International Boundaries of Nepal

International Boundaries of Nepal

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Biratnagar 057

 

In memory and honour of Dr. Bradford Washburn (1910 – 2007),(husband of late Barbara Washburn), Founding Director, Museum of Science, Boston- USA for the preparation of first digital map of Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha) area of Nepal-China boundary with my assistance.

International  Boundaries of  Nepal

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

European Universities Editions

    Latvia

Foreword

Professor Martin Pratt

Director, Bordermap Consulting

Former Director,

International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU),

University of Durham, UK

Over the last thirty years or so, borders and the borderlands which surround them have attracted interest from a growing number of disciplines. Geographers, lawyers, historians, political scientists, sociologists, economists, anthropologists, philosophers have all been drawn to these fascinating entities, and border studies have become truly interdisciplinary. The development of concepts such as ‘bordering’ and ‘liminal spaces’ has greatly enriched our understanding of what borders mean and how they function.

Borders are more than the lines of no thickness which separate states, but those lines  international boundaries  remain vital to our understanding of international relations and geopolitics. Boundaries remain central to the notion of the political state even when governments work to minimise their impact on the movement of people, goods and ideas. In many countries boundaries are also important symbols of national identity, and their significance in national as well as international politics should never be underestimated.   

International boundaries may be artificial constructs but they are not abstract. They run through real physical and human landscapes, and they affect people’s lives in many ways at a variety of scales. Boundaries are fundamentally geographical in nature, and is hardly surprising that geographers, cartographers and surveyors have long been at the forefront of boundary scholarship. The term ‘boundary-making’ was coined by a military surveyor, Sir Thomas Holdich, and the works of geographers such as Stephen Jones, Whittemore Boggs, Gerald Blake and Victor Prescott are still essential reading today for anyone seeking to understand how boundaries are defined and managed.

Buddhi Shrestha is another geographer who has made a significant contribution to international boundary studies. As a former Director General of the Survey Department of Nepal and leader of his country’s boundary committees with both its neighbours, nobody anywhere knows more about the boundaries of Nepal. It is a gift to boundary scholars everywhere that Buddhi has taken time to share his knowledge and expertise on Nepal’s boundaries and boundary-making in general through this book.

Nepal is sandwiched between the world’s two most populous countries, both of which have become major geopolitical powers. The status of Tibet remains contested. And Nepal’s boundary with China/Tibet is the world’s highest. In such a context The International Boundaries of Nepal was never likely to be dull! But Buddhi’s unique knowledge, passion for his subject and inimitable style combine to make for a highly entertaining, informative and rewarding survey. Even casual readers will find much to enjoy, but for boundary specialists it is a treasure trove that will surely become the key reference work on Nepal’s boundaries.


Martin Pratt

Professor and Director, Bordermap Consulting

Former Director,

International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU),

University of Durham, UK

December 2019

Acknowledgements

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

This book is an outcome of the inspiration provided by esteemed readers of my previous books and newspaper articles, fellow friends and well wishers. When I go to deliver talks in some inter-action seminars and also just to simply participate in various programmes, well known friends and well wishers use to ask me: What are you writing these days ? Are you writing another book ? To address their inquisitiveness on me, I have done it.

I have written ten books and more than dozen other books in co-authorship in English and Nepali, published in-country and abroad. My book ‘Border Management of Nepal’ has been well circulated in various parts of the world and co-authored ‘International Boundary Making’ has been published from Copenhagen, Denmark.

This book contains some theoretical aspects with international boundary principles in some chapters and practical experience as well as the case study in other chapters. I have tried mostly in my write-up to mention the dates and refer incidents in connection to the case study and in other items as well. I have presented in this book the border issues of Nepal especially with China and India, and also some other countries like the India boundary issues with Pakistan, China, Bangladesh. I have included Indo-Pacific Strategy of the United States and Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) of China and India’s ‘Neighbour First’ policy in the perspective of Nepal.

In light of these items,  I hope this book will be useful for College and University students and study makers and researchers on the boundaries. If it is not irrelevant to mention here that some in-country and abroad authors have cited my book in their books. For example, Victor Prescott (Australia), Rongxing Guo (China), Benjamin Hans (Germany), Chitra K Tiwari et al (New York) and Sushil K Naidu (India) have cited my book in their compositions:International Frontiers and Boundaries, Cross-Border Management,  Nepal’s Border to India & China, Beijing’s Power-China’s Borders, andIndia-Nepal Border Regional Cooperation & Cross Border Trade respectively. 

