Let us not hurl stones from no-man’s land

Let us not hurl stones from no-man’s land

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


After the promulgation of new constitution in Nepal, some Tarai-based political party leaders have raised agitation in the Tarai plain area. They are saying that the new constitution is not inclusive and they have been discriminated. Their demands have not fulfilled concerning the demarcation of provinces. Some districts of plain Tarai have not been included in the Madhes Provinces. Madhes Pradesh must be demarcated on on the basis of number of population.


In response, Kathmandu central government reiterates that the new constitution is inclusive, as the constitutional rights of lower section of various ethnic groups of the society have been incorporated. Proportional representation from  the marginalized and weaker ethnic society and women section have been preserved to uplift them and to reach their voices to the central government and even constitutional parliament. According to the soil and environment of Nepal, provinces have been demarcated on the basis of population as well as the geography of Nepal.


Having not satisfied by the statement of the centre, Madhes-based party leaders circulated misinformation and created misinterpretation, and they misguided Madhesi ignorant general people to make agitation against central government. Some groups of agitators blocked India-Nepal border crossing-points. Government of India did not let cross the vehicles, loaded with medicines, goods of necessity, daily consumption materials and earthquake relief materials. Besides, petroleum product carrier tankers, gas bullets were blocked unofficially supporting the local border agitators.


Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s political party BJP cadres provided food and drink and temporary shelter to the Nepali agitators. For example, BJP party worker Mahesh Kumar Agrawal provided breakfast, lunch, tea and snacks and dinner to  the Nepali agitators free of cost at Raxaul-Birganj border crossing no-man’s land. The agitators/dissatisfied persons, staying on the no-man’s land of the Indian side, hurled stones and bricks many days to the Nepal security personnel. Indian authorities did not take any action against the foreign agitators who were throwing and hurling stones and bricks to Nepal side, standing on the no-man’s land. Instead, Indians were instigating and encouraging Nepali agitators to expand their illegal activities.


Here lies a question, why Indian government did not check the unlawful activities of the Nepali dissatisfied group, who were housed on the no-man’s land of Indian side? In fact, the Indian policemen should chase the Nepali agitators from no-man’s land to their own territory.


There are no-man’s lands (ten-yard lands) each at India-Nepal border on both the sides of the Junge Boundary Pillars. According to the international boundary principles, conventions and practices; the no-man’s land must not be used or occupied by anyone any time. Only the criminal occupies and stays over no-man’s land for some hours or days. In principle, there will be nothing to eat and drink, no shelter on the no-man’s land. After some days, the criminal will be thirsty, hungry and sleepless. And he will reach into a point of death. So he will step beyond the no-man’s land to get water and food to save his life. In this condition, the criminal will be arrested by the policemen of that frontier. If he had committed crimes on that frontier, he will be punished by that government. If the crime was done on the other side of the border, the criminal should be handed over to the neighbouring country’s’ policemen.


But on the contrary of the international principle and practice, the Indian government provided protection to the Nepali agitators who were staying illegally on the Indian side no-man’s land, who are hurling stones and bricks to the neighbouring country’s security personnel. It is a kind of absurd and paradox shown by the Indian side.


In fact, the Nepali dissatisfied agitators are hurling stones to their own motherland with a rage. It is something like that they are stoning their own homes, standing on their own courtyard, just in front of their main door. When someone throws stones on his own home, the stone will break his window frames and glasses. The stone may damage and destroy the walls of his own sweet home. In the same way, let us not hurl stones towards our own country standing on the neighbour’s no-man’s land illegally. It will break and destroy even our own individual homes, so  that we have to bear extra expenses ultimately to repair and maintain our broken windows and destroyed lovely homes. If some of the groups are dissatisfied with the new constitution, they should gherao Singha Darbar (central secretariat), block the parliament motion and they must seek legal action slanting at the Supreme Court. Instead, it is not perfect to hurl stones and bricks brutally, standing illegally on the no-man’s land of Indian side.


(This is more or less the summary of my below posted article, published on the Kantipur Daily).        

Dasgaja bata Dhunga


Sequence of Border Blockade by India




Sequence of Indian Blockade

Kantipur Nakabandi 72-6-14

Border Blockade Time and Again

पटकपटक नाकाबन्दी !


Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

आकारमा सानो भएको देशलाई ठूलो देशले कजाउन खोज्दो रहेछ। सानो देश कजिन नमानेको खण्डमा अथवा सार्वभौमिकताको कुरामा अडान लिएको खण्डमा अनेक बहाना बनाएर काबूमा राख्न खोज्दो रहेछ। छिमेकी देशको आन्तरिक मामिलामा सानोतिनो निहुँ पाउने बित्तिकै मुद्दा छिन्न अघिसर्दै गाँज्ने प्रवृत्ति निकाल्दो रहेछ। भारतले नेपालमाथि यस्तै प्रवृत्ति देखाएर अघोषित नाकाबन्दी गरी नेपाललाई कजाउन खोजिएको देखियो।

