Updated Border Encroachment and Dispute of Nepal- 2013

Updated Border encroachment, conflict and dispute

   of  Nepal with two neighbouring countries- 2013

71 Border Encroachment- 2013

          There are 75 districts in Nepal. Among them 26 districts have been adjoined with the southern neighbour- India. Likewise, 15 districts have been bordered with the northern neighbour- China. Two districts are common to both neighbours.

            Length of the Nepal-India and Nepal-China borderline has been computed as 1,880 kilometres and 1,439.18 kilometres respectively.

            There are encroachments, disputes, conflicts, claims and counter-claims in 71 spots and its total area is 60,662 hectare of land in 23 districts along Nepal-India border. Most of these are related to cross-holding occupation by the people of the other frontier. Dhanusha, Baitadi and Dadeldhura are dispute free districts.

            Ten years ago, total number of such encroachments and disputes had been 53 spots and its area was 60,000 hectare in 21 districts. Now it shows that18 disputed spots have been increased with additional 662 hectare of land and 2 more districts within a period of last ten years.

            So far as the northern neighbour or China is concerned, two border issues have been emerged for the last six years. One of them is located at north of Lapchigaun in Lamabagar area of Dolakha district. There is a controversy on the location of Border Marker Number 57. Disputed area consists of 6 hectares of land.

            The second issue is the height of Sagarmatha (Mount Everest). China has proposed and forced to write the height as 8844.43 metre on the Nepal-China Strip-map. But Nepal is firm to mention the traditional height as 8848 metre. China has pressed to take the rock height of Quomulungma (Mount Everest). In contrary, Nepal has pleaded to take the snow height, as the snow height has been maintained for all the mountains of the world. So the issues have been entangled and stranded.

  The detail of the unresolved spots and pockets of Nepal-India and Nepal-China border have been tabulated as below:

 

Number

of disputes / encroach- ment

 

Name of

district

Municipality/

VDC- Ward Number

Spots of disputes, conflicts and encroachment

Area in hectare (approximately)

Encroached date (approx)

1

Darchula

Byas- 1 and 2

Kalapani-Limpiyadhura (encroached during India-China border war)*

37,000

November 1962

2

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality-9

Khalla Masita of western Brahmadevmandi and portion of Siddhanath temple×

15

1972

3

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality-10

West of Brahmadev Bazar (east of Tanakpur Barrage or area of submerged boundary pillar 2 and 3 and portion of Tanakpur afflux bund**

222

 December 1991

4

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality- 11

The land to be obtained on the exchange of land, given by Nepal to construct the Sharada Barrage*   

15

1928

5

Kanchanpur

Bhimdatta Municipality- 11

Land from Banabasa embankment to the canal of Gadda Chauki×

30

1979

6

Kanchanpur

Rauteli Bichawa, Jhilimili

Various spots of Suklaphanta wildlife conservation area and near to missing  boundary pillar (BP) number 229*

330

2001

7

Kanchanpur

Rampur Bilaspur-1

Portion of Bhuda village, Patalchula Nala and portion of Pachue village×

14

1978

8

Kanchanpur

Laxmipu-5

30 meter wide strip, south of Fatiya Gaon, near to BP- 200**

3

2007

9

Kanchanpur

Tribhuvanbasti-4

Kankadi Tal area near to the origin of Suheli Nala (Brook) i.e. land of  Karna Bahadur Sunar, Nika Nepali and Man Bahadur Sunar**

2

2007

10

Kanchanpur

Parasan-7, 8, 9

Pyara Tal (Nala) area (individual and government land from southern portion of Pyara Tal to fallen BP-195 and 6.6 hectare land belonged by Bichfanta National Secondary School)**

980

1978, 2003, 2005 and 2006

11

Kailali

Fulbari-

Forest area cut by Indian (course changed by Mohana river area located south of Fulbari village)**

5

2000

12

Kailali

Lalbojhi-8

Kauwakheda area (land of 25 families including Pratap Singh Saud)*

212

2004

13

Kailali

Bhajani-9

Kusumghat area (land of 48 persons including Biru Bika)*

39

3 January 2005

14

Bardiya

Rajapur-

South of Rajapur settlement area near to the eastern branch of Karnali River*

10

21 august 2006

15

Bardiya

Bhimapur-

Disputed area regarding present and the then course of Nakuwa Nala (brook)×

10

1983

16

Bardiya

Khairi Chandanpur-

South of Khairi village located near to the bank of Geruwa River*

4

 

17

Bardiya

Gulariya Municipality- 4, 9, 10

Chaugurji area in between old BP- 63 and 64; and the land east of Thapuwa*

7

 

18

Bankay

Holiya- 8, 9

Holiya area, located west of River Rapti and the land located north-west of BP- 19**

42

2001

19

Bankay

Narainapur-

Kerbariya Nala area located south of Narayanpur and north-west of Ghordhoriya×

9

2006

20

Dang

Koilabas-2

Along the road from Koilabas Bazar to India and the land adjoined to BP- 39/600**

25

1983

21

Kapilbastu

Krishnanagar-

Krishnanagar Bazar in the northern portion of No-man’s land of BP- 67/1*

1

 

22

Rupandehi

Ajma-

Marchawar area (South of Ajma settlement and west of Dano River along BP- 30)*

50

1999

23

Rupandehi

Siddhartha Nagar Municipality-

Belhiya border crossing area (Indians have constructed huts and houses along 10 meter wide strip)*

5

 

24

Nawalparasi

Susta- 1 to 4 and 6 to 9

As the river Narayani changed its course towards Nepal frontier, Indians have encroached the river left over area*

14,500

1845, 1941, 1954, 1964, 1975, 1986 and 2008

25

Chitawan

Rastriya Nikunja-

East of Tribenighat and south of Balmiki Ashram that Indians cut the forest and encroached the land*

170

1979

26

Chitawan

Madi Kalyanpur-

Portion of Madichure along Dara Nala**

4

 

27

Parsa

Thori (Nayabasti)-

Thute Khola, Thute Khola, South-east of Thori Bazar and Thori River and the area where  BP- 64 was washed away by the river**

70

1995, 2010

28

Parsa

Janaki Tola-9

Western part of Dasauta village (from BP- 419/20 to 420/13)××

7

June 2009

29

Parsa

Mahadevpatti- 6

Laxmipur Pipra area (south of the road which leads to Jaya Mangalpur)×

135

July 2009

30

Parsa

Birganj Municipality-

East of Customs office near to Ahir Tola and BP- 390 along Sirsiya River*

10

 

31

Parsa

Birganj Municipality-19

Chamar Tola of Inarwa near Miteri bridge (old Junge Pillar 33 to 35 were not recognized as main boundary pillar)**

6

February 2002

32

Parsa

Birganj Municipality-6

Portion of the 27.71 Acres of land from Miteri Bridge to Prewo Tola, bought by Nepal Government Transport Corporation from India on 29 June 1924×

5

1990

33

Bara

Dakchhin Jhitkaiya-6, 8

West of Katihariya and Fulbariya and east of Pasaha River adjoined with No-man’s land of BP381/31**

30

2003

34

Rautahat

Jokaha-7

Southern portion of Jamuna Jayanagar village that Indians cut the forest trees×

15

 

35

Sarlahi

Tribhuvan Nagar-

Tribhuvan settlement area located east of Jhim River, 70 metre wide strip from BP- 25 to 35, 38 and 39**

4

 

36

Sarlahi

Narayanpur-

Portion of Sangrampur village located at west of Hardi River**

8

1980

37

Mahottari

Samsi-

Portion of Kanawa Haat Bazar area. located west of Samsi Bazar area and east of BP- 313/3**

5

 

38

Mahottari

Siswa Kataiya-

West of Siswa Katiya settlement (original BP- 11 shifted to 50 metre north)**

9

2001

39

Siraha

Madar-

Inarwa Tola of Madar and southern portion of Chandraganj (southern area of the road from Siraha Bazar to Indian frontier)×

7

 

40

Siraha

Inarwa-

Western portion of Thandi and Bhati Balan River (land along the road from Thandi village to India)×

4

 

41

Saptari

Deuri-

Suwarnapatti area ( 50 meter wide strip along the river Kharag, shifting the pillar to Nepal side)×

40

 

42

Saptari

Baniyani-

Bardahi village area, near to Bhutahidhar river**

14

 

43

Saptari

Chhinnamasta-3

Near to Balarampur, south of Sakhada Bhagawati temple*

10

 

44

Saptari

Lalapatti-

Govindapur area (shifted Junge BP 60 to 100 metre towards Nepal*

33

 

45

Saptari

Tilathi-

Kunauli area Nepal’s government fallow land along the road from Kunauli to Nirmali Railway Station (demolished BP- 223/13)*

40

 

46

Saptari

Gobargadha-

Various spots from Bishnupur to Shivanagar area**

8

 