In-country writers Lok Raj Baral et al, Shastra Dutta Pant, Ratan Bhandari, Chetendra Jang Himali and Gopal Siwakoti et al have mentioned my book in their books entitled: Nepal-India Open Borders, Nepal-India Relation & Border Problem, Limpiyadhura-Lipulek Slap of Encroachment, Mahakali This Side Mahakali That Side and Lipulek Pass Illusion & Reality respectively.

I am grateful to Prof. Martin Pratt for being so gracious as to write the foreword to this book. Prof. Pratt is Director of Bordermap Consulting Ltd. He is an internationally-respected expert in boundary-making, border management and territorial dispute resolution, and has advised governments, NGOs and commercial organizations around the world on a wide range of boundary and sovereignty issues. He has also provided technical support to governments in numerous maritime boundary negotiations and cases before the International Court of Justice and other international judicial bodies. Martin led the International Boundaries Research Unit at Durham University, UK, from 2002-2014. He has also served as an advisor to the United Nations Geographic Information Working Group Task Force on International Boundaries and the African Union Border Programme. He has published widely, and his influential map of maritime boundaries and jurisdiction in the Arctic continues to be used in articles and policy papers around the world.

I appreciate Prof. Emeritus Dr. Roger Bilham, Research Scientist in CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder, as we know each other since 1989 and last met in Kathmandu on 11-12 December 2017 during international workshop on the ‘Measurement of the Height of Mt. Everest and Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) Application’. At that time, Roger inspired me to write more books in English that will be recognized by various organizations of the globe. I would like to thank him for his  encouragement.

I acknowledge European Universities Editions (EUE), International Book Market Service Ltd, Latvia for publishing this book. Initially, Ana-Maria Arnaut from EUE sent me an e-mail  near about six months ago that they are interested to publish a printed book from my work ‘Cross-border movement between Nepal and India and Its Challenges’ as read in website as this topic might be interested in an international Francophone audience.’ She sent a follow-up mail after one week. I responded her after two weeks that I am writing the other book entitled ‘International Boundaries of Nepal.’ I sent her my partial write-up and mentioned that if it is alright, please contact me. After three days, she sent me a return mail mentioning that is good.  After one week I received another follow-up mail saying as ‘I am pleased to announce that we will publish your book. So I send you your contract attached’. In the mean time I didn’t respond. I received another mail: ‘Do you have questions about our publishing contract we recently sent you? I’m here to accompany you to publish your book.’ At last I made an agreement in this ‘Book Project.’ And the writing of book went ahead. I thank EUE, specially Maria for the interest to publish my work.

However, some other publishing houses used to contact me time and often that they are interested to publish any of my composition. These were Adroit Publishers, New Delhi, Akhil Book Distributors, Delhi, Academic Star Publishing Company-Modern Environmental Science and Engineering, USA and some others. Some Nepalese publishing houses like: Ekta Books, Bhrikuti Academic Publication, Oxford Book Shop, Makalu Publication and Ratna Sagar Publication sounded me that they are eager to publish any of my items. I thank them all for their interest to my composition

Lastly, I am obliged to all my well-wishers who encouraged and energized me for embarking on this book. Finally, this book would not have been possible if my wife Lily had not given me the space and allowed me to sacrifice precious family time in order to read and write.

Table of Contents

Chapter-1: Background

  1. International boundary
  2. International boundaries of Nepal
  3. The Birth of Nepal
  4. Boundary of Greater Nepal
  5. Boundary in the constitution of Nepal

Chapter-2: International boundary principles

  • International boundary making principle
  • International Boundary Principle to determine the Origin of River
  • International water boundaries
  • Stages of international boundary making
  •   Reasons for boundary aggression
  •   Boundary disputed countries of the world
  •   Ways and means of resolving boundary issues
  • Classification of boundaries
  • Well-known boundary lines of the world
  • Countries with border fences/walls
  • Countries with longest boundary line
  • Countries with shortest boundary line
  • No-man’s land
  • Boundaries on the sky and inner-world
  • Border warfare countries of the world
  • Border diplomacy