भारतले असोज ६ देखि नेपालतर्फ आउने मालबाहक यातायातको साधनलाई चल्न नदिई ढुवानी ठप्प पारेर अघोषित नाकाबन्दी सुरु गरेको छ। केही दिनमा विधिवत नाकाबन्दी नै घोषणा हुनसक्छ। यसमा एककदम अघि बढेर हवाई नाकाबन्दी पनि हुन सक्छ। यो पहिलो नाकाबन्दी होइन र अन्तिम हुनेछ पनि भन्न सकिँदैन। वि.सं. २०२७ मा हल्का नाकाबन्दी गरिएको थियो भने २०४५–४७ मा कडा आर्थिक नाकाबन्दी भएको थियो। काठमाडौंबाट उडेको इन्डिएन एयरलाइनको हवाईजहाज भारतीयले अपहरण गरी अफगानिस्तानको कन्दहार पुर्‍याइँदा २०५६ पुस १० देखि २०५७ असोज १५ सम्म नेपालमा हवाई उडान नभरी भारतले नेपालमाथि हवाई नाकाबन्दी गर्‍यो। त्यसैले भारतद्वारा गरिएको वर्तमान नाकाबन्दी नौलो होइन। नेपालले यसभन्दा पहिले पनि नाकाबन्दी भोगिसकेको छ। थाहा छैन नेपालले अझै कति नाकाबन्दी खेप्नुपर्ने हो।



२०२७ को नाकाबन्दी

वि.सं.२०२७ मा नेपालमा भारतले नाकाबन्दी गर्नुको कारणचाहिँ भारतको खटनपटन नेपालले मान्न हिचकिचाउनाले हो। यसका परिप्रेक्षमा नेपालमाथि पर्न आएको दबाबका कारण दुई देशबीच राजनीतिक सम्बन्धमा तनाव आएको थियो। नेपालको पञ्चायती राजनीतिक परिस्थिति जस्तो भए तापनि नेपालले घुँडा टेक्ने मनसाय देखाएन। फलतः भारतले नाकाबन्दीको नीति अख्तियार गर्‍यो। तर यो नाकाबन्दी लामो समय रहेन। आपसी कुराकानीद्वारा सल्टियो। यस नाकाबन्दीबाट नेपाललाई खास नकारात्मक असर परेन। त्यस बखत नेपाल खाद्यवस्तु उत्पादनमा आत्मनिर्भरजस्तै थियो। नून र मसलाजस्ता पदार्थमा परनिर्भर रहेको थियो। पेट्रोलियम पदार्थ नभएर जनजीवनमा खास असर पर्ने अवस्था थिएन। नेपालीको क्रयशक्ति त्यस्तो बढेको थिएन र खर्च गर्ने बजार पनि सीमित थियो। त्यसैले कसैलाई वास्तै भएन। नेपालीले ती दिन बिर्सिए।

२०४५ को नाकाबन्दी

वि.सं. २०४५ को नाकाबन्दीचाहिँ निकै कडा थियो। २०४५ चैत १० देखि नेपालको भारतसँग जोडिएको पारवहनका मूल १० नाका र अन्य ११ नाकामा भारतले एकाएक नाकाबन्दी गर्‍यो। यात्रु वारपार गर्न समेत लगभग मुस्किल परेको थियो। केही महिनापछि जोगबनी–बिराटनगर र रक्सौल–बीरगंज नाका हल्का गरियो, स्वविवेकीय पद्धति अपनाइयो। यो नाकाबन्दी नेपालमा पुनः प्रजातन्त्र प्राप्तिपछि २०४७ असार १७ देखि खुलेको थियो। लगभग १५ महिना नाकाबन्दी हुनुको पछाडि मोटामोटी निम्न पाँच कारण रहेको थियो।
१. नेपालले चीनबाट हतियार भित्र्याएको।
२. भारतको प्रस्तावित सम्झौता नेपालले नमानेको।
३. राजिव गान्धी र राजा वीरेन्द्रबीच प्रोटोकलको मतभेद।
४.सोनिया गान्धीलाई पशुपतिनाथ दर्शन गर्न नदिएको झोंक।
५. व्यापार पारवहन सन्धिको म्याद समाप्त हुने मौका छोपेर पनि यो नाकाबन्दी गरिएको थियो।
यी बुँदाहरुको छोटकरी विवरण यस्तो रहेको छः
१. चीनबाट नेपालले एके–४७ राइफल, एन्टी एयरक्राफ्ट गन तथा गोलीगाठ्ठा भारतलाई सोध्दै नसोधी खरीद गर्‍यो भन्ने आरोप भारतको थियो।
२. भारतले प्रस्ताव गरेको दुई देशबीचको सम्झौतामा नेपालले पटक्कै दिलचस्पी नदेखाएका कारण भारतले नेपालमाथि आर्थिक नाकाबन्दीको औचित्यको प्रमाण प्रत्यक्ष/परोक्ष रुपले व्यक्त गरेको थियो।
३. नेपालको मनमा चिसो पस्दै गएको समयमा राजा वीरेन्द्र र प्रधानमन्त्री राजीव गान्धीबीचको प्रोटोकल भेदभावका कारण पनि नाकाबन्दीको एक कारक तत्व थियो। राजा वीरेन्द्रले आफ्ना प्रधानमन्त्री मरिचमानसिंह श्रेष्ठको प्रोटोकलमा राजीव गान्धीलाई राख्न खोज्दा गान्धी वेखुसी भएका थिए।
४. यतिबेलै नेपाल–भारत व्यापार पारवहन सन्धिको म्याद सकिने अवस्था थियो। व्यापार र पारवहन सन्धिलाई छुट्याएर अलग अलग गर्ने या एउटै गर्ने भन्ने सम्बन्धमा समेत कुराकानी मिलेन। यसै खिचातानीलाई ‘ट्रम्प कार्ड’ को रुपमा लिई सन्धिको म्याद सकिने दिनको मुहूर्त पारेर २०४५ चैत १० देखि भारतले नेपालमाथि आर्थिक नकाबन्दी घोषणा गर्‍यो।
५. नेपाल र भारतबीच मनमुटाव भई नाकाबन्दी गरिनुको अर्को एउटा कारणचाहिँ सामाजिक/धार्मिक रहेको मान्छन् विश्लेषकहरु। सोनिया गान्धीलाई पशुपतिनाथको दर्शन गर्न नदिइएको कारणले पनि वैमनस्यता उन्पन्न भई नाकाबन्दी गर्ने कामको आगोमा घिउ थपिए जस्तै भएको थियो। सोनिया हिन्दू मूलभन्दा बाहिरको जन्मजात भएकाले भारतबाटै आएका पशुपतिनाथका मूलभट्ट पूजारीको निर्णयअनुसार दर्शन गर्न नपाएको कुरा कूटनीटिक तहबाट गान्धीलाई कसैले सम्झाउन नसकेको स्मरण गर्छन् नेपालका कूटनीतिज्ञहरु।