47

Saptari

Gobargadha-

Southern area of Gobargadha (west of River Koshi and south of Gobargadha)*

30

 

48

Sunsari

Hariharpur-9

Bhantabari-Kataiya ( 500 metre east of Koshi Barrage and south of East-West Highway, where there was a border wooden gate previously)**

15

1982

49

Sunsari

Kaptanganj-

Portion of Shivaganj and Pakariya×

8

 

50

Sunsari

Sahebganj-

South of Sahebganj habitation and west of Katlaha River×

20

 

51

Morang

Biratnagar Sub-metropolitan City- 20

Part of Budhnagar, near to industrial area of Rani Jogbani border*

7

March 1999

52

Morang

Rangeli-

Wouka and Chopraha inhabitation near to the road to India from Rangeli Bazar×

 

13

 

53

Morang

Bardanga-

Part of Doriya located at east of Sonapur settlement and east of Bakraha (Luna) River*

15

 

54

Jhapa

Korobari-2, 4

Cultivated land of 33 families of Korobari area, shifting BP-140*

41

 

55

Jhapa

Pathamari-

Near to Pathamari village located west of River Mechi (Sub-Customs Office and some cultivated land)*

10

 

56

Jhapa

Maheshpur-2

Encroached east of Dol Gaun and India planned Indira Housing Project*

10

March 2000

57

Jhapa

Bhadrapur Municipality-

Eastern portion of Bhadrapur School playground that leads to Galgaliya railway station of India (degraded the status of Junge main boundary pillar PP-1 to reference pillar)**

27

1994

58

Jhapa

Jyamirgadhi- 1, 2

Kalikhajar area, lands of Jetha Rai, Pradip Karki, Ishwsori Rai have been encroached+

10

12 November 2011

59

Jhapa

Mechinagar Municipality-11

Bhansa Khola (Upreti village) at Kankarbhitta area, located at the western bank of River Mechi and encroached 67 metre span of Mechi Bridge*

41

December 2006

60

Jhapa

Mechinagar Municipality-

Nakalbanda area consisting of Madanjot and Warisjot, shifting the BP-46 to Nepal side×

15

 

61

Jhapa

Bahundangi-

Patapur of Tiring located north of Bahundangi habitation**

20

1940

62

Ilam

Shree Antu-8

Gufapatal area encroached by Indian Forest Office and Chhabbise area encroached by Jawahar Nawodaya School of India**

9

1981

63

Ilam

Pashupatinagar-4, 5, 9

Phatak area encroached by Indian Customs and Police Post building; and 240 sq mtr vacant land. SSB 29th Battalion encroached Hile Penal area and Pul Khola area.  India constructed graveyard and Buddhist Monastery near Simana Bazar of Nepal. Indians encroached Panch Mile area and also six homes of Nepali at Hile Bhajyang, including government Sub-Customs Office**

15

2004, 2008 and 2010

64

Ilam

Gorkhe-9

Manebhanjyang Simana Bazar area and foot trail- road of Gairibas area**

4

2005

65

Ilam

Maimajuwa-

Sandakpur hill top and 12 kilometre strip of Meghma-Tumling-Kalpokhari area**

54

 

66

Panchthar

Prangbung- 6

Portion of Aahal Gairi area and Aahale Bhanjyang**

14

2006

67

Panchthar

Chyangthapu-

Chiya Bhanjyang Singhalila range to Kabru and Talung. (Border line shifted to western side, ignoring the highest watershed, from Phalut to Kabru and Talung)×

4,100

2003, 2004

68

Taplejung

Timbuk Pokhari-

Eastern hill of Timbuk Pokhari that encroached the watershed area by constructing Singhalila Park*

400

 

69

Taplejung

Kalikhola-

Eastern portion of the origin of  river Kabeli Khola and Lamay Khola×

800

 

70

Taplejung

Yamphudin-

Eastern portion of Kabru area, taking the border as the lower watershed range×

600

 

71

Taplejung

Lelep

Part of Tumling habitation (the area east of Lelep and Yamphudin Village Development Committees××

220

 

A

Dolakha

Lamabagar

North of Lapchigaun, controversy on the location of Border Marker Number 57 with China.

6

February 2007

B

Solukhumbu

Sagarmatha

Controversy on the height of Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) with China. China proposed its height as 8844.43 metre but Nepal is firm on the traditional height as 8848 metre.++

Height conflict

February 2007

*    Survey Department (21 April 2009), Brief Account on Nepal-India and Nepal-China Boundary

      Surveying-Mapping (Briefing to IRHR Committee members), Kathmandu

◊    wikipedia.org/wiki/kalapani/susta

**  Study Tour Report on Nepal-India Border Issues, (Vol. I-IV, April-May-July-August 2010),

      Constitution Assembly, International Relations and Human Rights Committee, Kathmandu.

×      Dr. Shastra Dutta Pant (2006) Nepal-India Border Problems, Kathmandu, pp 36, 45, 51.

××   Chetendra Jung Himali (2002) Mahakaliwari Mahakalipari (Nepali), Kathmandu, pp 65-66.

+    Republica Daily, 14 November 2011. 

++  Republica Daily, 10 April 2010.

   Kantipur Daily, 31 August 2009.

                                                     ♣

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Buddha was born in Nepal

बुद्ध  नेपालमा  जन्मेका  हुन्

बुद्धिनारायण श्रेष्ठ

Buddha Picture

बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका थिए । आजभन्दा २ हजार ५ सय ५७ वर्षघि बुद्ध नेपालको लुम्बिनीमा जन्मेका हुन् । बुद्धको आमा मायादेवी तिलौराकोटबाट माइती देवदेह जाँदा लुम्बिनी पुगेको बेला प्रसव वेदनाले च्यापी बुद्धको जन्म त्यहीं भएको थियो । आमाले बच्चालाई जन्म दिंदा सामान्यतया भुइँमा बसेर या पल्टेर दिन्छन् । तर बुद्धको आमा मायादेवीले सालवृक्षको हाँगा समाएर उठेकै अवस्थामा बुद्ध जन्माएकी थिइन् । पौराणिक वृत्तान्तअनुसार बुद्ध जन्मनेबित्तिकै उत्तर्रतर्फ सात पाइला हिंडेका थिए र उनले बोलेका थिए- ‘म लोकको ज्येष्ठ हुँ, म संसारको श्रेष्ठ हुँ, म जगत्मा अग्र हुँ ।’ बुद्ध जन्मदा उनको शिर तेजमण्डल -र्सर्ूयचक्र) ले घेरिएको थियो । उनलाई राजा शुद्धोदनको छोरा राजकुमारका हैंसियतमा ‘सिर्द्धार्थ’ भनिन्छ भने भिक्षुका रुपमा ‘गौतम’ र ध्यानपश्चात् ज्ञानप्राप्तकर्ताका हैंसियतमा ‘बुद्ध’ भन्ने गरिन्छ । उनलाई शाक्य वंशका प्राज्ञ -सिद्ध) का कोटिमा उपदेशकका हँैसियतले ‘शाक्यमुनि’ भन्ने चलन पनि रहेको छ । कसैकसैले र्सवअर्थ सिद्ध गर्नसक्ने भएकोले सिर्द्धार्थ भनिएको भन्ने पनि गरेका छन् ।

Buddha Meditation-2

ज्ञानोपार्जनका लागि २९ वर्षो उमेरमा बुद्धले तिलौराकोट दरबार छाडी भारतको बोधगया तथा बनारसलगायत विभिन्न स्थानमा गएर बुद्धत्व प्राप्त गरेका थिए । बुद्धत्व प्राप्तिपछि उपदेशकका रुपमा नेपाल फर्केका थिए । शान्ति, अहिंसा, परमोधर्म जस्ता उनको उपदेश विश्वभर प्रख्यात रहेको छ र यसैलाई ‘बुद्धिजम्’ मानिएको छ । हिजोआजको युगमा पनि बुद्धको शान्ति सन्देश सान्दर्भिक रहेको छ । उनको जन्म पूणिर्मा तिथिमा भएको थियो भने असी वर्षो उमेरमा पूणिर्मा तिथिकै दिन देहान्त भएको थियो ।

Buddha Teaching

शाक्यमुनि सिर्द्धार्थ गौतम बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने अनेक प्रमाण छन् । त्यस्ता प्रमाणहरूमध्ये बुद्ध जन्मेको ३५० वर्षछि भारतका सम्राट अशोकले बुद्धको जन्मस्थल लुम्बिनीमा निर्माण गरेको साढे ६ मिटर अग्लो ‘अशोक स्तम्भ’ नै ज्वलन्त प्रमाणका रुपमा रहेको पाइन्छ । यस स्तम्भमा पाली भाषामा ‘हितबुधे जाते सक्यमुनिति’ अर्थात ‘यहाँ बुद्ध शाक्यमुनिको जन्म भएको’ भन्ने सूचीबद्ध विवरण शिलापत्रमा कुँदिएका छन् ।

