Jumbo Pillar, Boundaries and Instability

 

 

Junge – Buddhe

Junge-Buddhe

Jumbo Pillar, Boundaries and Instability

Abhi Subedi

जंगे, सीमा र विचलन

अभि सुवेदी

 

ग्रेगोरी पात्रोको २०१५/१६ सालमा मेरा इतिहाससँग केही जम्काभेट भएका छन् । ती निकैवटा छन्, तर यहाँ एकाध जम्काभेटको मात्र कुरा राख्न चाहन्छु । यो जम्काभेट नेपालमा राणाशासन स्थापना गर्ने जंगबहादुर कुँवर राणा (१८७४–१९३३) सँग भएको चाहिँं सबैभन्दा बलियो छ । काठमाडौंको टुँडिखेलका कुनामा होस् कि कहीं दरबारिया घरका भित्तामा टाँगेको चित्र होस्, त्यो विम्ब उजागरणको वा जंगबहादुरको स्मृतिको तरिकाले म किञ्चित् चकित भएको छु ।

अहिले नेपाल गणतन्त्र युगमा प्रवेश गरेपछि नेपालको इतिहासका दुई पात्रको चर्चा र विवाद हुनुको पछिल्तिर यी पात्रले उठाएका र गरेका कुराको अर्थ जोडिन्छ । नेपालमा संघीयताको बहस सुरु भएपछि पृथ्वीनारायण शाहको चर्चा सोझै हुनथाल्यो । त्यो स्वाभाविक हो, किनभने तिनले धेरैवटा स्वतन्त्र राज्य वा प्रदेशहरू जोडेर अहिलेको नेपालको जग बसाएका थिए ।

अर्कोतिर ब्रिटिस नेपाली इतिहासकार जोन ह्वेल्पटनको किताब ‘जंगबहादुर इन युरोप’को दोस्रो संस्करण लेखकले सूचना र चर्चा थपेर यही साल मण्डला प्वाइन्टले प्रकाशित गरेपछि अनि जोनले बेलायत र काठमाडांैमा विद्वत्वृत्तमा ‘डिस्कोर्स’हरू गरेपछि चर्चा थपिएका हुन् । जंगबहादुर जस्तो नेपालको इतिहासमा फर्की—फर्की आउने शासक पात्र मैले कोही पनि देखेको छैन ।

सम्वत् १९०३ मा कोतपर्व गरेर राणाशासन चलाएपछि अङ्ग्रेजलाई आफू एक स्वतन्त्र देशको शासक भएको विश्वास दिलाएर १९०७ मा बेलायत भ्रमणमा गएका ती मानिसले सम्वत् १९११ मा मुलुकी ऐन घोषणा गरे, जसको प्रभावमा यो समाज अहिलेसम्म चलिरहेको छ । गोर्खाका राजा राम शाहपछि थिति बसाल्ने भनेर कहलिएका यी मानिसको मुलुकी ऐनमा महेश रेग्मीले संविधानजनिन राजकाज गर्नेहरूका काम र तिनका अयोग्यताको विषयमा पनि लेखिएको उल्लेख गरे ।

तर त्यो मुलुकी ऐन भनेको सामन्ती युग र व्यवस्थाको दस्तावेज हो, जसलाई यस देशका सामन्ती शासक र वर्णवादी व्यवस्था गर्नेहरूले प्रयोग गरे । जातका तल र माथिका तथाकथित आचरणका कुरा प्रतिपादन गर्ने यो ऐनको पछि महेन्द्रले केही संशोधन गरे पनि अहिलेसम्म यसको प्रभावमा यो समाज चलेको वा अगाडि जान नसकेको देखिएको र अनुभव गरिएको छ ।