Chapter-3: Nepal’s border business with China and India

  • International Boundary Making of Nepal
  • Principles adopted during Nepal-China boundary demarcation
  • Principles adopted during Nepal-India boundary demarcation
  • Boundary treaties of Nepal with neighboring countries
  • Boundary documents (Protocols) of Nepal
  • Nepal-China border disputed and resolved areas
  • Nepal-India bordedr disputed and unresolved pocket areas
  • Exchange of frontiers between Nepal and China
  • Exchange of frontiers between Nepal and India
  • Indian Military Check-posts in Nepal
  • Nepal-India Joint Boundary Committee
  • Nepal-China Joint Boundary Committee

Chapter-4: Case study

  • Negotiation on Chinese claim to Mount Everest
  • Conflict on border marker 57 between Nepal and China
  • Divergence on the height of Mount Everest
  • Dishonouring Masonry Boundary Pillar by India
  • Kalapani-Limpiyadhura border issue with India
  • Settling Susta border dispute with India
  • Legitimacy of Lipulek border Pass
  • Battle of Maps on the Border

Chapter-5: International boundary organizations

  • International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU)
  • Association for Borderland Studies (ABS)
  • African Borderlands Research Network (ABORNE)
  • Asian Borderlands Research Network (ABRN)
  • International Federation of Surveyors (FIG)

Chapter-6: Published relevant articles of the author

  • America and North Korea: two-minute border diplomacy
  • Trump ignored Nepal border on the world map
  • Canada-America vis-a-vis Nepal-India border management
  • BRI of China and Corridor of Nepal
  • Unquiet Border between Pakistan and India
  • Message of India-Bangladesh border agreement
  • Let us not hurl stones from No-man’s Land
  • Merging Nepal and India with each other
  • What is Sugauli Treaty ?
  • Nepal on lease but not on sale !
  • Kalapani dispute has been internationalized
  • Block out the bombers

Chapter-7: Last Chapter

  • Who said what on Kalapani border encroachment ?
  • Facts & Figures on the Boundary of Nepal
  • Glossary on boundaries
  • Short introduction to the author
  • Appendices
  • Cartoons on border issues
  • Bibliography
  • General index

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Chapter- I: Background

International Boundary

Boundaries represent awareness, knowing

what the limits are and then respecting those limits.

– David W. Earle

                                                            Alternative Dispute Resolution Professional

International boundary of a State define the territorial limits of its sovereignty and the area where its laws are applicable. Obviously, ‘boundary’ refers as to the line that separates countries, states, provinces, counties, cities, and towns from another. It is the dividing line of frontier area separating political divisions or geographic regions. Boundary acts as a line separating two countries administrative divisions or other areas or ‘a boundary between places.’ It is the official line separating two countries or States. However, ‘boundary’ sometimes has been defined as a narrow strip along or near the border between two areas. In addition, it is also usually defined as the part or edge of a surface or area that forms its outer boundary.

International boundaries epitomize the ultimate in the demarcation of citizen’s administrative, social and legal rights and as such are of prime significance to relevant populations, communities, administrations and governments. In spite of the fact that international boundaries are a very important tool, may be the most essential one for stabilizing the relations between nations. Boundary has wider meanings in political geography as a term that refers to a special case of border used to denote the sovereign limits of and divisions between independent States.[i]


[i] Guo, Rongxing (2015), Cross Border Management Theory, Method and Application, Springer- Berlin Heidelberg, Dordrecht London : p 4

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Chapter- 2: International Boundary Principles

International Boundary Making Principle

Frontiers are indeed the razor’s edge on which hang suspended

the modern issues of war or peace, of life or death to nations.

                                                                                                                       – Lord Curzon of Kedleston

                 Viceroy of India

        In connection to delineate the boundary between two or more than two nation States, mutually agreed upon procedures adopted by each other, is known as the International Boundary Principle. On the basis of this principle, it will be demarcated on the ground by physical means. States establish certain boundary procedures that set the rules for maintaining boundary lines in the proper order, as well as the rules for crossing it. The initial intention is usually would be identified by a treaty or an agreement. They may be defined from point to point as mentioned in the treaty. These terms are ruled by their functions like separating, developing or connecting the different countries. If it is not adopted certain principles between two countries, border demarcation could not be conducted. On the other hand if it is not followed the international boundary principle and practice, it may take a long time due to not having regularized and fixed system. As a result there might have been some entanglements. If there are controversies and conflict between countries, they may call upon the Secretary General of the United Nations that suggests some principles to make arrangements to demarcate the boundaries between them.