Buddhi

यसबाहेक लुम्बिनी बुद्धको जन्मस्थल हो भनी संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको युनेस्कोले विश्वसम्पदा सूचीमा सन् १९९७ मा सूचीकृत गरेको छ । यसका साथै जर्मनी, जापान, क्यानडाजस्ता विभिन्न देशका पुरातत्वविद्हरूले उत्खनन् गरी लुम्बिनी क्षेत्रको निर्माण सामग्री २५ औं सय वर्षपुरानो भएको प्रमाणित गरी बुद्ध यहीं जन्मेका थिए भन्ने अनुसन्धान प्रतिवेदन तयार पारेका छन् । यसै कारणले जापानी आर्किटेक्ट केन्जो टाँगेले सन् १९७८ मा लुम्बिनी गुरु योजना तयार पारेका थिए । यसरी लुम्बिनीमै बुद्ध जन्मेको प्रमाणित भएका कारणले विश्वका विभिन्न देशहरूले लुम्बिनी क्षेत्रमा करोडौंको लागतमा बुद्ध प्यागोडा शैलीमा भवन, चैत्य, मठ, मन्दिर बनाएका छन् । उनीहरू लुम्बिनीलाई ‘बुद्धिजम् डेस्टिनेशन’ बनाउन लागिपरेका छन् ।

बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी यत्तिका प्रमाण हुँदाहुँदै पनि छिमेकी मित्र देश भारतले बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी मिथ्या प्रचार गर्दै आएको छ । उत्तरप्रदेश राज्यको सिर्द्धार्थनगर जिल्लाअर्न्तर्गत प्रि्रहवा गाउँमा बुद्ध जन्मेका हुन् भनी भारतले भन्ने गरेको छ । कहिले चाहिँ उडिसा राज्यको कपिलेश्वर बुद्धको जन्मस्थल हो भन्ने गरेको छ । विद्यालय तथा महाविद्यालयको शैक्षिक कोर्षकिताबमा बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी पठन-पाठन गर्ने गरिएको छ । भारतीय टुरिस्ट गाइडले विदेशी पर्यटकहरूलाई बुद्धको बुवा राजा शुद्धोदनको दरबार भारतको प्रि्रहवामा रहेको छ भन्दै बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका थिए भनी भ्रम फैलाउने गरिन्छ । उदाहरणार्थ, गएको वर्षफागुन २४ मा दिल्लीको ‘टप ट्राभल्स’ ले ३ वटा ठूला बसमा १०३ भितनामी बौद्ध धर्मावलम्बीलाई लुम्बिनी भ्रमणपछि तिलौराकोट भ्रमण गराएको थियो । भ्रमणको क्रममा सोनु जयसवालनामक भारतीय पथ पर््रदर्शकले पर्यटकहरूलाई यी पुराना भग्नावशेष बुद्धस्थलका एउटा भाग मात्र हुन् भन्दै भगवान् गौतम बुद्धको बाबु राजा शुद्धोदनको राजप्रासाद भारतको प्रि्रहवामा भएको बताए । त्यस बखत कान्तिपुर सञ्चारकर्मीले किन गल्ती जानकारी गराएको भनी भारतीय पथपर््रदर्शक समक्ष जिज्ञासा राख्दा ती पथपर््रदर्शकले भने- ‘मैले यस्तै पढेको र जानेको हुनाले यस्तै भनेको हुँ ।’ यसबाट बुद्धको जन्मस्थलबारे कुन तहसम्म भ्रम पै्रदा गरिएको रहेछ भनी बुझन सकिन्छ । यसले नेपाली मात्रलाई नभई विश्वकै सत्यनिष्ट व्यक्तिहरूका निम्ति पनि चिन्ताको विषय उत्पन्न गरेको छ ।

वास्तवमा राजा शुद्धोदनको दरबार नेपाल-भारत सीमाबाट १३ किलोमिटर उत्तर नेपालको कपिलवस्तु जिल्लास्थित तिलौराकोटमा पर्छ । हाल यो पुरातात्विक भग्नावशेषका रुपमा रहेको छ । भारतले नक्कली दरबार सीमारेखाबाट भारततर्फ १ किलोमिटर दक्षिण प्रि्रहवामा बनाई बुद्धको जन्मस्थलबारे मिथ्या प्रचार प्रसार गर्ने गरेको पाइन्छ । लुम्बिनीमा मायादेवीको मन्दिर भत्काई जिर्ण्ााद्धार गर्दा त्यहाँको पुरातात्विक एउटा इँटालाई दश हजार रुपैयाँमा र इँटा जडान गर्ने सर्ुर्कीको धुलो सामग्री प्रतिकिलो पचास हजार रुपैयाँमा रातसाँझ तस्करी गरेर बेच्ने हामी नेपाली नै हौं । अनि भारतले ती पुराना सामग्री प्रि्रहवामा लगेर नयाँ सामग्रीमा मिर्साई निर्माण कार्य गरेको बुझिन्छ । यसरी भारतले बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी प्रमाणित गर्न खोज्दैछ ।

Map of Lumbini Area

यहाँ जिज्ञासा उत्पन्न हुन्छ आखिर भारत किन यस्तो गर्छ र बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी किन भन्ने गर्छ – यसको जावाफमा राजनीतिक र आर्थिक कारण रहेको हुनसक्छ । भारत विश्वको ठूलो प्रजातान्त्रिक मुलुक छँदाछँदै पनि शान्तिका प्रतीक गौतम बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी आफ्नो देशको नाम अझ माथि उकाल्न यस्तो गरिएको हुनसक्छ । भारत चीनभन्दा अगाडि बढ्दै गयो भने अमेरिका तथा पश्चिमा मुलुकले भारतलाई अझ बढी मुलाहिजा गर्नेछ भन्ने धारणाले पनि यस्तो गरिएको हुनर्ुपर्छ । यसबाहेक छिमेकी मुलुकलाई जेजस्तो गरे पनि हुन्छ भन्ने मनोवैज्ञानिक प्रवृत्ति पर््रदर्शन गर्न पनि हुनसक्छ ।

भारतले बुद्ध उसको देशमा जन्मेको हो भन्ने कुरामा ‘परालको त्यान्द्रोको सहायता’ लिन खोजेको छ । बुद्धले शिक्षा-दिक्षा हासिल गरी बुद्धत्व प्राप्त गरेको स्थान भारतमा भएको हुनाले यसै कुरालाई परालको त्यान्द्रोको रुपमा लिएको हुनर्ुपर्छ । बुद्धले भारतको सारनाथमा पहिलो पटक शिक्षा लिएका थिए भने कुशीनगरमा महापरिनिर्वाण प्राप्त गरेका र बोधगायामा बुद्धत्व प्राप्त गरेको तथा भारतकै कुशिनगरमा उनको देहान्त भएको हुनाले बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका भनी भ्रम पार्न बेलामौकामा भन्ने गरेको छ । यसै सर्न्दर्भमा अर्को प्रसङ्ग उल्लेख गर्न मिल्छ या मिल्दैन । तथापि सगरमाथामाथि पहिलो पटक पाइला टेक्ने नेपालका तेन्जिङ शर्ेपालाई भारतले भारतीय बनाई छाड्यो । बुद्धको जन्मस्थलबारे पनि भारतले यस्तै गर्न खोजेको हो कि भन्ने भान नेपाली समाजमा पर्न गएको छ ।

बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी भारतले प्रचार गर्नुका पछाडि आर्थिक कारण पनि रहेको छ । विश्वका विभिन्न देशका लगभग ५० करोड -चीन बाहेक) जनसंख्या बुद्ध धर्मावलम्बि छन् । उनीहरूमध्ये वहुसंख्यक प्रतिशतका व्यक्ति एक पटक बुद्धको जन्मस्थल टेक्ने अभिलाशा राख्छन्, चाहे धार्मिक दृष्टिकोणले होस् या व्यक्तिगत इच्छाभ्रमणका कारणले होस् । संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघका वर्तमान महासचिव बानकि मुनको सानैदेखिको इच्छा जीवनमा एक पटक बुद्धको जन्मस्थल लुम्बिनीको भ्रमण गर्ने रहेकोमा २०६५ कात्तिक १७ मा उनले लुम्बिनीको दर्शन गरेका थिए । दर्शनका समय उनले भनेका थिए- ‘संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघको महासचिवको हैंसियतमा म अन्तस्करणदेखिनै आशा राख्दछु कि बुद्धको दर्शन र उपदेशले विभिन्न संस्कृति र सम्प्रदायका मानिसलाई सुख, शान्ति र मेलमिलापमा आवद्ध गरिराख्ने छ ।’