नेपालको सीमा विषयका सबैभन्दा प्रसिद्ध मानिएका बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ उर्फ बुद्धेले मलाई भने उनको किताब ‘जंगे–बुद्धे’ प्रकाशित भएकोले त्यसको विमोचन दुईजना शताब्दी पुरुष कवि माधव घिमिरे र सत्यमोहन जोशीले गर्ने भएका छन्, अनि मैले त्यसको समीक्षा गर्नु पर्नेछ । मैले सम्मान गरेका, यो देशको सीमालाई लक्ष्मणरेखाजस्तै पटक—पटक ज्वालामा ब्युँझिएको देखेका र सरकारहरूलाई निराकरणको निम्ति आह्वान गरेका, उमेर पाको हुँदै गएका बुद्धिनारायणको अनुरोध स्वीकार गरेर म एउटा पार्टी प्यालेसमा आयोजना गरिएको पच्चीस साउनको त्यो कार्यक्रममा गएँ । केही दिन पहिले उनले निकै मोटो किताब पठाइदिएका थिए ।

पहिलै देखेँ, खेम कोइराला बन्धुको भूमिका पचास पाताजति रहेछ, जुन उनको निबन्ध नै हो, जहाँ सीमा र त्यसका स्तम्भहरूको कुनै स्थान हुँदैन । तिनले नै यो किताबको शीर्षक जुराइदिएका रहेछन् । किताब लेख्ने श्रेष्ठले यसलाई एउटा आत्मकहानी जस्तो बनाउन चाहेका रहेछन् । राम्ररी सम्पादन गरिदिएर अलिक चुस्त बनाइदिने सम्पादकले भेटेको भए यी महत्त्वपूर्ण मानिसको यो मूल्यवान इतिहास, नेपाली संस्मरण साहित्यको पनि एउटा अब्बल किताब हुने थियो ।

त्यो किताबको विषयमा सत्यमोहन दाइले बोलेका कुरा नौला थिए । उनले जंगले बेलायत जाँदा जहाजको गडबडी शान्त गर्न मजिपा लाखेलाई भाका गरेको प्रसङ्ग ल्याए । सत्यमोहन दाइले यसमाथि लेखेको नाटक शिल्पीमा प्रस्तुत भएको थियो । उनले भने, ‘अहिले त्यस्ता देशको सीमा बनाउने जंगको सालिकसमेत सैनिक घेराभित्र फालिएको छ र त्यो हात छुट्टिएर लडेको छ, कुनामा । एउटा सालिक पनि बँचाइदिएनन्, आज त्यो देख्दा दु:ख लाग्छ । जनताको इतिहास लेखिएन ।

त्यत्रो नेपाल ब्रिटेन युद्धमा बहादुरी गरेका कर्नेल उजिरसिंह थापाको इतिहासमा नाउँ छैन । उनले भाकलमा स्थापना गरेको भगवतीको एउटा मूर्तिमात्र छ अहिले, पाल्पामा ।’ उनले थपे, ‘जंगबहादुर लिन्थे, पछिकाले दिए मात्र । २६ वर्षमा २५ प्रधानमन्त्री भए नेपालमा तर दिने प्रधानमन्त्री मात्रै आए, लिने कोही पनि आएनन् ।’ जोडदार ताली बजेका थिए । त्यो हलमा बसेका मानिस समाजको हरेक तहबाट आएका थिए । ती एलिट, विविध विचार भएका र एक अर्थले जोडिएका थिए । त्यो कुरा थियो, राष्ट्रवाद ।

राष्ट्रवादको यो भावनालाई सबैले यी इमानदार, समर्पित र विद्वान भूगोलवेत्ता बुद्धिनारायणका सीमा डिस्कोर्सबाट जगाउन चाहेका थिए । किताबमा बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठले आजसम्म गरिआएका कामको निजी यात्रा छ । उनका भावना र घटना छन् । उनी कुनै दल र जत्थाका मानिस होइनन् । ती भूगोलवेत्ता हुन्, जसले त्यहाँ एउटा इतिहास दोहोर्‍याए ।