कूटनीतिज्ञ तथा पूर्वपरराष्ट्रमन्त्री रमेशनाथ पाण्डेको ‘कूटनीति र राजनीति’ नामक हालै बजारमा आएको पुस्तकको केही हरफ सापटी लिन्छु। ‘दुई देशबीचको सम्बन्ध चारैतिरबाट बिग्रँदै गएको अवस्थामा भारतका विदेशमन्त्री पिभी नरसिंह रावको नेपाल भ्रमण भएको थियो। रावले शिवरात्रीमा पशुपतिनाथ दर्शन गरे र विधिपूर्वक पूजा गरे। पशुपतिनाथमा मूलभट्टले रावलाई चन्दनको टीका र रुद्राक्षको माला लगाइदिएर अब प्रधानमन्त्री भएर दर्शन गर्न आउनुहोस् भनेका थिए। यसपछि भारतीय राजनीतिमा पहिलोपटक गैरनेहरु परिवारका राव पहिलो प्रधानमन्त्री बने।’
राव प्रधानमन्त्री भएपछि फेरि पशुपतिनाथको दर्शन गर्न आएनन्। यसैकारण उनको ख्याती पनि जति जम्नुपर्ने हो त्यति मात्रामा झाँगिन नसकेको पनि हो कि! यिनै दृष्टान्तका कारणले नरेन्द्र मोदी सत्तामा टिकिरहन र प्रख्याती जमाइरहन उनले साउने सोमबार परेको महाशिवरात्रीको शुभमुहूर्तका दिन पशुपतिनाथको दर्शन गरेका हुन् कि!
कतै सोनिया गान्धीले पशुपतिनाथको दर्शन पाउन नसकेकै कारण उनी भारतको प्रधानमन्त्री बन्न नसकेको पो हो कि? त्यसै बेला राजीव गान्धीले आफ्नी पत्नी सोनियालाई भावी प्रधानमन्त्री बनाउन पशुपतिनाथको दर्शन गराउन खोजेका थिए कि? यसबाट नेपाल र भारतको आपसी सम्बन्ध सामाजिक र धार्मिक तवरमा समेतले बिग्रने र बन्ने रहेको आभास पाउन सकिन्छ।
यी कुरा जे जस्तो भए तापनि नाकाबन्दीका समय खाद्यान्न, नून, तेल, मसला नपाएर एकैजना नेपाली मरेनन्। निश्चय पनि मालसामानको अभाव तथा मूल्य वृद्धि भएको थियो। मानिसले जोहो र फारो गरेर काम चलाए। सरकारले पेट्रोलियम पदार्थ तथा अत्यावश्यकीय दैनिक खपतका सामान हवाईजहाजद्वारा तेस्रो देशबाट धेरथोर ल्याएको थियो।

वर्तमान नाकाबन्दी

असोज ६ देखि अघोषित नाकाबन्दी गरिनुमा नेपालको आन्तिरिक राजनीतिरुपी परालको त्यान्द्रो समातिएको छ। यस्तो त्यान्द्रोमा मधेसवादी नेपालीका कुरा काठमाडौंले सुनेन, मधेस समस्या सरकारले वास्ता गरेन भन्ने पृष्ठभूमि रहेको छ। यस सम्बन्धमा भारतको खास गरी ६ बुँदा रहेको पाइन्छः
१. मधेसको समस्या समाधानका लागि काठमाडौंले पहल नगरेको।
२. नयाँ संविधान जारी गर्न केही साता ढिला गर्न भारतले गरेको अनुरोध नेपालले अस्वीकार गरेको।
३. नेपालबारे दिल्लीमा अतिरञ्जित जानकारी प्रवाह भएको।
४. नेपालको मैदानी भागमा तनावको गतिविधिले बिहार राज्यको निर्वाचनमा प्रभाव पार्छ भनी गरिएको विश्लेषण।
५. भारतीय यातायातकर्मीको सुरक्षाको चासो नदिइएको विश्लेषण।
६. लिपुलेकबारे नेपालले आवाज उठाएको।
यी बुँदाका बारे छोटो विवरण यस्तो रहेको छः
१. हालको नाकाबन्दीमा मधेसवादी नेपालीको कुरा काठमाडौले सुनेन, मधेस समस्या समाधानका लागि नेपाल सरकारले पहल गरेन भन्ने भारतको बुझाइ छ। नेपालको जस्तोसुकै आन्तरिक विवाद नेपालीले नै समाधान गर्ने हो भनी भारतले पटक पटक भन्दै आएकोमा कार्यगत रुपमा यस्तो देखिएन। देशको सरकार प्रमुख प्रधानमन्त्रीले पटकपटक अनुरोधमूलक पत्र लेखी वार्ताका लागि आह्वान गर्दा मधेसवादी नेताहरु आएनन्। प्रधानमन्त्री आफैं ती नेताहरुको पार्टी कार्यालयमा गई वार्ताका लागि अनुरोध गरे। वार्तामा आएर कुरा नमिल्नु एउटा पक्ष हो तर वार्तामै नआउनु अर्को कुरा हो। ‘नेगोसियसन’ को विधिमा वार्तामा नआउनु भनेको नआउने पक्षको माग युक्तिसंगत नभएको तथा छलफलमा प्रस्तुत गरिने बुँदाको तुक नभएको ठहरिन सक्छ। उचित बुँदामा सौहार्दपूर्ण तरिकाले वार्ता गर्दै टेबल तताउन सक्नुपर्छ। यस सम्बन्धमा काठमाडौंले पहल नगरेको होइन। तर मधेसवादी नेता नआएकोले समाधानको कुरा प्रारम्भ नै नभएको देखिन्छ। यसबाट समाधानको बाटो नसमाती चर्काउनेतर्फ लागेको आभास हुनसक्छ, चाहे जुन पक्षको गल्ती कमी कमजोरी भएपनि।