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यसैगरी थाइल्यान्डका भूतपर्ूवप्रधानमन्त्री थाक्सिन सिनावात्राले २०६८ पुस २ मा मायादेवी मन्दिरभित्र र अशोकस्तम्भ अगाडि पर््रार्थना गरेका थिए । धेरै अघिदेखि बुद्धको जन्मस्थल भ्रमण गर्ने इच्छा गरेको कुरा आगन्तुक पुस्तिकामा लेख्दै उनले लुम्बिनी दर्शन गर्ने आफ्नो सपना साकार भएको कुरा व्यक्त गरेका थिए । यस प्रसंगमा विश्वका करोडौं बुद्ध धर्मावलम्बि पर्यटक भारतमा भित्र्याएर प्रतिवर्षअर्बौं डलर आर्जन गर्न बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी भ्रम फैलाउने गरेको बुझिन्छ ।

Thaksin

यस्तो भ्रमको एउटा उदाहरण प्रस्तुत गरौं । यस पंक्तिकारसमेत सम्लग्न रहेको नेपालको प्रतिनिधिमण्डलले हालै श्रीलंका भ्रमण गर्ने अवसर पाएको थियो । कोलम्बोको औपचारिक कार्यतालिका सम्पन्न भएपछि हामीलाई ०७० वैशाख १० गते क्यान्डी शहरको दलादा मलिगवामा रहेको बुद्धको ‘टेम्पल आप\m टुथ रेलिक’ अवलोकन गर्न लगियो । त्यहँा हामीलाई मन्दिरको अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय मामिलाका निर्देशक गमिनि बन्दरासँग पनि भेट गराइयो । कुरै-कुरामा उनले बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेको कुरा उल्लेख गरे । मैले प्रतिवाद गर्दै बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भनें । यसको जवाफमा उनले नेपाल भारतको एक प्रान्त हो भने । त्यसपछि रातोपिरो हुँदै हामीले एकै स्वरमा भन्यौं- कदापि होइन । नेपाल परापर्ूवकालदेखि स्वतन्त्र हिमाली राष्ट्र हो । यो कसैको अधिनमा कहिल्यै परेको छैन । यति भन्दै मैले ‘बुद्ध वाज बर्न इन नेपाल’ लेखिएको भिजिटिङ् कार्ड थमाउँदै भनें- कृपया आफ्नो भनाइ सुधार गर्नुहोस् । त्यसपछि उनको अनुहार कच्याक्-कुचुक परेजस्तो भयो र उनले भने- म अध्ययन गर्छर्ुुसुधार गर्छर्ुु यहाँ जोड्न खोजिएको कुरा चाहिँ बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने भ्रामक प्रचार कति गहिराइसम्म पुगेको रहेछ, यस्ता उदाहरणबाट थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ ।

अब नेपालले के गर्ने –
नेपालमा विभिन्न प्रकारका राष्ट्रिय चिन्तन, मनन र भनाइको कमी छैन । तर कार्यान्वयनमा सख्त कमी र कमजोरी सँधै रहिआएको छ । अब बुद्धको जन्मस्थलबारेको मिथ्या प्रचारलाई हटाउन नेपालले उदासिनता देखाइरहनु हुँदैन । यसका लागि ठूलो तामझाम गरिरहनु पर्दैन । करोडौं धनराशि खर्च गर्नु पर्दैन । चाहिन्छ त, एउटा सानो प्रतिवद्धता । यस्तो प्रतिवद्धता निम्न माध्यमद्वारा कार्यान्वयन गर्न गराउन सकिन्छ ।

कागजी तथा विद्युतीय माध्यम
प्रथमतः मन्त्री परिषद्को निर्ण्र्ााारा मन्त्रालयदेखि जिल्ला तथा गाविससम्मका सरकारीर्/अर्ध सरकारी कार्यालयहरूको लेटर प्याडको पुछारमा ‘बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका थिए’ भनी उल्लेख गर्नुपर्छ । यसैगरी पदाधिकारीको भिजिटिङ कार्डको पुछारमा पनि उल्लेख गर्ने परिपाटी चलाउनु पर्छ । विभिन्न निकायका ब्रोशर, पम्प्लेट, परिचयपत्रको पुछारमा यसै गरी लेखिनु सान्दर्भिक हुन्छ । विभिन्न निकायको वेब साइट, होम पेजमा ‘बुद्ध वाज बर्न इन नेपाल’ उल्लेख गरिनु पर्छ । प्रत्येक इ-मेलको पुछारमा यही कुराको टेम्प्लेट अवलम्बन गर्नुपर्छ ।

Visiting Card

भौतिक माध्यम
अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय तथा आन्तरिक विमानस्थलको आगमन कक्षमा ठूलो अक्षरले ‘वेलकम टु द कन्ट्री अप\m बुद्ध’ र प्रस्थान कक्षमा ‘बुद्ध वाज बर्न इन नेपाल’ लेख्ने प्रचलन धेरै प्रभावकारी हुनसक्छ । होटेलको ‘चेकइन काउण्टर’ को भित्तामा तथा वाणिज्य बैंकमा यसै गरी लेखी पर्यटकले पैसा कारोबार गरेको रसिद तथा हवाइयात्रुको अध्यागमन कार्डको पुछारमा पनि अनिवार्य रुपले उल्लेख गर्ने परिपाटी बसालिनु पर्छ । राष्ट्रपति, प्रधानमन्त्री, मन्त्री तथा सचिवका विदेशी भेटघाट गर्ने कार्यकक्ष भित्ताको सुहाउँदो ठाउँमा सुहाउँदो अक्षरमा अङ्कन गर्नु बढी प्रभावकारी हुनसक्छ ।

भारत र चीनको सीमा-नाकामा बनिएका सीमाद्वारमा एकदमै प्रभावकारी ढङ्गले ‘बुद्ध वाज बर्न इन नेपाल’ लेखिएकै हुनुपर्ने व्यवस्था गरिनु पर्छ । सीमावर्ती जिल्लाका अदालत, प्रहरी, भन्सार, अन्तशुल्क, अध्यागमन कार्यालय, विद्यालयले पनि यिनै कुरालाई पछ्याउनु पर्छ । यसैगरी निजी क्षेत्रका नेपाल उद्योग वाणिज्य महासंघ, नेपाल उद्योग परिसंघ जस्ता उद्योगी व्यवसायीले यस कुरालाई अनुशरण गर्न सरकारले अनुरोधपत्र पठाउनु पर्छ ।

कूटनीतिक माध्यम
विदेशस्थित नेपलको दूतावास, नियोगमा राजदूतको भेटघाट कक्ष तथा भिसा काउण्टरमा पनि यस्तै प्रक्रिया अवलम्बन गर्ने निर्देशन गर्नुपर्छ । दूतावासको लेटर प्याड, राजदूतको भिजिटिङ कार्ड, नेपाली भीसा स्टिकरको पुछारमा ‘बुद्ध वाज बर्न इन नेपाल’ लेखिएमा बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने सन्देश व्यापक रुपमा विश्वभर प्रचार प्रसार हुनसक्छ ।

यस्तैगरी संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघ, अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय निकाय तथा विदेशी सभा, सम्मेलन, बैठकमा नेपाली पदाधिकारी प्रतिनिधिको भाषणको अन्त्यमा ‘थ्याङ्क यु, बुद्ध वाज बर्न इन नेपाल’ भन्ने परिपाटी पनि अपनाउन सकिन्छ । विश्वका कतिपय मुस्लिम देशका पदाधिकारीले अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय सम्मेलनको भाषणमा ‘विस्मिल्लाह हिर रहमा निर रहिम’ भनी भाषण सुरु गर्ने गरेका छन् भने नेपाली पदाधिकारीले बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भनी भाषण टुग्याउन किन नहुने – यसमा अप्ठेरो मान्नुपर्ने कुनै कारण रहँदैन । विदेशीलाई उपहार प्रदान गर्दा ‘ शान्ति र समृद्धिका प्रतीक बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन्’ भनी उपहारमा लेख्नु अन्तर्रर्ााट्रय पर्रि्रेक्षमा कुनै अतिशयोक्ति हुने देखिंदैन । यसबाट दूरगामी सन्देश प्रवाह हुन जान्छ ।

अन्तिम
बुद्ध भारतमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने भ्रामक प्रचारलाई चिर्न हाम्रो सरकारी तवरबाटै सशक्त भूमिका खेल्नुपर्नें समय आएको छ । देश र विदेशसम्म पहुँच पुगेका सञ्चारमाध्यमद्धारा बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने सशक्त सन्देश प्रवाह गराउने परिपाटी मिलाउनु पर्छ । स्मरणीय छ न्यूज टुएन्टीफोर टेलिभिजनमा रबि लामिछानेले गत चैत २९ मा ६२ घण्टा ‘बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मभेका हुन्, नेपाललाई विश्वले चिन्नेछ’ नामक यस पंक्तिकारलाई समेत अन्तरवार्तामा सरिक गराइएको सबभन्दा लामो म्याराथुन टेलिभिजन वार्ता कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गरेका थिए । यसले गिनिज बुक अप\m ओर्ल्ड रिकर्ड प्राप्त गर्‍यो । यहाँ उल्लेख गर्न खोजिएको कुरा यस्ता कार्यक्रम राष्ट्रियता संरक्षणका लागि बढी प्रभावकारी हुन सक्छन् ।