जंगबहादुरले सन् १८५७ को लखनौको सिपाही विद्रोह दबाउन अङ्ग्रेजलाई मद्दत गरेबापत फिर्ता दिएका तराईका जिल्ला बाँके, बर्दिया, कैलाली, कञ्चनपुर उनले सीमास्तम्भ राखेर मात्र लिने भनेपछि १५ नोभेम्बर १८६० मा स्तम्भ गाडेर फिर्ता दिएका थिए । बुद्धेले लेखेका छन्, अहिले सयौं जंगे पिलर हराएका छन् । लिपियाधारा नेपालको हो भन्ने कुराको नक्सा नै साक्षी छ । जहाँ—जहाँ पिलर हराएका छन्, त्यहाँ समस्या भएको छ ।

Junge Sketch
मलाई जंगले भारतमा सिपाही विद्रोह दबाउन मद्दत गरेको कथा पढ्दा पीडा हुन्छ । यसको डिस्कोर्स अर्कै छ । जंगले भूमि पाएको कथा नेपालको निम्ति राम्रो कुरा भएकोले यी दुई कुराको सान्निध्य राष्ट्रवादबाट हेर्नेे आफ्नो अनुभव राखिदिएका छन् । सीमाले उनलाई बोलाइरहेको आवाज सुन्छन्, बुद्धिनारायण । नेपालका कम्युनिष्ट नेताहरूले उनलाई खोजे ।

बुद्धेको सूचनाको आधारमा उनीहरू सीमाक्षेत्रमा गए । पञ्चायती मण्डलेहरूले पनि उनको ज्ञानको प्रयोग गर्ने भनेका कथा छन् । नेपाली काङ्ग्रेसका नेताहरूले उनको प्रस्ट कथालाई लुकाएर अस्पष्ट पारेर हेर्नुपर्छ भनेका घटना छन् । बुद्धेलाई सबै प्रधानमन्त्रीले खोजेका कथा छन् । राजनीतिक नेताहरू, संसदीय टोली, बुद्धिजीवीहरूले उनलाई बोलाएका छन् । आफ्ना कुरा राखेबापत ती जागिरबाट झारिएका छन् । कथा तिनको लामो छ । तर मूल कुरा ती पिलरहरूको विषयलाई लिएर केही नगरिनुमा छ ।

मैले त्यस सभामा देखेंँ, जंग नेपालको राष्ट्रियता र यो देशका एकमात्र धरोहर अनि अरू प्रधानमन्त्रीहरू पङ्गु भन्ने भावना व्याप्त भइरहेको थियो । पिलर सारिनु भनेको पहाडी मानिसको मात्र राष्ट्रियताको सम्वेदनशीलता होइन । भर्खरै सप्तरी सीमाक्षेत्रका मानिसको विरोधपछि यही अगस्ट महिनाको सुरुतिर तिलाथीमा भारतले एकतर्फी बाँध बाँध्न रोकेको खबर आयो । सीमा क्षेत्रका मानिस को हुन् र तिनले सीमा अतिक्रमण कसरी भोगिरहेका छन् भन्ने कुराको सम्वेदनशीलता नभएको राष्ट्रवाद एकाङ्गी हुन्छ ।

जंगबहादुर र सीमा व्यवस्थाको कुरा एउटा ऐतिहासिक विषय हो । भारतमा अङ्ग्रेजहरू कुनै सैनिक लिएर युद्ध गर्दै जित्दै आएका मानिस थिएनन् । ती मोगल राजाबाट अनुमति लिएर व्यापार गर्ने मानिस थिए । तर पछि गएर क्षेत्र अनि राज्य जित्ने तिनका योजना भए । भारत भित्रकै मानिस लडाएर तिनले धेरै साना—ठूला युद्ध जिते । भारतका शक्तिशाली राजाहरूलाई जिते जसमा टिपु सुल्तान, रणजित सिंह, झाँसीकी रानीका इतिहास आउँछन् । यता गोर्खालीको सीमा चेतना अमूर्त तर यथार्थ थियो ।