Border Outpost
२. नयाँ संविधान जारी गर्न केही समय ढिला गर्न भारतले अनुरोध गरेकोलाई नकार्न सकिन्न। तर दिउँसोको काम रातमा आएर गर्न नसकिने भनेजस्तै संविधान पारित गर्ने समय पाकीसकेपछि गरेको भारतको अनुरोधलाई नेपालले विवस भएर काँचो पार्न मिलेन र भारतको अनुरोध कार्यान्वयन हुन सकेन। यद्यपी रजस्वला भएकी महिलालाई कुना सारेजस्तै नेपालले दुई दिनको समय पहिले नै सारिसकेको थियो। तर यस मामिलामा भारतको नेपालप्रतिको कूटनीति विश्वले धिमा भएको देखे तापनि भारतले नेपालमाथि नाकाबन्दी लगायो।
३. मधेसमा ६० हजार नेपाली सेना परिचालन गरी मधेसी समूदायलाई हठात दबाइँदैछ, केन्द्रले सेना परिचालन गरेको छ, मधेसी समूदायको जायज मागसमेत सुन्ने गरिएको छैन भन्ने अतिरञ्जित जानकारी दिल्लीमा प्रवाह भएको रहेछ। यसैलाई आधार मानेर दिल्लीले दिनको दुई पटकसम्म नेपालबारे विज्ञप्ति जारी गर्‍यो। यसमा न दिल्लीले यसलाई राजनीतिक तहबाट पुष्टि गर्‍यो न त नेपालले नै समय छँदै गलतफहमी हटाउने कोशिस गर्‍यो। शान्ति सुरक्षा कायम राख्न नेपाली सेनालाई सुपरीवेक्षण गर्न पठाइएको हो। सेना तैनाथ गर्न संकटकाल लागू गरी राष्ट्रपतिले घोषणा गरिनुपर्ने प्रावधान रहेको छ। तर यस्तो कुने कार्य भएको छैन भनी नेपालले अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय जगतमा आफ्नो आजाव पुर्‍याउन सकेन। यसै कारणले नेपालले नाकाबन्दी व्यहोर्नु परेको छ।
४. नेपालको सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रमा तनाव र हिंसात्मक गतिविधि बढ्दै गएकोले बिहारमा असोज २५ देखि कात्तिक १९ सम्म ६ चरणमा चुनावमा सुरक्षा खतरा आउन सक्ने परिकल्पना गर्दै दिल्लीबाट नाकाबन्दीकै विशेष आदेश गरियो। सीमा नाकाका भन्सार कार्यालय र एसएसबी क्याम्पमा। अनि भारततिर सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रमा ३२ किलोमिटरसम्मको सडकमा गाडिको लाईन खडा भयो। यसबाट भारतीय आवागमनमा पनि बाधा पर्‍यो। नेपालतर्फचाहिँ सामानको अभाव हुन थाल्यो।
५. भारतीय मालबाहक कम्पनी र यातायातकर्मीले नेपाल आवत जावत गर्न सीमामा कठिनाइ भोग्नुपर्छ र तिनको सुरक्षा चासो नेपालले राख्दैन भन्ने विनाआधारको पूर्वानुमानमा भारतीय सीमाबाट नेपालतर्फ ढुवानी साधन आउन रोकियो। जब कि कार्यबाहक परराष्ट्रमन्त्री खगराज अधिकारीले भारतीय नागरिकको ज्यान र धनको नेपालमा पूर्ण सुरक्षा रहेको कुरा भारतीय राजदूतलाई पटक पटक बताएका थिए। तर पनि नेपालको सीमामा नाकाबन्दी सिर्जना हुन पुग्यो।
६. यस नाकाबन्दीको छैटौं कारण लिपुलेक–लिम्पियाधुरामा नेपालको सम्प्रभूताबारे नेपाली जनताले विश्वसमक्ष आवज प्रवाह गरेकोले पनि भारत केही बेखुश भएको हो कि ठान्छन् अध्येताहरु। कालापानी सुस्ता समस्या समाधान गर्न प्रधानमन्त्री नरेन्द्र मोदीले नेपाल भ्रमणको क्रममा विदेश सचिवलाई निर्देश गरेका छन्। यस्तो निर्देश गरिएको मामिला टुंगो नलाग्दै यसै मामिलालाई लिएर नेपालमाथि नाकाबन्दी नै गर्न कतिसम्म युक्तिसंगत हुन्छ भन्ने कुरो आफ्नै ठाउँमा छ। विश्वले यसको मूल्यांकन गर्नेछन्।