यसैगरी बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने ठोस प्रमाण र अन्तराष्ट्रिय मान्यतासमेत सम्लग्न गरिएको पुस्तिका हिन्दी, चिनियाँ र अंग्रेजी भाषामा तयार गरी खास गरेर भारत र चीनमा व्यापक रुपले विक्री वितरण गर्ने चाँजोपाँजो मिलाउनु पर्छ । यसबाट बुद्ध नेपालमा जन्मेका हुन् भन्ने सन्देश विश्वभर प्रवाह हुनसक्छ । बुद्ध जयन्तिका अवसरमा सरकारमा रहेका पदाधिकारीलाई यस कार्यका लागि शाक्यमुनि सिर्द्धार्थ गौतम बुद्धले सद्बुद्धि प्रदान गरुन् भनी कामना गर्दछु ।

Book Review: Sima Sangram (Border War)

Book Review : Sima Sangram (Border War)

Authored By:

Buddhi Narayan Shrestha

Reviewed By:

Senior Advocate Laxmi Prasad Upreti

Review- Sima Sangram

 

Border War

Border War (China-Nepal-India)

Border War Front Cover

There were Nepal-Tibet War (1788-89,  1791-92 and 1855-56),  Anglo-Gorkha War (1814-16)

Published 2012

Price US$ 10

ISBN  978-9937-8676-0-3

Publisher : Ratna Sagar Publisher P. Ltd. Kathmandu Nepal

               Table of Contents

  1. Border War
  2. War of Maps on the Border
  3. Border Education for Border War
  4. International Boundary Principle
  5. International Principles on the Riverine Demarcation
  6. Phases of International Boundary Demarcation
  7. Reasons of Border Encroachment
  8. Disputed Border Areas of the World
  9. Methods to Resolve the Border Issues
  10. Role of Maps to Demarcate the Border
  11. Water Boundaries
  12. Border on the Sky and to the Hades
  13. What is Junge (Masonry) Pillar
  14. Types of Boundary Pillars
  15. Border Pillar is the Protector of Nation
  16. Indian SSB Camps at Junge Boundary Pillar
  17. No-man’s Land
  18. Boundary Map
  19. Talk of Nepali Diplomats
  20. Nepal’s Boundary Agreement and Treaty with the Neighbouring Countries
  21. Principles Adopted during Nepal-China Border Demarcation
  22. Principles Adopted during Nepal-India Border Demarcation
  23. Given and Taken Lands between Nepal and China
  24. Number of Nepal’s Boundary Pillars
  25. Length of Borderline of Frontier Districts
  26. Boundary Rivers of Nepal
  27. Border Passes of Nepal
  28. Border Himal
  29. Northern Inter-Frontier Pastureland
  30. Indian Barrages on the India-Nepal Boundary
  31. Indian Minister Unknowingly on the Nepalese Territory
  32. Fencing on the frontier
  33. Indian Military Check-Posts on the Northern Frontier of Nepal
  34. When was the Birth of Nepal ?
  35. Boundary of Greater Nepal
  36. Condition of Boundary of Nepal and its Demarcation
  37. Border Management
  38. Mount Everest is the Treasure of Nepal
  39. What is Sugauli Treaty ?
  40. What is Kalapani Border Issue ?
  41. What is Susta Border Issue ?
  42. Abrogate or Revision 1950 Treaty ?
  43. Nepal should be a Bridge on Two Boulders
  44. Nepal as a Transit Country
  45. Identification Card during Border Crossing
  46. Security Concern related to the Boundary
  47. Border Security Force
  48. Indian Activities on Border Security
  49. Chinese Activities on Border Security
  50. Ethics of Boundary Surveyor
  51. International Federation of Surveyors (FIG)
  52. International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU)
  53. Association for Borderlands Studies (ABS)
  54. Border Encroachments by India
  55. Nepal-China Settled Border Issues after Disputes
  56. War of Tongue on Kalapani Border
  57. Facts and Figures on Boundary of Nepal
  58. Definition of Boundaries
  59. Cartoon Sketches on Boundaries
  60. Reference Materials
  61. Glossary of Names

Maps

Tables

Photographs

                               Border War

 

S. N.

Date of Border War

Name of Border War

Countries involved in Wars

Persons  Killed During War (Approx.)

1

1788-1789

1792-1792

1855-1856

First Nepal-Tibet War

Second Nepal-Tibet War

Third Nepal-Tibet War

Nepal and Tibet (Bhot)

Nepal and Tibet (Bhot)

Nepal and Tibet (Bhot)

      20

 1,575

 2,093

2

1814-1816

Anglo-Gorkha Border War

Nepal and British India

 3,568

3

1816-48

Mexican-American Border War

USA and Mexico

     29,000

 

4

1910-1918

Border War

USA and Mexico

   100

5

1932-1935

Chaco War

Bolivia and Paragua

  100,000

6

1938-1938

Battle of Lake Khasan

Soviet Union and Japan

      1,300

7

1939-1939

Slovak-Hungarian War

Slovakia and Hungary

    66

8

1939-1939

Battle of Khalkhin Gol

Soviet Union and Mangolia-Japan

   16,000

9

1950-1953

Korean Border War

South and North Korea

2,419,010

10

1962-1962

India-China Border War

India and China

4,000

11

1965-1965

Indo-Pakistani War

India and Pakistan

6,800

12

1971-1971

Indo-Pakistani War

India and Pakistan

4,000

13

1987-1987

India-China Skirmish

India and China

Unknown

14

1999-1999

Kargil War

India and Pakistan

4,500

15

2001-2001

India-Bangladesh Border Conflict

India and Bangladesh

20

16

1984-1987

Siachen Conflict

India and Pakistan

2,400

17

1966-1989

South African Border War

Angola and South Africa

Unknown

18

1969-1969

Sino-Soviet Border Conflict

China and Soviet Union

Unknown

19

1980-1988

Iran-Iraq War

Iran and Iraq

1,500,000

20

1981-1981

Paquisha War

Ecuador and Peru

10

21

1982-1982

Ethiopian-Somali Border War

Ethiopia and Somalia

Unknown

22

1985-1985

Agacher Strip War

Mali and Burkina Faso

179

23

1987-1988

Thai-Laotian Border War

Thailand and Laos

1,000

24

1989-1991

Mauritania-Senegal Border War

Mauritania and Senegal

Unknown

25

1995-1995

Conepa War

Ecudar and Peru

450

26

1998-2000

Eritrean-Ethiopian War

Ethiopia and Eritrea

70,000

27

2000-2008

Shebaa Farms Conflict

Israel and Lebanon

30

28

2008-2008

Djiboutian-Eritrean Border Conflict

Djibouti and Eritrea

144

29

2008-Ongoing

Cambodia-Thai Border Attack

Combodia and Thailand

42

30

2012-Ongoing

Sudan-South Sudan Border Coflict

Sudan and South Sudan

292

                                                                                                                                            Source: Wekipedia/First of border Wars.

                                                                                                                                      Based on: Triratna Manandhar et.al. (2012),

                                                                                                     History of Nepali Army, Kathmandu, Page 30-35 and 183-199.

                              Border Diplomacy

            Diplomacy is the processes of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. The word is originated form Latin diploma, meaning an official document, which in turn derives from the Greek meaning a folded paper/document. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the professional diplomats and experts with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics etc. In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational or polite manner. As a matter of fact, diplomacy is related to the foreign policy.

               When we think about border diplomacy, we tend to think of administrative boundaries and border management system. Those demarcating lines; often grown out of rivers, mountain ranges, peaks, narrow passes; govern our daily lives, and that’s doubly so if we live in the frontier area, near to a neighboring country or state. We know that some boundaries are on some level unnatural, having homogeneous topography. In the same way there might have some identical human behavior, food habit and similar attire and language of both the frontier people. For example, driving around the Birganj town of Nepal and Raxaul of India makes this abundantly clear. Price of the daily consumable items and commodities may be not so different, as it can be difficult to tell which state you’re in, India or Nepal for the virgin visitors, and the small street of State Line Road does nothing to make it clearer, since there is no conspicuous and eye catching demarcation on both the sides of the crossing point.

               Diplomacy is highly related to the foreign policy of a country. In fact, Nepal’s foreign policy uses to be shaky time and often especially when there are incidents between Nepal and India and Nepal and China. Similarly, it fluctuates in connection to the changing relation between China and India. The most important thing is that border diplomacy has not yet chalked down in Nepal’s foreign policy.