युद्ध उनीहरूको विस्तारको कथा थियो । काठमाडौं दरबारभित्रको राजनीति त्यसमा जिम्मेदार थियो । भारतीय राज्यहरूमा सीमा चेतना गडबड हुँदा नेपालमा त्यस्तो थिएन, यहाँ राज्य थियो । नेपाल–अङ्ग्रेज युद्ध अङ्ग्रेजहरू असुरक्षा र विस्तारको द्वन्द्वले जलेको बेला भएको थियो । पछि जंगको पालामा अङ्ग्रेजले नेपालको सीमा चेतनालाई यथार्थ मानेर सम्झौता गरेका थिए । अथवा युरोपेलीले सीमा र राज्य चेतना भएको राज्य नेपाललाई देखेर सीमाङ्कनको नीति लिएका हुन् । जंगसँग गरिएका सीमाका सम्झौता तिनै थिए । जंग पिलरहरू त्यस अर्थमा साँध पनि थिए, अनि अलिअलि गर्दै ठेलिंँदै जाने, ढल्ने काल्पनिक र अमूर्त सीमारेखा थिए । त्यो अमूर्त सीमा चेतना, जंगको इतिहासको तरङ्ग आज पनि त्यत्तिकै यथार्थ बोक्छ ।

मैले त्यो दिन किताबको समीक्षा र केही प्रश्न राखेंँ । तर मेरो भनाइको सार यस्तो छ । जंगे पिलरको एकाग्र अध्ययनले गर्दा बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठले जंगलाई एक महान ऐतिहासिक मानवको रूपमा ग्रहण गरेको कुरा प्रस्ट देखियो । नेपालमा सीमाको कुरा गरेर क्रान्तिकारी नारा गर्ने र पुरातन सोच गर्नेहरूबाट बुद्धिनारायणले भेटेको तथ्यको सही प्रयोग हुने देखिँंदैन ।

मेरो विचारमा बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठले पत्ता लगाएका सीमाका अतिक्रमण वा बिगिँ्रंदै गएको अवस्थाका प्रतिवेदनहरू नेपाललाई मात्र होइन, भारतलाई पनि त्यत्तिकै काम लाग्ने विषय हुन् । नेपाल र भारतका आधिकारिक मानिस बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठले देखाएका विचलनको अध्ययन गरुन् र सीमा समस्या समाधान गरुन् । बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठले भनेजस्तै न भारतले भित्र पेल्दै आउन मिल्छ, न नेपालले जंगे पिलरको इतिहासको रेखा मेटिरहेको कुरालाई अदेखा गरिबस्न मिल्छ । बुद्धिनारायणको बुद्धिबाट दुवै देशले सिकुन्, यही मात्र समाधानको बाटो हो ।

 

 

 

 

 

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Cordiality in the border

Cordiality in the border

(Gist of this article in English is given below just after this image)

Nagarik Sima Sauharda 71-11-18

In the bygone days, Indian Special Security Bureau (SSB) had misbehaved to the Nepali people in the border. There are many such instances. But after the rise of Narendra Modi as the Prime Minister of India, the SSB has shown the cordiality to the Nepali frontier people who cross the Nepal-India border time and often. This cordiality has shown that the time has been changed.

 

But on the other hand , India has constructed and been constructing 1,600 kilometre long east-west border road, just close to the Nepal border. The main objective of this road construction is said as to make easy the movement of the SSB, showing for security concern reason. The road is on an average 5 metre high and almost 30 meter wide. The newly constructing border road has obstructed the natural flow of some of the rivers of Nepal that flows to India. As a result, Nepali frontier areas have been inundated/submerged and it has created negative impact to Nepal and Nepali people losing their agricultural land & house and property.

 

To resolve this issue, India must adopt some measures to drain out the blocked water from nepali higher land to lower land of India by constructing additional and sufficient bridges, culverts, drains and outlets. India must show in action cordiality to the people and government of Nepal in the field of smooth draining out the blocked water mass from Nepali frontier to India, as the SSB has shown decent behaviour recently in the border area. India-Nepal cordiality would be further expanded and broadened, if the water blockage problem in the Nepali frontier area, due to construction of road by India, is solved.