नाकाबन्दी गर्न नमिल्ने

नेपाल भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्र भएकाले छिमेकीले नाकाबन्दी लगाउन अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय कानुन, मान्यता, अभ्यास तथा परिपाटीले नमिल्ने कुरा अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय कानुनविद् तथा ज्ञाताहरुले भन्दै आएका छन्। यसको पुस्ट्याइँ यस्तो रहेको छ।
१) भारतले नेपाललाई भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रको रुपमा सन्धि गरेको छ। उक्त सन्धिलाई लत्याएर नाकाबन्दी गर्न कानुनसम्मत हुन सक्दैन।
२) नेपाल–भारतबीच व्यापार तथा पावहन सन्धि छ। सन्धिको दफा २ ले एकअर्का देशको सामानलाई कुनै अवरोधविना आवत जावत गर्न दिने उल्लेख छ। यसको विपरित नाकाबन्दी गर्दा सन्धिको दफा ६ उल्लंघन गरिएको ठहर्छ। जसमा तेस्रो मुलुकबाट आएको कुनै पनि सामानलाई बाटामा अवरोध पुर्‍याउन पाइने छैन भनिएको छ।
३) भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्रका लागि बिनारोकटोक मालसामान ल्याउन लैजान ट्रान्जिट सुविधा दिनपर्ने डब्लूटिओको दफा ५ मा उल्लिखित छ। यस्तै, संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको अन्क्लोसले भूपरिवेष्ठित मुलुकलाई समुद्रसम्म पहूँच दिनपर्ने उल्लेख छ। त्यसलाई भारतले नकार्न मिल्दैन।
४) खुला विश्व अर्थतन्त्रमा भारतले नेपाललाई नाकाबन्दी गर्नु भनेको भारतको नेपाल नीति असफल भएको ठहरिई विश्वमा भारतको छवि धुमिल हुनपुग्नु हो।
५) नाकाबन्दी गर्नु भनेको हेलसिन्की अभिसन्धिअनुसार कूटनीतिक मर्यादाको उल्लंघन गर्नु हो। अभिसन्धिविपरित यस्तो मर्यादा तोड्दै जाने हो भने भारत संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको समितिहरुमा उमेदवार हुँदा विश्व रंगमञ्चमा पराजित हुन पुग्छ। यसै कारणले सुरक्षा परिषदमा भारतको उमेद्वार हुने सपना हालै तुहिएको छ।
६) नेपाललाई भारतीय आयल निगमले इन्धन आपूर्ति गर्ने दुई देशीय सम्झौता रहेको छ। पाँचवर्षे कार्यकालमा नेपालले भारतबाट निर्वाध रुपमा पेट्रलियम पदार्थ आपूर्ति गर्न पाउनुपर्छ। नेपालले बाँकी बक्यौता सम्पूर्ण रकम चुक्ता गरी असोज ६ मा २ करोड रुपैंया अतिरिक्त रकमका रुपमा अग्रिम दिएको छ।


समाधानको संयन्त्र

दुई छिमेकीका बीच आइपरेको समस्या आपसी समझदारी, मित्रता, सौहार्दता, समानता, भातृत्वका आधारमा समाधान खोज्न सकिन्छ। नेपाल र भारतको सम्बन्ध रोटीबेटीको छ भन्ने गरिन्छ। यसैलाई केन्द्रित गरी एकआपसमा न्यानो संवाद प्रवाह गर्ने ठोस संयन्त्र सिर्जना गरिनुपर्छ, गलत फहमी हटाउनलाई। नाकाबन्दी प्रकरण गलत सन्देश प्रवाह हुनु र त्यसलाई पत्याउनाका कारणले भएको हुनसक्छ। देशभित्रका केही समुदायबीच भएको मनोमालिन्यका कुरा छिमेकी मुलुकमा अतिरञ्जितका रुपमा पुग्दा यस्ता घटना सिर्जना भएको हुनसक्छ। कूटनीतिक तरवरबाट नेपालले वास्तविक परिस्थितिबारे जानकारी दिने परिपाटीमा तदारुकता ल्याउनु पर्छ। जसमा कि यसलाई क्रशचेक जाँच गरी भारत सौहार्दताका साथ निर्णयमा पुग्न सकोस्।