               If I have to talk about the border diplomacy, it is the art and practice of conducting international boundaries negotiations between nations. It usually refers international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats and experts with regard to issues of peace-making culture through mutual understanding.  In addition, border diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common problem in relation to the historical and authentic documents and materials which are acceptable for both sides in a congenial atmosphere. At the same time, border diplomacy is an enterprise which necessitates an untiring supply of talented individuals with facts, figures and past incidents to convey and convince neighbouring boundary and surveying experts, in one or the alternative way.

               Nepal’s border diplomacy consists of two facets of the same coin. One is the border demarcation diplomacy and the other face is border management diplomacy.

1.            Border Demarcation Diplomacy

1.        Border between two nations shall be demarcated in a joint working basis with equal footing. Strip maps and GIS data concerning border business should be prepared and established jointly, since border is common to both nations.

2.        Boundary demarcation problems shall be resolved on the basis of friendship, brotherliness, mutual respect, understanding and reciprocity.

3.        Border shall be demarcated on basis of old maps, documents, co-ordinates and reference materials.

4.        If there are differences in some segments of the borderline, that shall be settled with the formation of joint technical level committee and high level joint commission with equal participation.

5.        Track-II diplomacy should be adopted to find out the modality, ways and means to make study and research for the amicable settlement of the problems. Diplomats must prepare a solution paper on the basis of facts, figures and past incidents. They must keep in touch with the counterpart Track-II diplomats of the neighboring country to find out the solution, agreeable to both nations.

6.        Content of solution paper shall be discussed broadly on the political level and it should be passed by majority with some amendment and addition. Finally it shall be adopted as the ‘National Border Diplomacy or Policy’ of the nation. This guideline policy matter should be adopted and spoken by all political party leaders, bureaucrats and technocrats with the counterpart personnel.

7.        Finally, Head of Government must talk to his counterpart of neighboring country, on the basis of national border diplomacy to negotiate and solve the border demarcation problems.

8.        If there is no way out even on the level of Head of Government, the diplomacy tactic shall be taken to seek mediation diplomacy form the third country. Both the nations should be entrusted to the mediating country.

9.        If the mediation diplomacy is not successful or entrusted, then the next step shall be to knock the door of the international institutions or organizations, such as United Nations Security Council or International Court of Justice. But it is the virtue of a country to inform officially to the neighboring country, before going to the international organization for petition.

10.     The State shall go to the international organizations to seek justice, on the issue of border business, to preserve the national sovereignty and to maintain integrity.

1.1          Nepal-India border demarcation diplomacy

1.        It is said that 97 percent of Nepal-India border has been demarcated. 182 strip-maps have been prepared and 8,553 border pillars and markers have been established.

2.        There are problems in remaining 3 percent of the border line. It means nearly 38 kilometer of borderline in various spots has not yet demarcated, since there are 1,880 kilometer border between Nepal and India.

3.        Within the spotted span of 38 kilometer, there are encroachments, disputes, claims and counter-claims in more than 71 places, having 60,662 hectares in area. The largest chunk of encroachment is the Kalapani-Limpiyadhura in Darchula district and its area is nearly 37,000 hectare. The second disputed/encroached area is Susta, as 14,500 hectare in Nawalparasi district. Besides, there are disputes, claims and counter-claims in other 69 places having 9,162 hectare of land. The smallest piece of encroachment is 240 square meter (Nearly half a Ropani) of land, located at Phatak of Pashupatinagar Village Development Committee in Ilam district.

4.        These 2 percent (38 km) of unsettled spots should be handled as per the norms of border demarcation diplomacy, as stated in above mentioned serial number one.

5.        High level Joint Commission, consisting of Track-II diplomats and intellectuals, should be formed to settle the outstanding issues.

 

1.2          Nepal-China border demarcation diplomacy

1.        Boundary Protocol should be renewed with an interval of ten years, since the demarcation was completed and first Protocol was signed on 20 January 1963.

2.        Border line shall be supervised and monitored jointly and report should be prepared in course of the renewal of previous Protocol.

3.        Damaged and missing border pillars and markers shall be repaired and established accordingly.

4.        New strip-maps shall be prepared digitally on the basis of previous maps, adopting new technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and establishment of Geographical Information System (GIS) data.

5.        India-Nepal-China Tri-junction Points (Zero Marker) must be established on both ends of the border line with equal co-operation of both India and China.

2.            Border Management Diplomacy

         Border management diplomacy shall be adopted on the basis of dynamic equilibrium on both China and India. There is a quotation of the Late King Prithvi Narayan Shah the Great ‘Nepal is a yam between two boulders.’ But the situation has been changed and it has to be re-visualized in the changing context of not only Nepal, but also changing situation of China and India as well. Now it will not be exaggerated to say that ‘Nepal should be a bridge on two boulders.’

2.1          Nepal-China border management diplomacy

1.        Nepal and China has a regulated border management system. However, Tibetans sneak illegally to Nepal. So border management should be strengthened from both the sides. 

2.        border out-post and immigration check-post shall be established close to the border crossing points as far as possible, not to allow anti-China activity from the Nepali soil. Presently, these posts have been located ten to twenty kilometer far from the border line. For example, Lamabagar Police post at Dolakha district has been established 22 kilometer south of the border crossing-point. In fact, it should be established at Lapche Gaun.

3.        Policy to increase the number of border observation post (BOP) of Armed Police Force shall be adopted, so that illegal Tibetan infiltration will be checked.

4.        Nepali timber, Himalayan herbs like expensive Yarsagamba of Nepal, Red Sandalwood brought from India should be checked, not to export illegally to Tibetan Autonomous Region of China, establishing BOPs close to border crossing-points.

2.2          Nepal-India border management diplomacy

1.    At present, there is an open border system. But it has not worked well in the matter of security concern of both the countries. So it should be converted into regulated system in mutual co-operation with the perspective of security issue for both nations. Policy shall be taken to regulate the border in a phase wise basis.

2.    To start to be regulated the open border, number of Armed Police Force and BOPs shall be increased in the first phase. BOP should be established close to the border line, but not in No-man’s Land (Dasgaja Area). Presently, some of these posts have been located 2 to 4 kilometer towards Nepal side.

3.    In the second phase, identity card (ID Card) system should be introduced for the travelers, who cross the international border. But the frontier inhabitants, who are the residents with 5 kilometer of the border, should be permitted to cross the border many times a day.

4.      In the third phase, barbed-wire fencing shall be erected on the border. But there must be 376 exit/entry crossing-points, since the length of the border line is 1,880 kilometer. It’s high time to regulate Nepal-India border to obstruct cross-border terrorism, criminal activities, smuggling of counter-fit Indian currency notes. Regulated system shall be initiated with the joint decision, as the regulated system was implemented in air-route with a joint decision, after the hijacking of Indian aircraft from Nepal. 

3.            Issue resolving diplomacy

         Nepal must be very clear on the border diplomacy and boundary strategies to resolve the long outstanding chronic issues. The border diplomacy relating to Nepal-India boundary may be as followings :

u        Nepal must nourish, insist and present to India that Nepal and India are the countries which have equal right and status in the arena of international forum, no matter how big or small the countries are.

u        Attempt should be made to make them understand the problems in the higher level of the state.

u        It has to convince India and obtain confidence from them.

u        Nepal should be enabled to create a congenial atmosphere and environment for India for a ‘face saving device’ in the international arena to realize the border problems, for example the issue of Kalapani, with Nepal.

u        Lobbying must be made through the Nepal Embassies and Diplomatic Missions abroad to exert pressure through friendly countries of the world.

u        Matured and experienced diplomatic medium should be conducted to convince India.

u        Track-II intellectuals should be mobilized to talk to their Indian counter-parts to resolve the outstanding complex border issues.

u        Root of the problems must be identified through the consultations with the concerned experts.

u        It must be identified the ways and means to solve the problems with alternative measures, which will be agreeable for both the nations.

u        After that stage, there must be dialogues and discussions among the political leaders in a manner of cordiality.

u        At the end of rigorous inter-actions, political leaders must reach into a consensus point and that will be adopted as the national border diplomacy by all.

u        If the border problems with the neighbour are not resolved mutually, problems should be briefed to the friendly countries of the world unofficially as a side line during international meetings.

u        Global pressure should be exerted to the southern neighbour of Nepal to solve the issues, through the friendly countries directly or indirectly that could pay attention by India.

u        If none of these measures work, Nepal must seek mediation through the third country.

u        If the mediation is not accepted by the neighbour, Nepal must be ready to knock the door of the international organizations such as the United Nations (Security Council) and International Court of Justice (ICJ) for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the nation. 