Priority to Capability than Identity

Priority to Capability than Identity

 

Deputy Editor of Gorkhapatra Daily Narad Gautam talks to

Border Expert Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Published: 6 September 2014 (2071 Bhadau 21) First Page

 

In connection to formulate new constitution of Nepal, special attention should be given to federal structure and administrative forms. If we don’t pay attention to those items, future of our country will not be bright. It was the main debate during the first Constitution Assembly for complete four years that constitution was not promulgated. Hue and cry is growing also in the second (present) Constitutional Assembly.
In course of federal restructuring, we have to learn a lesson from Crimean case. Crimea splitted from mainland Ukraine and it was amalgamated to Russia. Nepal may bare the fate of Ukraine, if our federal structure or state restructuring is not palated according to our own physical construction, topographical condition and social structure of our country.

 
On the other hand there is a debate among political leaders, whether priority should be given to ‘Capability or Identity’ in connection to State Restructuring. In this connection, capability of the general people must come first, and then it is certainly the identity. Economic development for livelihood and capability of purchasing power of the people depends upon the capability. And capability generates automatically the identity of different sects and Janajati, habituated within the nation. For example, to show and preserve the identity of female Sherpa (Sherpini), it needs to buy Kimono Set, Jhimala, ornaments etc. It may need to spend more than 30,000 Rupees. If she is not economically capable to by all these expensive costume and materials, how can she show and present her Sherpa identity? Here lies the question, whether capability or identity. For this , she needs some economic capability to maintain her identity. However, identity must follow the capability; and capability drags the identity. ultimately, capability and identity must march hand to hand ahead.

 

I am confident that Constitution Assembly parliamentarians, political leaders and stakeholders of the constitution making bodies will pay due attention to this pragmatic fact.

Gorkhapatra 71-5-21

Book Review: Sima Sangram (Border War)

Book Review : Sima Sangram (Border War)

Authored By:

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Reviewed By:

Senior Advocate Laxmi Prasad Upreti

Review- Sima Sangram

 

Book : Border Management of Nepal

Some of the excerpts of the Book

‘Border Management of Nepal’

written by Buddhi N Shrestha have been given in the PDF format below:

Border Management of Nepal

Kalapani border dispute has now internationalized

Kalapani dispute has now internationalized

Thursday, 11 March 2010 11:57
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By Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