नाकाबन्दीको विषयलाई नेपालले अन्तर्राष्ट्रियकरण गर्ने कुरो पनि उठेको छ। नेपाल–भारत उच्चस्तरीय संवादमा कुरो नमिलेको खण्डमा भारतलाई अग्रीम जानकारी दिई अन्तराष्ट्रिय संस्था गुहार्नु मर्यादाजनक हुने कुरा नेपालले बिर्सन हुँदैन। अर्को कुरा उत्तरको छिमेकीबाट आवश्यकीय खस्रा लत्ताकपडासमेत आयात गर्दा भारतको कलकारखाना र भारतीय सीमावर्ती बजारलाई प्रतिकूल असर पर्ने कुरा बेलैमा स्मरण गराउन सक्नुपर्छ। कतिपय भारतीय कारखानाबाट उत्पादित सुती कपडामा ‘मेड फर नेपाल’ लेखिएको छ। यस्तै, कतिपय फलामजन्य वस्तु नेपालले मात्रै किन्दछ। यस्ता वस्तु नेपालले नकिने भारतीय कारखाना बन्द हुन पनि सक्छ। अर्कोतर्फ कतिपय भारतीय उद्योगले नेपालको कच्चा पदर्थ नपाए धरासायी हुने अवस्था आउन सक्छ।
संविधान जारी भएपछि नेपालको परिस्थितिलाई चीनले गम्भीरताका साथ हेरिरहेको र नेपालमा उपभोक्ता सामग्री आपूर्ती गर्न कठीन हुँदा सहयोग गर्न चीन सँधै तत्पर रहेको हालैको चीनको अभिव्यक्ति नेपालले भारतसमक्ष लिखित जानकारी पुर्‍याउनु पर्छ। नेपाल–चीनबीच ६ नाका खुला रहेकोमा भदौ ५ देखि अन्य ३ नाका थप गरिएका छन्। बाँकी नाकाहरु पनि विधिवत खुला गरिँदै जाने पनि भारतलाई जानकारी गराउनु पर्छ। आक्रोसित भएर नेपालमा नाकाबन्दी गरेको घडीमा भारतको जुंगा, दाह्री र कपाल लुछ्ने मौका होइन। नेपाल संयमित हुने समय हो। केही लागेन भने विश्वमा निकै संख्यामा रहेको नेपालको मित्र देशसमक्ष सहायता याचना गर्नुपर्छ।
नेपालले आफ्नै देशभित्र जनताका लागि आवश्यक पर्ने दैनिक उपभोग्य सामग्री तथा वस्तु उत्पादन गर्ने कलकारखानाको सञ्जाल र पूर्वाधार विकास गर्नुपर्छ। नेपालमा धेरै राजनीतिक क्रान्ति भए। यसैको फलस्वरुप नेपाली जनताले बनाएको र व्यवस्थापिका संविधानसभाबाट ८७ प्रतिशतभन्दा बढी मतद्वारा पारित नयाँ संविधान लागू भइसकेको छ। त्यसैले अब आर्थिक तथा औद्योगिक क्रान्ति गर्ने हो र देशलाई आत्मानिर्भरता तुल्याउने हो। देश आत्मनिर्भर हुने हो भने छिमेकीको नाकाबन्दीले केही लछारपाटो लाउँदैन। उसले नाकाबन्दी परिकल्पना गर्न सक्दैन। नेपालले नाकाबन्दी खेप्न पर्दैन।
भारतले नेपाललाई आपसी सद्भाव, भातृत्व, असल छिमेकी, दुःखसुख पर्दाका साझेदार बन्धुबान्धवका रुपमा विधिवत् व्यवहार गर्न सक्नुपर्छ। तर कजाउने प्रवृत्ति लिनु हुँदैन। हिजोआजको विश्व परिवेशमा भारतले नेपाललाई कजाएर कजिदैन भन्ने कुरो भारतले आत्मसात गर्नुपर्छ। अनि मात्रै भारत र नेपालको आपसी सम्बन्ध अझ प्रगाढ, पराकिलो र मजबूत हुन्छ।

After a long exercise, Structure of Seven Federal States

After a long exercise, Structure of Seven Federal States


Paper 1


Nepal Earthquake-2015

Nepal Earthquake- 2015

Labeda Survey PP Size





Buddhi Narayan Shrestha


A great earthquake of 7.9 Richter Scale occurred on 25 April 2015 at 11.56 AM in Nepal at Gorkha district Barpak area, south of China border. After 32 minutes it happened another earthquake measuring 6.5 Scale. Next day, it released another 6.9 Richter larger category earthquake. After the main tremor, more than 394 after shocks occurred till 32 days of the first tremor.

6-Dharahara Before & After copy

This made a terror and horror around the country. The natural disaster made hundreds of thousands of people homeless with entire villages flattened, across many districts of the country. Out of 75 administrative districts of Nepal, 14 districts have been highly affected and the other 17 districts are of moderately affected. It made hundreds of people penniless and destroyed innumerable physical infrastructure and heritage of historical importance.


Low income country like Nepal is the most affected by the earthquake because it does not have the required resources, infrastructure, and well established earthquake preparedness system. This disaster has affected the country in numerous ways as roads, telephone lines, monuments, transportation and communication links were destroyed. Public utilities and energy supplies were disrupted.


Reasons of earthquake in Nepal

45 million years ago, the Indian continent collided into Southern Tibet. The Indian continent is driven under Tibet, pushing lightweight sediments upwards and thus the formation of the Himalayas were taken place. Nepal sits across the boundary between India and southern Tibet of China which are still moving towards each other by 2 centimeters per year. This movement creates pressure within the earth, which builds up and can only be released through earthquakes. This is the only way earthquakes could happen in Nepal.

Due to continental collision, the Indian sub-continent pushes against Eurasian (Tibetan) Plateau as pressure will be accumulated and it uses to release in the form of earthquakes. It is notable that the constant crashing of the two plates formed the Himalayan mountain range.

