya is the ‘abode of snow’ and it is the youngest and highest mountain system of the world. It is a natural fact that the main Himalaya does not form a continuous chain but rather a series of lofty ranges separated by deep river gorges and high mountain passes. One third of the whole Himalayan Range or 800 km of its central section from Mahakalai Border River to Kanchanjunga massif traverses to the east lies in Nepal and it is known as ‘Nepal Himalaya.’

 

Mountains in Nepal

Nepal Himalaya has a panophy of 1,310 peaks and pinnacles exceeding 6000 m, a unique concentration of lofty dazzling summits. Thus, of the peaks exceeding 6000 m, there are 246 in the west, 567 in the central and 497 in the east. The number of peaks in Nepal by category of height are as followings:
Altitude (Metres)
1.  Eight Thousander   Above 8000 m =    14
2.  Seven Thousander   7500 – 8000 m =  43
3.  Seven Thousander   7000 – 7500m  =  87
4.  Six Thousander       6500 – 6999 m = 301
5.  Six Thousander      6000 – 6499 m  = 865
Total = 1,310 Peaks

Out of 1,310 mountain peaks, 326 have been opened for expedition till this date. Government of Nepal has a policy to open the remaining peaks for expedition step by step in future. It is to be noted that 112 peaks are still virgin, of those opened to this date. Nepal government has delegated the authority to Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA) to issue the climbing permit of 33 mountain peaks among 326 opened.

 

Mountains in Japan

Mount Fuji is the tallest mountain in Japan, at the height of 3776 metre. The peak is located on the island of Honshu, close enough to the city of Tokyo to be constantly in view one of the world’s most populated cities. Mount Fuji, also known as Mt. Fujiyama, has a famous conic shape. Mount Fuji stands at the centerpiece of Japanese art and culture, from ancient wood blocking pieces to modern-day paintings and photographs. The mountain has long been revered for its nearly perfect conic shape.

There are 363 mountains in Japan having its altitude from 85 m to 3776 m, the most famous of which seems to be Mount Fuji (3776 m) and the lowest is Mount Komaki (85.9 m). Followings are the number of mountains in Japan with their height:
Number of Mountains and Height in Metre

21  Mountains Above 3000 m
33 Mountains 2500 – 2999 m
44 Mountains 2000 – 2499 m
89 Montains    1500 – 1999 m
97 Mountains  1000 – 1499 m
79 Mountains     85 – 999 m

363 Total Mountain Peaks

 

Japanese climb Nepal Himal

Eight out of fourteen highest mountain peaks, including Mt. Everest lie in Nepal. Nepal has been receiving lots of Japanese mountaineering expedition teams in Nepal. Following table shows the successful Japanese climbers to various mountains of Nepal above 8000 metre from the mean sea level:

 

Name of Mountains above 8000 Metre Height in Metre Successful Total Climbers Among Successful Climbers
Nepali Japanese
1.  Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha)=8848 m, Successful Climbers= 3344, Nepali= more than 1000, Japanese=113
2.  Kanchanjunga= 8586m, Successful Climbers=296, Nepali= 57,  Japanese=22
3.  Lhotse= 8516 m, Successful Climbers=479, Nepali=123, Japanese=25
4.  Yalung Kang= 8505 m, Successful Climbers=  53, Nepali= 6, Japanese= 7
5.  Makalu= 8463 m,  Successful Climbers=376,  Nepali=82,  Japanese=20
6.  Cho Oyu= 8201 m,  Successful Climbers=13,  Nepali=0, Japanese= 74
7. Dhaulagiri= 8167 m, Successful Climbers= 451,  Nepali=50,  Japanese=17
8. Manaslu= 8163 m,  Successful Climbers=844, Nepali=286, Japanese= 84
9.  Annapurna First= 8091m,  Successful Climbers=221,  Nepali=57,  Japanese=26
Total Japanese Climbers= 388

 

Nepali and Japanese record holders

Tenzing Norgay Sherpa, as one of the two expeditioneers, was the first mountaineer to scale the Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha) in history on 29 May 1953. He was the Nepali, but India dragged him to become an adopted Indian. Apa Sherpa from Nepal holds the record for most summits with 21 times, the most recent on 11 May 2013. Teruo Matsuum with Naomi Uemora was the first Japanese mountaineer to reach to the Everest summit on 11 May 1965.

appaten

Junko Tabei, was the first female to reach the summit of Mount Everest located on the border of China (Tibet) and Nepal. She was the Japanese climber. Pasang Lhamu Sherpa was the first Nepalese woman to climb the summit of Mount Everest on 22 April 1993. During her descent from the summit the weather took a turn for the worst and due to the bad storm Pasang’s life was lost.

pasang lhamujunko tabai

Ms. Tamae Watanabe (73 years of age) succeeded in climbing to the top of Sagarmatha on 16 May 2002. She is the oldest woman in the world to reach the top successfully. She has always loved the mountains and has been climbing in the Japanese Alps and around the world for many years.