Generally, various principles could be adopted in accordance with the geographical location, political environment, and social circumstances of both the nations. International boundary making with regard to natural, geometric or artificial boundaries can be accomplished in two ways: the countries (States) of concern implement their boundaries themselves by setting according to the requirements and specifications in a treaty negotiated between them; and secondly, they control the output (boundary documents and maps) for its later use.

International boundary making principle starts with the intention of two or more countries of boundary delimitation and/or demarcation. Obviously, stable and mutually agreed boundary principles are the major pre-requisite for a peaceful demarcation between countries. In general, various countries of the world have adopted following five types of international land boundary making principles:

1. Natural Element Principle

    (1) Watershed Boundary Principle

        (2) Geographical Object Boundary Principle

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Chapter- 3: Nepal’s Border Business with China and India

International Boundary Making of Nepal

State of Nepal is a ‘Yam between two boulders’ (China and India).

                                                                                                         – Prithvi Narayan Shah The Great

                                                                                        The Late King and Boundaries Unifier of Nepal

As practiced all over the world, there have been four stages of international boundary making of any countries of the world.[i] So is the case to Nepal as well to delineate and determine the boundary line. It was defined as the functional features of the face of the earth of Nepal. It has provided the four-fold functional stages as followings :

  1. Allocation of Boundaries of Nepal
  2. Boundary Delimitation
  3. Boundary Demarcation
  4. Administration of Boundaries of Nepal
  1. Allocation of Boundaries of Nepal

Allocation is a procedure that is used to divide (allocate) a single input between two different outputs.It is a process, which refers to political decision on the distribution of territory. Firstly, allocation of territory is rather rare today, although it still occurs from time to time at the end of conflicts where two States agree on the principles for dividing contested territory before a line is agreed.

Nepal-China

The allocation of the boundary between Nepal and China was agreed upon at the political level. The borderline was drawn along the Himalayan Range, between the Chinese territory in the north and the Nepalese frontier in the south. The allocation states that the borderline runs west to east along the Himalayan Range, including peaks, summits, crests, mountain passes, narrow river valleys, pasturelands, and along the slopes. The main Himalayan range, which is perennially covered with snow, and the other smaller ranges and sub-ranges between the Zanskar range, in the west and the Janak sub-ranges along the east, contain eight of the highest peaks, with the heights of over 8,000 meters, including Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha), and 34 main mountain passes.

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Chapter- 4: Case Study

Negotiations on Chinese claim to Mount Everest

Boundaries define what is me and what is not me.

A boundary shows me where I end and someone else begins,

leading me to a sense of ownership.

– Henry Cloud

                                         Clinical Psychologist

                Prime Minister Bisheswor Prasad Koirala of Nepal had counter-signed the Sino-Nepal Boundary Agreement in Beijing on 21 March 1960 to form a joint boundary committee to demarcate the border between Nepal and China, to carry out survey of the border, to erect border pillars and to prepare a draft for the border treaty. Coming back to Kathmandu, he made a press conference on 3 April 1960 and disclosed, as which is off the record, that Mt. Everest which lies in the Nepali frontier has been claimed by China. In a somber tone, he said that China had made a claim on Everest. China argued that Everest belonged to them whereas Nepal rejected their claim. He also said that there were some differences on border in other areas, but the claim over Everest was a new matter during the visit to Peking. Nepal rejected it out rightly, so there were no further talks.[i] But it was not known as to how much area of Everest was claimed by China.

B.P. Koirala continued to say in a somewhat tired tone that there could be talks on China’s claim over Sagarmatha during the visit of Chinese Prime Minister Chou En-Lai to Kathmandu. Prime Minister Koirala also hoped that the claim over Mt Everest and other border disputes could be resolved by the working procedure of the border agreement.

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Chapter- 5: International boundary organizations

International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU)

Centre for Borders Research

As we all know from the Roman empire,

big empires go down if the borders are not well-protected.