4.      Border Strategy

         In connection to the complex issues like Kalapani border encroachment, what will be the border strategy of Nepal, if India pleads as follows :

u        If India pleads that Kalapani belongs to them, what will be the strategy of Nepal ?

u        If India says that the then King Mahendra has given the area of Kalapani to India, how Nepal encounters to India ?

u        In case India reiterates, China has never said that Kalapani belongs to Nepal; in this situation, what will be the answer from Nepal ?

u        If India produces a proposal : Let us make the Kalapani area as a Buffer Zone (No-man’s land). What logic should be presented to India from Nepal ?

u        Alternatively, if India proposes: Let us deploy military battalions jointly at Kalapani area. What Nepal should do ? Whether Nepal’s answer will be ‘yes’ or ‘no’ ?

u        In the mean time if India wanted to take the Kalapani area in a lease for one hundred years, what will be the strategy of Nepal ?

u        Ultimately, if India proposes for the mediation from third country to resolve the Kalapani issue, which country will be acceptable for Nepal and on what ground ?

u        Finally, if India warns Nepal : If Nepal pushes the Kalapani issue in the international arena, Nepal must face the worst end result. What will be the strategy of Nepal ?

5.      Last item

         Study shall be made to know the feeling and intention of the people of both frontiers, on the alternatives of the existing border regime. Policy shall be formulated according to their wish and need. If there are some chaos and irritants on the border, the frontier people will be the first and direct sufferer.

         Policy for the integrated development (including physical, economic and social development) project in the frontier area should be formulated and implemented. Border area is a sensitive element of the nation. If there are some muddle and disturbances in border area, inhabitants of both the frontiers will be suffered directly in the very first stroke. Ultimately, it will affect the whole country.

                                      Definition of Boundaries

Alignment: A boundary line described in words in a treaty, and/or shown on a map or chart and/or marked on the ground by physical indicators.

Antecedent Boundary: It is a boundary line drawn before most of the features of the cultural landscapes existed.

Arbitration: A form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a legal technique for the         resolution of border disputes outside the courts, where the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the arbitrators).

Artificial Boundary: Boundaries which are not marked by nature and which must therefore be marked physically on the ground by means of stones, markers or monuments placed by human being.

Border: A boundary between one nation (or a political division) and another. It means an area which adjoins the boundary line with a variable depth. 

Border Area: It means an area which extends inwards from the boundary line. Normally border area used to be considered as a “sensitive area.”

Border Diplomacy: It is an art or practice of conducting international boundaries between representatives of groups or states, in negotiating alliances, treaties, and agreements.

Border Line: A line of demarcation situated at a border between two states.

Boundary: Boundary is the line which indicates the outermost territorial limits of state sovereignty. It is a line, marking the territorial jurisdiction of a state or other entity having an international status.

Boundary Administration: This function is concerned with the regulation of activities in relation to the boundary line, so demarcated. The supervisory functions will include passport and customs regulation at points of entry on the land boundary routes and seaport.

Boundary Allocation: Allocation of a boundary is the process, which refers to political decision on the distribution of territory.

Boundary Treaty: It constitutes an objective territorial regime that is valid erga omnes, with an independent validity, even if the treaty itself comes to and end.

Conflict: Clash, competition, or mutual interference of opposing or incompatiable forces or qualities. It is a controversy, encounter, counteract in border issues (the judgement did not end the conflict between the parties).

Contiguous Zone: The water boundary that is a belt of water, the width of which is defined but does not exceed 24 nautical miles from the baseline.

Continental Shelf: The water boundary extended up to 350 nautical miles from the shore baseline.

 Controversy: A disagreement or dispute on boundaries, a justicable dispute. A case that requires a definitive determination of the law on the facts alleged for the adjudication of an actual dispute,

Delimitation: Delimitation is to compromise the determination of a boundary line by treaty or otherwise and its definition in written, verbal terms. It denotes description of the alignment in a treaty or other written source.

Demarcation: Demarcation is to comprise that actual laying down of boundary pillars or other similar physical means. It denotes the means by which the described alignment is marked, or evidenced, on the ground, by means of cairns of stones, concrete pillars, beacons of various kinds, cleared roads inscrub, and so on.

Delineation: Delineation of boundaries is, in practice, necessarily an outcome of the determination of territorial sovereignty.

Dispute: A conflict or controversy; a conflict of claims or rights, an assertion of rights on boundaries, claim or demand on one side, met by contrary claims or allegations on the other. Dispute involves a disagreement between two states on a point of law or fact, which consists of a claim or protest.

Encroach: To enter by gradual steps or stealth into the possessions or rights of another; to trespass or intrude, to gain or intrude unlawfully upon another’s boundaries, to advance beyond desirable or normal limits.

Encroachment: An infringement of another’s rights or intrusion on another’s boundary.

Exclusive Economic Zone: The water boundary extended up to 200 nautical miles from the shore baseline.

Estoppel: It facilitates an international boundary decision based upon the express or tacit       consent or good faith of the state concerned.

Fixed Boundary:Fixed Boundary is the boundary along the river where the boundary has remained in the same position as it was during the time of boundary demarcation, irrespective of the present position of the river.

Fluid Boundary: Fluid boundary is the boundary along mid-stream of the river. If it has changed its course suddenly and taken a new course, then the boundary on previous course should be the boundary. And if the river has changed its course by cutting its bed gradually then the present mid-stream of the river should be the boundary.

Frontier: In international law, that portion of the territory of any country which lies close along the border line of another country, and so “fronts” or faces it. It is the farthest limits of man’s advance that have been called the frontier.

International Boundaries: It comprises all boundaries between two nations, whether they traverse land, rivers, lakes, or arms of the sea through territorial waters out to the high sea.

Map: A map is a portrayal of geographical facts, which can provide vital evidence of the intended location of territorial boundaries. It may also be an independent document with the limited function of illustrating a legal text.

Median Line: A boundary line on the sea between two coastal nations. It is the water departing median line, apply the ‘proportionality test’ to check that the proposed boundary is equitable.

Natural Boundary: Lines of boundaries which are marked by nature, such as mountain crests, rivers, and shore lines of lakes and seas, have long been utilized in establishing natural or geographical boundaries.

Nautical Mile: The international nautical mile adopted for the water boundary by the International Hydrographic Organization measures 1,852 meters.

No-man’s Land: An area of unowned, unclaimed or uninhabitated land (a no-man’s land of bottom lands aggregation), a belt of ground between the most advanced elements of the other country (the no-man’s land that is neither wholly good or wholly evil).

Protocol: Protocol deals with the maintenance of the boundary line and the markers that charges both parties with the allocated responsibilities.

Relict Boundary: It is one  boundary line that has been abandoned but is still marked by differences in the landscape that developed during its lifetime.

Strip-map: A map charting only the immediate territory to be traversed, which appears a long, narrow strip showing only a narrow band of territory (as 500 meter wide and hundreds of kilometers long strip).

Subsequent Boundary: It is constructed on an existing cultural landscape along the boundary line.

Territory: A geographical area belonging to or under the jurisdiction of political authority: and boundary administrative sub-division of a country.

Territorial Boundary: The lines on the surface of the earth which separate the territory of one State from that of another or from the Open Sea.

Territorial Water: The water boundary that is a belt of water, the width of which is defined but does not exceed 12 nautical miles from the baseline.

Thalweg: The boundary line ‘determined by means of deepest soundings’ along the course of a river on the fastest current. Thalweg is the German terminology. Boundaries in navigable rivers and straits very commonly follow this terminology, or main navigable mid-channel (Thalweg).

Triple-Point: Triple-point is located at that point where three countries meet and three boundaries terminate. At each end of any boundary, unless one end is on the coast, the two countries concerned meet a third country at what is called a triple-point or tri-junction.

Uti possidetis: It is “As you posses, so may you posses” also in the case of boundaries. The term is derived from Roman law, “in which it designated an interdict of the Praetor, by which the disturbance of the existing state of possession of immovables, as between two countries, was forbidden.”

Vista: Where a boundary penetrates a forest, it is a common practice to cut a path along it and it is called “vista.” The width of the vista varies, four to eight meters being the usual range.

Watershed: A watershed (water parting) is a line of boundary on the crest of a mountain range from which the water seperates and runs down opposite slopes.

 

Border War

Book on

                   Sima Sangram (Border War)

Launched

Front Cover Final

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A book entitled ‘Sima Sangram (Border War)’ written by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha and published by Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd was launched amidst a colourful program on 1 April 2013. The book was released jointly by the Renowned Culture Expert and three times Madan Prize Winner Satya Mohan Joshi, Chairperson of Avenues Television  Bhaskar Raj Rajkarnikar and Editor-in-Chief of Kantipur Daily Sudheer Sharma.

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During the book release program, the writer of the book Buddhi Narayan Shrestha said that the commentators will speak later the strength and weakness of the book; and what topics have been included and what are the lacking and short comings in the book. However, I would like to say something on the reasons of writing this book.

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Many of my friends and well wishers used to enquire me that the northern neighbour of Nepal, that is China also might have encroached the Nepali territory. Why don’t you write it ? Secondly, as everybody knows that India, the southern neighbour has encroached the territory since long. Whether the encroachments have been stopped or resolved or increased in the current period. They were asking me to write and renew the position of our border business activities. So I have written this book with the title as ‘Sima Sangram (Border War)’ to pacify the inquisitiveness of my friends, colleagues and Nepali civic society.