 

Yuichiro Miura (80 years) was the oldest Japanese male to summit the Everest on 23 May 2013. He is internationally well known as “the man who skied down Sagarmatha.” Min Bahadur Sherchan is the oldest Nepali Everest climber on 25 May 2008 at the age of 76. He held the record until 22 May 2013, when the 80-year-old Japanese climber Yuichiro Miura scaled the Everest.
Ms. Toshiko Uchida (71 years) overturned the record only months later by successfully climbing Mt. Cho Oyu on 1 October 2002 becoming the oldest person atop this mountain. Ken Noguchi (29 years), who has made a name for himself as a committed advocate for the environment, organized a clean-up expedition to the South Col starting from Everest-Lhotse base camp from 12 April to 22 May 2002 and brought down a large amount of waste material. He had previously made clean-up expeditions to Sagarmatha in 2000 and 2001.

 
Nepali Nima Chemji Sherpa was the youngest person and woman who summitted Everest on 19 May 2012. Nepali, Lakpa Sherpa holds the women’s summit record with 6 times (1 south and 5 from north). Nepali mountaineer Babu Chhiri Sherpa stayed for the longest time (21 hours) on the summit that spent the night on 6 May 1999 (summiteed two times in one season).

 

Prem Dorjee from Nepal holds the record for the fastest ascent from Everest Base Camp to summit with 8 hours and 10 minutes on 21 May 2004. Nepali climbers Prem Dorjee and Moni Mulepati were the first two people to marry on top of Mount Everest on 30 May 2005.

 

Ming Kepa, the Sherpa girl of Nepal holds the world record as the world’s youngest person to climb Mount Everest. She was only 15 years of age, when she reached at the top. The record was retained from 2003 to 2010; however, she still holds the title of being the youngest girl ever to reach the roof of the world. Ming made the successful attempt from the Chinese side because the Nepalese law does not allow climbers under the age of 16 to ascend the Everest.

 

Latest death of a Japanese climber

A veteran Japanese climber Yoshimasa Sasaki 59 years of age, slipped and fell to his death while climbing Mount Manaslu in Nepal on 26 September 2014. Rescuers have recovered his dead body. Yoshimasa from Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan slipped on ice, while climbing at 7,300 meters on the 8,163-meter mountain, the world’s eighth-highest mountain peak. He fell 25 meters down. He was a part of the 10-member HTB Mountain Professionals Manaslu Expedition 2014, comprising two Japanese, three Norwegians, three Chinese, an American and an Irish climber.

 

Japanese climber felicitated

Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA) organized a felicitation program on 10 June 2012 in honor of Japanese climber, Hirotaka Takeuchi- the first Japanese to climb all the peaks above 8000 m. The chief guest for the program was Dr. Ganesh Raj Joshi, Secretary for Ministry for Culture, Tourism & Civil Aviation and Japanese Ambassador His Excellency Kunio Takahashi attended the program as guest of honor.

 
Takeucha expressed his hope that the success of this expedition will definitely promote Nepal’s mountain tourism in Japan. The chief guest of the program also congratulated Takeucha for being the first Japanese to achieve this record and wished him for the success of his future endeavor.
Finally, NMA President Zimba Zangbu Sherpa recalled the first successful ascent of Manaslu by the Japanese team on 9 May 1956. He also mentioned about the good relationship of NMA with Japanese alpine organizations like Japan Mountaineering Association, Japanese Alpine Club, Japan Workers’ Alpine Federation, Nagano Mountaineering Association and Himalayan Adventure Trust of Japan. He also expressed his gratefulness for having the opportunity to felicitate one of the greatest Japanese climbers.

International mountaineering activities

Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA) and Japan Mountaineering Association (JMA) have a very good relationship with each other. Honorary UIAA Member Kazuo Saito of the Japan Mountaineering Association who initiated the establishment of the UAAA in 1993 to promote climbing in Asia and the UIAAs regional activities had visited Nepal and NMA last month. He suggested some points on the Nepal Himal Peak Profile, which NMA has started to prepare it.

 
The Union of Asian Alpine Associations (UAAA)’s 20-years special birthday was celebrated in a grand style at the group’s Annual General Assembly held in Hiroshima, Japan from 21-25 November 2014. The organization consists of 19 member Federation from 15 countries and Nepal is one of them. Ang Tshering Sherpa, President of NMA had led the delegation to represent Nepal and to make presentation on the activities of NMA. The other members were Mohan Krishna Sapkota- Joint Secretary of Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation, Tulasi Prasad Gautam- Director General, Department of Tourism, Santa Bir Lama- Ist VP, Deebas Bikram Shah- IInd VP, Thakur Raj Pandey- General Secretary, Tika Ram Gurung-Treasurer, Churrim Sherpa-Board Member, Lakpa Sherpa- Board Member, Prem Gurung- Board Member and Bimal Naharki- Board Member Ang Tshering Sherpa President of NMA, Vice-President of UAAA and UIAA Honorary Member presented the activities of NMA in the general assembly programme mentioning that as the year 2014 marks the Diamond Jubilee of the first ascent of Mt. Cho-Oyu.