-Mark Rutte

                                                                                          Incumbent Prime Minister of the Netherlands

                                                                                                              Incumbent Prime Minister of the Netherlands

Since its founding as the International Boundaries Research Unit in 1989, IBRU has been the world’s leading research centre on international boundary making and dispute resolution, creating impact through the services it provides to the public and private sectors. Today, IBRU brings together work in international boundary law with the geographic study of borders and bordering in the 21st century.

Through research, consultancy and training, IBRU seeks to facilitate enhanced understanding of border areas, contribute to the peaceful resolution of boundary disputes, and engage with broader geographic questions concerning the changing nature of sovereignty, territory, citizenship, and the political organisation of space.

IBRU works to minimize conflict associated with international boundaries on land and at sea around the world. That is their simple mission statement. Their work is interdisciplinary in approach and global in scope- although it is fair to say that we have more expertise in some parts of the world than others. IBRU seeks to integrate theory and practice in order to provide practical expertise in boundary making, border management, and territorial dispute resolution, and also provide academic leadership in the study of boundaries and their impact on international relations and the development of borderland regions. Therefore, IBRU is situated at the interface between the theoretical, the scholarly and the practical.

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Chapter-6: Published relevant articles of the author

When we fail to set boundaries and

When we fail to set boundaries and

hold people accountable, we feel used and mistreated.

Brené Brown

                                                              Research professor at the University of Houston, USA

America and North Korea :

Two-minute Border Diplomacy

On 30 June 2019, American President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un met and shook hands at the demilitarized zone (DMZ) over the stone curb, the border that separates the two Koreas. President Trump standing on the southern side and North Korean leader Kim standing on the northern side of the border line shook hands with each other.

Kim through interpreter said, ‘I am feeling very happy to meet you again, I had never imagined to meet you in this place.’  Trump also responding his expression said, ‘Pleasant time, wonderful moment, a leaping progress’![i] While shaking hands Kim requested Trump, who was standing at the ‘No-man’s Land’ of South Korea, to step to North Korean side. Then trump crossing the border, walked with Kim about twenty steps forward to the North Korean frontier. After that both of them returned towards border line.

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Chapter-7: Last Chapter      
Who Said What on Kalapani Border Issue with India?
  1. Available historical documents and maps should be taken as main basis to resolve the border issues (Kalapani) between Nepal and India (while giving direction to the Joint Border Working Group).

K P Sharma Oli, Prime Minister

(Greater Nepal Weekly, 14 September 2018

2. Unless Kalapani and Susta disputes were resolved, Nepal would not sign on the Nepal-India border strip-map.

Pradeep Kumar Gyawali, Minister of Foreign Affairs

(Himalayan Times Daily, 11 February 2019)

3. We have said, Lipulek (Kalapani) belongs to Nepal. It should be resolved through the study of old documents by reviewing and understanding the reality.

Pushpakamal Dahal ‘Prachanda’ Former Prime Minister

(Naya Patrika Daily, 16 Jully 2015)

4. Government will opportune to amend that India and China did an agreement to expand their trade through Lipulek (Kalapani), that belongs to Nepal.

Sushil Koirala, Prime Minister

(Naya Patrika Daily, 5 July 2015)

  • Limpiyadhura is the origination of River Mahakali and the other branch river coming from Lipulek is merged. The territory up to Limpiyadhura is ours. The river coming from Limpiyadhura is definitely ours.

Jhalanath Khanal, Former Prime Minister

(Naya Patrika Daily, 19 June 2015) 

  • We shall definitely take back the Nepali territory encroached by India. We will continue the movement till the encroached Nepali land is returned. (In course of Border Awareness Movement).

Baburam Bhattarai, Former Prime Minister

(Nepal Samacharpatra Daily, 12 January 2010)

  • We have to go ahead by making national consensus to resolve relating to Nepal-India border (Kalapani) issue.

Madhav Kumar Nepal, Prime Minister

(Gorkhapatra Daily, 31 July 2009)

  •  During our discussions (with India), the 1950 treaty and outstanding border issues between the two countries including Kalapani will be on our priority agenda.