2A-map2B-Crust of Indian Plate

Some Chinese, Japanese, American and British geologists, geophysics, and seismologists say that Nepal earthquake-2015 bears a typical and strange behavior than the previous quakes. It showed rather different nature with the quake of the rest of the world. It is commendable to make further research and detail study how this type of unusual character revealed by this Nepal earthquake. After the great earthquake of 25 April 2015, Nepal has become a laboratory of the world for the researchers of this field. Some of them have started to make a thorough and detail study and field-based on the spot research; how and why a chunk of 65 kilometer wide and 130 kilometer long landmass of Kathmandu area is being pushed its geographical position 3 kilometer south and south-west having 5.2 meter high in altitude. They are analyzing the behaviour of 265 aftershocks, as the frequency goes low and low in some weeks and in some other week it went suddenly higher Richter and then again down and down and again up.
Devastating earthquake of 25 April 2015 was released after 81 years of the last great earthquake in 1934 AD. If we look three hundred years history of the occurrence of the great earthquakes in Nepal, it faced in 1682, 1768, 1811, 1833, 1934 and the recent one in 2015. The largest one was of 8.4 Richter scale in 1934.

According to the Wall Street Journal, Kathmandu, the tectonic plate under the city shifted southwards 3 meter over another plate along an ancient Himalayan fault line, releasing a seismic shock wave with the strength of ‘more than 20 thermonuclear weapons.’


Damage caused by great earthquake-2015

According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, recent great earthquake killed 8,617 persons and 16,808 people have been injured. 70 foreigners have been killed and 108 are out of contact. Number of private houses and buildings fully destroyed reached as 494,437 and partially damaged houses have been counted as 265,736. Near about 824 government buildings have been fully destroyed and 2,507 partially damaged. Those who lost their houses are staying in tents as temporary shelter. It is intended to construct more or less a little bit better shelter, as the monsoon rainy season would start from June.

3-Tent3-1-Dome house


Twenty-four countries including China, India, Israel, USA, UK and Japan military personnels for rescue operation and relief material distribution. They offered ready made foods and tents, blankets and mattress on destruction sites directly. Some of the countries brought their helicopters and high speed small military aircrafts with sensible trained dogs to conduct aftermath rescue operation. Some countries brought also drone to expose and create the real time data of the damaged structures.

4-Indian Airforce Plane4-1-Sensitive Dogs


According to the Department of Archaeology, nearly 90 percent of ancient monuments, temples and archaeological structures in the Kathmandu Valley are either fully destroyed or partially damaged by the recent earthquake. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square and the Bhaktapur Durbar Square.


More than 600 temples, statues and museum across the country were damaged in Nepal’s deadliest earthquake on record, including Kathmandu’s 200-foot Dharahara Tower, built in 1832, which collapsed within a minute. The devastating earthquake that rocked the country on 25 April damaged 116 heritage monuments only in the historic town of Bhaktapur. Of them, 67 were completely damaged while 49 have suffered partial damage, according to the Executive Officer of Bhaktapur Municipality. Such is the condition of Patan and Kathmandu Metropolitan City.

0-Basantapur-Durbar-Square copy

Educational institutions too were hit hard on April 25. According to data collected, a total of 12,483 classrooms of 4,389 schools in 41 districts have been completely destroyed.

The devastating earthquake has badly hit the country’s power sector as well, causing damage to more than 20 hydro-projects that were either generating electricity or were under construction. Data provided by the Independent Power Producers Association of Nepal and Nepal Electricity Authority show that quake affected operational hydro-electric projects with installed capacity of at least 176.8 megawatts. The damage caused by the earthquake has shaken investor confidence, as projects that have been forced to suspend power generation, will lose income source till the time everything is fixed. According to the preliminary survey of Nepal Electricity Authority, thousands of equipments such as distribution transformer, power transformer, steel poll, distribution panel board etc have been dismantled which may cost 5,000 million Rupees.

The earthquake has not only inflicted heavy human casualty but dealt a big blow to livestock, poultry and other sector related to agriculture. According to the data released by the Ministry of Agricultural Development, at least 8,031 buffaloes, cows and oxen; 14,495 goats, sheep and pigs and 147,222 poultry were buried under the debris of structures that collapsed during the earthquake.

7-Buffalo Puriyeko

The geomorphologists estimate that hilly areas will face a high risk of landslides in the upcoming monsoon rainy season where there are ruptures and holes. Geologists are having fear that such natural events could result in landslide disaster along main highways.

8-Road Rup


Government policy for the time being

The government has set to put a two-month ban on approval of design for new houses and overall constructions. It is felt that poor implementation of building code has resulted in massive human casualties in recent earthquakes. The Ministry of Local Development is preparing to limit houses within three storeys. Officials have been discussing whether the limit will apply to big complexes that are built on bigger spaces following the safety requirements. Commercial complexes may be permitted to build taller structures if they meet all the requirements with the suitability of soil capability.

Initial assessments by authorities have found that among the newly built structures mainly those constructed without acquiring municipal clearance were worst affected by the quake. The Ministry of Urban Development says- the proposed building code may necessitate the land to pass “risk-sensitive” tests before clearance and professional engineers to prepare a blueprint for buildings.

The government has completed Rapid Post Disaster Assessment (RPDA) of 26 high-rises, 134 buildings of 78 government offices, including 96 buildings of 20 hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley. According to the Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC), the assessment has marked two high rise apartments, 14 government offices outside Singha Durbar (government central secretariat), five offices within Singha Durbar and five hospitals within the Kathmandu valley as unsafe for immediate use.