 

NMA has suggested that the government should waive the Royalty Fee for Mt. Cho-Oyu for that year. In the past 20 years only 2 climbers have ascended Mt. Cho-Oyu from Nepal side, so this decision to waive off the Royalty Fee may encourage and increase the number of climbers attempting to climb Mt. Cho-Oyu. Similarly, the same should be done for the Diamond Jubilee of Mt. Kanchenjunga and Mt. Makalu in 2015 and the Diamond Jubilee of Mt. Manaslu and Mt. Lhotse in 2016. It is important for the Government to celebrate these anniversaries as it helps in bringing media attention to Nepal’s tourism industry which will promote the peaks specifically, boosts up the image of Nepal and provides appropriate opportunities for Nepal to announce the developments and introduces new changes to improve mountain tourism.

 
NMA President Sherpa conveyed to the international mountaineering community to understand Nepal’s sincerity and positivism in addressing concerns and problems in Himalayan Mountaineering and environmental protection. He made International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UAAA) aware of Nepal’s vulnerability to Climate Change and the threats of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods. He requested to the Chairman and members of the international commissions, who are responsible internationally, to recognize the new 8000 m peaks of Nepal. He mentioned Nepal’s interests and pledging support to the project, as international recognition of these peaks will be greatly beneficial to the economy as well as employment generation of Nepal as a whole.

 
He drew the attention of Chairman and members of mountaineering commission, expedition working group, mountain protection commission and access commission- how to work closer with the UIAA and UAAA for better promotion of Nepal’s mountain tourism and protection of the mountain environment. It was discussed with the Chairman and members of International Ski-Mountaineering Federation to explore the possibility of ski-mountaineering in Nepal. In response, it was said that they are ready to give technical expertise and extend cooperation, if Nepal should require their assistance.

 
Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA) also participated in General Assembly of Union of International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA) held at Flagstaff of Arizona, USA from 15-18 October 2014. NMA President Ang Tshering Sherpa, 1st Vice President Santa Bir Lama, Central Executive Board Member Pemba Dorje Sherpa, representatives from Ministry Of Culture, Tourism And Civil Aviation- Secretary Suresh Man Shrestha and Under Secretary Ram Prasad Sapkota participated in the meeting. The meeting discussed on mountain environment, climbing and mountaineering ethics, access to the natures, mountaineering expedition, training standards, youth climbing and mountaineering mobilization, ice climbing development, UIAA safety standards, medical and anti-doping role along with mountain related issues. Sherpa as the President of NMA and Shrestha as Secretary of Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation of Government of Nepal addressed the General Assembly.
Ang Tshering Sherpa expressed that NMA in collaboration with the government to of Nepal is willing to organize Himalayan Host Countries meeting in Nepal in a near future. Both the UIAA and UAAA General Assembly 2016 along with the marking of historic events of the diamond jubilees celebration of first successful ascents would be ‘Brand Event’ in Nepal, if the opportunity to organize the UIAA General Assembly 2016 is given to Nepal. The Government of Nepal will fully support these events for their grand success.
The UIAA was established in 1932 and it has a global presence on five continents with 80 member associations in 50 countries representing about 3 million people. Nepal is the member country and Ang Tshering Sherpa is the Honorary Member of UIAA. The organization’s mission is to promote the growth and protection of mountaineering and climbing worldwide, advance safe and ethical mountain practices and promote responsible access, culture and environmental protection. The UIAA is recognized by the International Olympic Committee for mountaineering and climbing.

 

Last item

Japan doesn’t have high mountains as Nepal belongs many high mountains including the highest peak in the world. Various shape, size, face and figure of the mountains of Nepal lure especially the Japanese people. More and more mountain lovers from Japan should visit Nepal not only for the mountaineering; but also for adventure tourism such as natural sight seeing, hiking, trekking, mountain biking, bungee jumping, para-gliding, rafting, skiing, and also for pilgrim tourism to Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha. This will enhance the mutual co-operation between not only the mountaineers of Nepal and Japan but also in the people to people level.♣

Reference:

1. Harka Gurung (2004), Peaks and Pinnacles, Nepal Mountaineering Association, Kathmandu : 134
2. Mountains in Nepal Facts & Figures (2013)), Government of Nepal Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Civil Aviation, Kathmandu
3. Source: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/…/List_of_m.
4. Based on the text of Mountaineering in Nepal Facts & Figures (June 2013), Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Civil aviation, Kathmandu ( Data up to May 2012).
5. Embassy, of Japan in Nepal http://www.np.emb-japan.go.jp/…/hi..
6. Everest for kids http://www.alanarnette.com
7. Kyodo 29 September 2014
8. http://www.holidayhimalaya.com/news-n-events/143-japanese-climber-felicitated#sthash.vxQoCC26.dpuf

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