Sher Bahadur Deuba, Prime Minister

(Kantipur Daily, 21 March 2002)

  • We feel that the territory of disputed Kalapani is ours. This dispute should be resolved on the basis of all our historical documents. If the evidences prove that the territory belongs to us, India should move out from there.

Girija Prasad Koirala, Prime Minister

 (Gorakhpatra Daily, 9 June 1998)

10. As regards Kalapani, the technicians from both sides are engaged in the demarcation of border. If their reports conclude that the area belongs to Nepal, we will immediately withdraw from there.

I.K. Gujral, Indian Prime Minister

 (Gorakhapatra Daily, 24 February 1997)

11. Nepal-India joint technical level boundary committee has been properly instructed to expedite the work of demarcation by investigating into the facts about all the territory in the western sector including Kalapani region.

Jaswant Singh, Indian Foreign Minister

 (Kantipur Daily, 12 September 1999)

12. Kalapani is in Nepali territory and Kalapani is ours according to the map of that area.

Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Prime Minister

 (Kantipur Daily, 24 July 1999)

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Selected Bibliography

  1. Aitchison, C.U. (1929 and 1931), A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries Vol. XII and XIV, Government of India Central Publication Branch, Calcutta.
  2. Asiwaju, Anthony I. (2018), Border Regions in Africa, University Press PLC, Ibadan, Nigeria.
  3. Baral & Pyakurel, Lok Raj & Uddhab (2015), Nepal-India Open Borders, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, Delhi, India.
  4. Basnyat, Prem Singh (2017), Anglo-Nepal War: A Military Review, Sarwochcha Man Singh Basnyat, Kathmandu.
  5. Belbase, Thakur Editor (1998), Greater Nepal (Nepali Script), Sudha Karl Publisher, Kathmandu.
  6. Bhandari, Ratan (2016), Limpiyadhura-Lipulek Slap of Encroachment (Nepali Script), Publisher Author Himself, Kathmandu.
  7. Bhardwaj, Vinod K et al (2015), Borders in South Asia, G B Books, New Delhi.
  8. Bhasin, Avtar Singh (1992), Nepal’s Relation with India and China Vol. I and II, India.
  9. Boggs, S. Whitemore (1940), International Boundaries -A Study of Boundary Functions and Problems, Columbia University Press, USA.
  10. Bohara, Gopal Singh (2006), Kalapani: Saga and Sorrow (Nepali Script), Sadhana Bohara, Lalitpur, Nepal.
  11. Bouyjou, JérÔme & Border Team (2011), Applied Issues in International Land Boundary Delimitation /Demarcation  Practices, A Seminar Proceeding (31 May to 1 June 2011), Published by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Secretariat, Wallnerstrasse Vienna, Austria.
  12. Brownlie, Ian DCL (1979), African Boundaries, C Hurst & Company for Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, UK.
  13. Clark, David (1964), Plane and Geodetic Surveying for Engineers Vol-I, Asia Publishing House, Calcutta, India.
  14. Day, Alan J (1987), Borders and Territorial Disputes, Longman Press Essex, UK.
  15. Devakota, Grishma Bahadur (1959), Political Mirror of Nepal (Nepali Script), Volume-1, Dhruba Bahadur Devakota, Kathmandu.
  16. Edney, Matthew H (1999), Mapping An Empire, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
  17. Elleman, Bruce A (2013), Beijing’s Power and China’s Borders, Twenty Neighbors in Asia, Routledge, London and New York.
  18. Gaige, Frederic H (1975), Regionalism and National Unity in Nepal, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, Delhi, India.
  19. Ghos, S K (1993), Unquiet Border, Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi.
  20. Guo, Rongxing (2015), Cross-Border Management, Springer London.
  21. Gurung, Harka (1983), Internal and International Migration in Nepal (Nepali Script), National Population Commission, Kathmandu.
  22. Gurung, Harka (1983), Maps of Nepal, White Orchid Press, Bangkok.
  23. Hamilton, Francis Buchanan (1819), An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and Territories Annexed, Constable and company, Edinberg.
  24. Hans, Benjamin (2014), Nepal’s Border to India, Lehrforschungs-Course Research, Bielefeld, Germany
  25. Hasan, K. Sarwar(1986), China, India, Pakistan, Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, Karachi,
  26. Hill, Norman (1945), Claims of Territory in International Law and Relations, Oxford University Press, London.