9-Singha Darbar

Residential houses and high-rise buildings in the city which had sustained minor to serious damages in the great quake of April 25 and a number of subsequent aftershocks have been further affected by the quake that shook the country on 12th May. While residential houses that had suffered serious damages during the 25th April quake have been reduced to rubble by 12th May quake, a number of houses and commercial buildings have suffered severe damages and are in a vulnerable state.

10-Arughat Shop

In the mean time, the government has restricted construction of new buildings taller than two storeys (including ground floor) and not to approve the blue-prints of new houses until mid-July 2015. No joint housing and land plotting (development) projects to receive permission until mid-July 2015. Joint housing design permit from the next fiscal year will be based on soil tests and soil bearing capacity. Residents of the areas where large percentage of houses were destroyed or damaged by the April 25 great earthquake want to government to test the soil and feel them that their areas are safe for those buildings that are still standing. The government has formed four sub-committees to prepare a report on how safe buildings could be constructed, along with land use policy. It is believed by preliminary observations that houses suffered damage mostly in areas with low water table above normal level and unstable sloping areas.


Nepal Land and Housing Developers’ Association (NLHDA)

Nepal Land and Housing Developers’ Association (NLHDA) is a parent organization of land and housing developing companies of Nepal. It is registered in the Nepal Government Company Registrar’s Office and is paying taxes and revenue to the government. NLHDA has more than 88 registered housing and land development companies, who are providing services to the people to fulfill the need for housing. NLHDA is the country member of International Real Estate Federation (FIABCI) and Asia Pacific Regional Secretariat. It is also the Commodity Member of Federation of Nepalese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI) and Nepal Chamber of Commerce (NCC). NLHDA member companies have developed near about 8,000 unit housings in high rise buildings, apartments in and around the capital city Kathmandu Valley and in some other districts. Of them 4,700 units have been already sold and nearly 3,300 units still have to be sold.


Some of the high rise buildings got crack. Some other apartments got plaster broken by the recent earthquake. There are no structural damage in most of the high rise buildings constructed by 24 developers. however, there are some 30 to 40 percent non-structural partial damage on brick wall, partition wall and cosmetic plaster. After some repair work it will be alright. Two of the dwelling apartment building apartments occurred damage and it is not feasible to stay at the moment.


In this situation, after the occurrence of recent great earthquake in Nepal, now housing is a felt need for those who lost their dwellings during earthquake. NLHDA has a programme to construct light weight pre-fabric earthquake resistance low cost and environment friendly homes for the earthquake affected Nepali people. We are consulting with the Ministry of Urban Development and Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC) to meet the challenges of housing need for the earthquake victims. It may need huge amount of money to construct homes for homeless.

13-Manchhe Nikaldai

The government has provided Rs. 40,000 to the relatives of the deceased person for the ritual performances of the dead body. Rastra (Central) Bank of Nepal has circulated to all the commercial banks to provide housing loan up to Rs. 2.5 million with 2 percent interest for 20 years period. Very recently the government has decided to provide Rs. 15,000 for each earthquake victims to buy corrugated zinc sheets and other materials to build temporary shelter.


International donor’s conference

Nepal government is intended to host an international donor’s conference in Kathmandu by June end to raise fund for post-disaster reconstruction. The government is preparing a comprehensive post-disaster needs assessment report based on damage incurred across the country due to the April 25 earthquake and its 280 aftershocks. The focus of the conference is to seek money from donor agencies such as World Bank, Asian Development Bank and International Monetary Fund as well as from all friendly countries. According to the Ministry of Finance at least US$ 500 billion would be required for reconstruction work that includes rebuilding more than 800,000 damaged structures, including private houses, office buildings and historical and cultural sites.

Friendly countries have shown interest in organizing this meeting abroad. Japan and India have formally shown interest in convening the conference in their own countries. The United Nations too is of the opinion that it would be better to organize the conference abroad as tremors are continuing and normalcy is yet to return to Nepal. But Nepal government is in the opinion that if the conference is convened in Nepal, the participating delegates will have chance to directly assess the extent of damage and know how much support Nepal needs to recover from this natural disaster.


Last item

In this context, Nepal Land and Housing Developers’ Association (NLHDA) is intended to launch a reconstruction program of ‘Shelter for Homeless Earthquake Victims’ especially in the affected settlements within Kathmandu Valley, in the first phase.

14-Earthquake Resist Home


NLHDA is going to raise funds internally and internationally through the members of FIABCI. It is commendable that the Board Chairman of the FIABCI Asia Pacific Regional Secretariat, Dato’ Alan Tong and Exco has extended an assistance with a donation of 10,000 Euro to NLHDA. We would like to appreciate and thank Dato’ Alan Tong for his sensible assistance for the homeless earthquake victims of Nepal. NLHDA appeals to all FIABCI members and real estate business houses of the world to join Nepal Land and Housing Developers Association to materialize the reconstruction program ‘Shelter for Homeless Victims of Nepal Earthquake-2015.’ Those who wish to donate and contribute as a benevolent charity to the earthquake affected homeless Nepali people, NLHDA would like to request to contact in the following address. Account of the expenses will be definitely sent to the concerned donor and stakeholders after the completion of the project.

635659001701422093-NEPAL-EARTHQUAKEbarpak village

Building DhalkekoBuilding Tilted

Kaligandaki BridgeRoad RupturedDamaged Bricks

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