A sovereign and independent state must have its own definite territory. There must have been permanent population within the territory. It bears an independent government to rule, make and enforce laws. The government exercises power to deal and maintain relationship with other countries of the world. Most fundamental characteristic of a sovereign nation is accounted for its defined boundary that has been demarcated and maintained time to time. With the realization of the sensitivity of the boundary of a sovereign nation, Lord Curzon of Kedleston (Viceroy of India 1898-1905 and British Foreign Secretary 1919-24) has said, “Frontiers are indeed the razor’s edge on which hang suspended the modern issues of war or peace, of life or death to nations.”
With a view to educate and provide knowledge with practical experience on the razor’s edge frontier, International Boundaries Research Unit of Durham University, United Kingdom, had conducted an international training workshop on the theme ‘Boundary Demarcation and Maintenance’ some time ago. Thirty-four delegates had participated the workshop covering from Canada through United States of America to Vietnam and Indonesia. Most of the participants belonged to their Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Surveying organizations. Ambassador of Guatemala to UK and Head of Survey/Cartographic Unit of the United Nations had also participated the workshop. This scribe was one of the participants from Nepal.
During the training period, much emphasis was given to clearly defined and well managed boundaries that remain for national security, good international relations, efficient use of resources, effective local administration and borderland prosperity. In the same way, potential problems arising from unclear and inadequate demarcation of some of the countries were discussed thoroughly among participating nations. It was realized that inadequate demarcation would raise the issue of encroachment of settlements, disputes about land ownership and maintenance of “no-man’s land” areas. It may lead uncertainty on law enforcement on the frontier of both the nations as well.
It was emphasized that it requires maintenance of border pillars to mark the boundary visible with an integrated development of borderlands. Both the countries of the borderline must not forget the co-existence of the borderlands, since the border is common to both the nations and the demarcation pillars are the property of the people of both the countries.
During the discussion series on the demarcation issues of some of the countries of the world, this scribe highlighted on the Kalapani and Susta border areas of Nepal that have been encroached by India since the last five decades. It is a fact that River Mahakali is the western border of Nepal. But the origin of the river has not yet been settled with India. There is a kind of controversy on the source of the river — whether it is originated from Limpiyadhura or Lipulek or an artificial pond near to a small temple of Kali. Ray Milesfsky, tutor and participant from the United States Department of States International Boundaries and Sovereignty Issues mentioned that he knows very well about the Kalapani border issue between Nepal and India. Indian para-military force has occupied a chunk of land on the tri-junction area of Nepal, India and China. He suggested that the origin of the river should be identified as per ‘watershed principle’ as practiced by most of the countries. Another participant David Linthicum, office of the geographer and global issues of US Department of States asked this scribe to send him an accurate digital map of Nepal to update the archive.
Augistin Muhizi, Head of survey/Cartographic Unit of the United Nations suggested to resolve the border problems of the various countries of the globe including Nepal and India in a friendly manner with a positive attitude. In connection with the discussion Martin Pratt, tutor and Director of the International Boundaries Research Unit pointed out that border issues between two neighbours could be resolved inviting third country as a mediator. It is to be noted that Sugauli Treaty of 1816 was made between the then British India and Nepal but not with the present India. So the Government of Britain may be the best mediation between these countries.
With this version we may know that the encroachment of Kalapani-Limpiyadhura has already been internationalized. And Susta issue is going to be marching forward to international forum. In fact, if we browse the word ‘Kalapani’ in internet, there are so many digital files that denote ‘Kalapani of Nepalese territory has been encroached by India…there is a dispute in Kalapani area.’ However, boundary demarcation issues between Nepal and India should be resolved by mutual understanding, good neighbourliness, friendly manner and respecting each other with the help of historical maps and related documents.
Most important element is the dedication and willingness to resolve the issues since border demarcation business is a matter of equal participation from both the nations. Nothing can be happened if only one nation is willing, eager and hurried. It needs the equal spirit from both the sides. Border demarcation problems must be resolved in such a manner that this is resolved for ever, and no question will be raised in future. If it is not resolved amicably the trouble facing country must be ready to knock the international organizations for the integrity of the sovereign and independent nation.
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Prioritize border dispute with India

Nepal’s Media urged to prioritize border dispute with India

Nepal’s Constituent Assembly members and noted border experts have urged the main-stream Nepali media to accord top priority to border dispute(s) and Nepali land occupation by India along countless locations along the 1808 Km of open border with the southern neighbour-India.

The Press Council, Nepal, organized a one day seminar on “Nepal-India Border Issue: Role of Media”, on Tuesday June 30, 2009-the first ever of its kind by the media management body.

The Press Council is an autonomous body wherein the Chairman of the Council is nominated by the Government.

The working paper presenters at the seminar told media personnel that the continuous border encroachment by India has already threatened the sovereignty of Nepal.

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha, Nepal’s border expert, urged the media men to publish maps of the border while raising border dispute with India.

Press Council

“National interest should be accorded top priority, lucrative portfolios should not be the preference of the politicians and the bureaucrats alike”, said Mr. Shrestha.

While urging the political leadership to address border dispute with India, Mr Shrestha, the senior retired bureaucrat, informed the participants that Nepal has border disputes with India in Kalapani, Susta, Tanakpur, Pashupati Nagar, Luna River, Laxman Pur Dam, Mahali Sagar Dam, Sarada Dam and Koilabas of Dang.

Poshan K.C, General Secretary of the Federation of Nepali Journalists, said that Nepali media has always kept border dispute with India in the top priority.

The Program was presided over by Narayan Sharma the chairman of the Press Council.

Telegraph Weekly, 2009-07-01 09:17:30

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