  27. Himali, Chetendra Jang (2001), Mahakali This Side Mahakali That Side (Nepali Script), Deshbhakta Prajatantrik Manch Nepal, Kathmandu.
  28. Jones, Reece (2012), Border Walls, London-New York
  29. Jones, Stephen B. (1945), Boundary Making- A Handbook for Statesmen, Treaty Editors and Boundary Commissioners, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Division of International Law, New York, USA.
  30. K.C., Surendra (1989), Diplomatic History of Nepal (Nepali Script), Sabina Publication, Taplejung Nepal.
  31. Kansakar, Vidya Bir Singh (2002), Seminar Proceeding on Nepal-India   Open Border: Positive and Negative Implications, Institute of Foreign Affairs, Kathmandu.
  32. Karki, Rajan (20119), My Greater Nepal, Ratna Sagar Prkashan Pvt Ltd, Kathmandu.
  33. Ramachandran, Sujata (2006), Of Boundaries and Border Crossings, Queen’s University Kingston, Canada.
  34. Ramakant, (1968), Indo-Nepalese Relations, S Chand & Co, New Delhi.
  35. Rose, Leo E, (1971), Nepal Strategy for Survival, University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
  36. Sali, M L (1998), India India China Border Dispute, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.
  37. Sharma, Surya P (1989) Delimitation of Land and Sea Boundaries between Neighbouring Countries, Lancer Books, New Delhi, India.
  38. Sharma, Surya P (1971), India’s Boundary and Territorial Disputes, Vikas Publications, Delhi, India.
  39. Shrestha, Buddhi Narayan (2000), Boundary of Nepal, (Nepali Script), Bhumichitra Mapping Co. P. Ltd, Kathmandu.
  40. Shrestha, Buddhi Narayan (2002), Border Management in the context of National Security (Nepali Script), Bhumichitra Mapping Co P. Ltd, Kathmandu
  41. Shrestha, Buddhi Narayan (2003), Border Management of Nepal, Bhumichitra Mapping Co P. Ltd, Kathmandu
  42. Shrestha, Hiranya Lal (1999), Kalapani and Source of Kali (Nepali Script), Rastriya Janaprakashan, Kathmandu.
  43. Shrestha, Tulsi Narayan (2008), Regional Administration of Northern Frontier of Nepal (Nepali Script), Publisher Author Himself, Kathmandu.
  44. Singh, Amar Kaur Jasbir (1988), Himalayan Triangle, A Historical Survey of British India’s Relations with Tibet, Sikkim and Bhutan 1765-1950,The British Library, London UK.
  45. Siwakoti & Rokaya, Gopal & Deependra (2015), Lipulek Pass Illusion and Reality (Nepali Script), Pairabi Publisher, Kathmandu.
  46. South Asians for Human Rights (2016), Nepal Blockade, Fact Finding Mission Report, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  47. Srebro, Haim (2010), A Model of Boundary Delimitation in a Peace Agreement, Survey of Israel, Tel-Aviv.
  48. Srebro, Shrestha et al, Haim (Editor), Buddhi Narayan (2013), International Boundary Making, International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), Copenhagen, Denmark
  49. Stiller, Ludwig F (1976), The Silent Cry The People of Nepal, Sahayogi Prakashan, Kathmandu
  50. Thapa, Baburam Singh (1998), Undivided Nepal (Nepali Script), Bishnudevi Thapa, Tanahu, Nepal.
  51. Vaidya, Tulsi Ram (1993), Prithvinarayan Shah, Founder of Modern Nepal, Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
  52. Vaidya, Tulsi Ram (2001), Advanced History of Nepal, Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi

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General Index

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Panel Discussion on Kalapani in Baltipmore

Panel Discussion on Kalapani in Baltimore

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Nepali Nationalism in America

Nepali Nationalism in America

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Without Waiving Maps it couldn't get back Kalapani

Without waving Maps, it couldn’t get back Kalapani

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

to add into google.

Buddhi Shrestha in Harvard Library

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha in Harvard Library

Indian Map and IntentionNew

New Map of India and its intention

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Limpiyadhura : North-westen Border Point of Nepal

Limpiyadhura : North-western border point of Nepal

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

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