Now let me first tell you on the border business of Nepal with China. After the boundary agreement in 1960 and boundary treaty in 1961, border demarcation was made during 1961-62. During the joint demarcation, there were claims, counter-claims, conflicts and disputes on 32 spots including the Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world. But it was settled amicably with a view of friendliness, brotherhood, equality, mutual respect, spirit of Panchasheel; and Nepal and China have the equal rights in the international arena, no matter the country has small or large territorial area and more or less population. It is commendable that all the controversies and disputes were settled for ever in the technical level. But the issue of Mount Everest was settled in the Prime Minister level. During the visit of Chinese Prime Minister Chou-en-Lai to Nepal, it was settled on 28 April 1960. In a press conference in Singha Darbar Gallery Baithak, the Chinese Prime Minister told that ‘we had some conflict on the issue of Mount Everest. On this issue we studied the hand made paper map and documents provided by the Prime Minister of Nepal Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala in the technical, administrative, political and diplomatic level; and the government of China came into conclusion and made decision that ‘Mount Everest belongs to Nepal.’ So all the demarcation work was completed in less than two years period.

However, some of the Nepali settlements like Chyanga and Lungdep of Kimathanka VDC of Sankhuwasabha district and some grazing lands for example of Humla and Dolakha districts were demarcated on the Chinese side. It may be due to the ignorance or slackness of Nepali team members, not paying attention to the problem. On the other side of the coin, some Chinese territory was demarcated belonging to the Nepali side. But most of these areas were snow covered steep and rocky area. Whatever it may be, it was all settled for all and there is no issue on it.

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Currently, there are two issues between Nepal and China. The first is the border marker number 57 of Lapchigaun of Lamabagar area of Dolakha district. There is a claim and counter-claim on six hectares of barren land. The Nepali team says that the border marker was established in the wrong place in the Nepalese frontier. The Chinese team responded that it was monumented during 1961-62 demarcation period. So there is no point to remove the marker and establish on the Chinese frontier.

The other issue is the height of Mount Everest. The Chinese team pleaded that the height of the Everest must be taken as 8844.57 meter and this height should be written on  the Nepal-China strip-map. They have argued that China re-measured the height of Everest (Quolongma) and it is taken to the rock height.

The Nepali side responded that there is no point to reduce the height of Everest (Sagarmatha), short by 3.43 meter. Various countries of the world have regarded the height of Everest as 8,848 m. It should be taken the snow height. Nepali side is pleading that if we take the rock height of Everest, then we must take the rock height of other mountains as well; like Lhotse, Manasula, Kanchanjungha etc. Mount Godwin Austin or Mount K-2, the second highest mountain in the world of Pakistan has been measured with snow height. Taken into consideration to all these references, there is no point to reduce the height of Everest. And the issues have been stranded for the last six years between Nepal and China. Whatever it may be, the issue should be resolved talking with each other in a cordial manner.

Regarding the border issues with the southern neighbour, there were encroachments, disputes, conflicts, claims and counter-claims on 53 spots, a decade ago. Now the number of disputed spots have been increased to 71 places. Ten years ago, the total area of conflicts was 60,000 hectares of land in 21 Nepali districts; and now it has reached to 23 districts as 60,662 hectares. In such a way the disputed area, number of spots and number of districts have been increased by 662 hectares, 18 spots and 2 districts respectively within a period of ten years. I have mentioned the sources from various information of the government offices, Constitutional Assembly Committees and independent researchers.

The book has been targeted mainly to the readers who have interest on the national boundary issues. Similarly, this book will be useful for the College and University students who have been engaged on research, study and thesis writing on the boundaries. It is also worth reading for those who are interested on the Himal of Nepal, mountain passes and border crossing-points of Nepal with the neighbouring countries.

Besides, security concern agencies, especially the border security force and other organizations such as Armed Police Force, Nepal Police, Nepal army, local administration and Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs could use this book as basic source of information and knowledge on the boundary of Nepal with India and China. Similarly, the book will be helpful for the Survey Officers who are engaged on the border demarcation business. This book can be utilized by the surveyors during the preparation of Public Service Commission Examination for service entry and competitive post promotion.

Nepali youths have to become aware of the shrinking of Nepali territory, whether it might have been pushed from the Chinese side or Indian side. National boundary is the integrity of the country. If the boundary shrinks or encroachment continues, it may ultimately challenge to the existence of the nation. It is the responsibility of the government, general public and more so the youths to secure the Nepali territory intact.

In the book release function, Culture Expert and three times Madan Prize Winner Satya Mohan Joshi highlighted on national boundary issues and mentioned tendency of the Nepali political leaders. Joshi said, he is very much obliged to the publisher and writer of the book in writing and publishing such a nationalistic book. He further said, there is no understanding of the border issues in the present political leadership. This book of Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is an important document of border consciousness. As the chief guest of the program, Joshi urged the government has to safeguard Nepali territory from the Indian clutches. He appealed that the time has come for our youths to play the role as the protector not to let shrinking Nepali territories.

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Culture Expert Satya Mohan Joshi further said, Junga Bahadur Rana was the most far-sighted in view of the protection and preservation of national boundary of Nepal. J B Rana has done a very commendable job retrieving back the lost territory of the districts of Banke, Bardiya, Kailali and Kanchanpur from the British East India Company. It is worth mentioning that he did not accept the new territory of four districts unless it was demarcated by Masonry (Junge) Pillars with ten yard strip No-man’s land on both the sides.

In comparison to Junga Bahadur Rana, the then King Mahendra was not far-sighted on the border issue. While returning from China visit, the King directly went to Tundikhel KhariKo Bot (Parade Ground Khari Tree) and the King said, ‘it is a matter of happiness that half of Sagarmatha (Everest) is ours and the remaining half belongs to China.’ The King had said that the peak of Sagarmatha is ‘half and half.’ In this aspect Satya Mohan Joshi said, the King is not nationalistic. He should bring the peak of Everest to our side.

He recalled that the United Nations Population Division had invited to the then government of Nepal to enumerate the population of Nepal in connection to establish the census data- how much is the world population ? Since the population of even small countries like Nepal would not have been included in the world census, the global population census statistic would not be completed. He mentioned that Thir Bahadur Rayamajhi, Nara Kanta Adhikari, Keshar Bahadur Karmacharya, Hridaya Nath and Satya Mohan Joshi (he himself) were included in the census enumeration team of Nepal. We had participated as Officer Level personnel from Census Department of Nepal. An international training center was established in New Delhi to impart training for the uniformity in all the countries.

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At first, population data of eastern Nepal was taken in 1952 and western Nepal was covered in1953. At that time census population was enumerated in a symbolic method. During that period the inhabitants of hilly and mountainous region like Kalapani was counted in a rough estimate. Now Kalapani area has been encroached by the neighbour. Their eyes have been rooted in Kalapani. Our political leaders are sleeping. It is a gesticulation that Nepali territory has been encroached. But we are silent and mum.

At the end of his talk Satya Mohan Joshi said, whatever it may be- this book Sima Sangram (Border War) has brought us border awareness. This writer of the book has worked as a ‘Border Watch Dog.’ If Buddhi Narayan Shrestha stops barking on the border issues, Nepal will sink. Boundary is very important for the sovereignty of nation. National boundary must be protected by us, the Nepali people. We should work as Army men for the protection and preservation of our boundaries.

As a co-launcher of the book, Chairman of the Avenues Television Bhaskar Raj Rajkarnikar made public that various challenges and criticism have to be born while televising and raising the border issues of Nepal through the electronic media. Buddhi Narayan Shrestha’s written achievement as book has inspired us to work and go further ahead in the border related aspect. Rajkarnikar opined that he is pretty sure that the present book ‘Sima Sangram’ will help to let understand the border issues to the Nepali people and to carry on study and analysis by the researchers.

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This book will be useful to the electronic media to expose and solve the border issues of Nepal. At the same time the present book has created a wave on the border matter. Everybody must understand that boundary is an integral part of the nation. For this purpose, Avenues Television has utilized the experience and knowledge of Buddhi Narayan Shrestha on the matter of border business and we have provided information to the Nepali people through him.

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Sometimes there are complaints from the so called friends, while Avenues Television raises the border problems. They say, why you have raised the question of borders and frontiers ? In response, we use to make a counter question- ‘While we televise the actual situation of our border, why you feel your border uncomfortable ?’

Another co-launcher of the book Sudheer Sharma, Editor-in-Chief of Kantipur Daily expressed that the book is an energetic source of information even for the journalism.

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He praised Buddhi Narayan Shrestha for his comprehensive effort to review Nepal’s border issues. Shrestha’s articles and write-ups with the related reference, data, date and actual incidents  are clear in language, straight forward in subject matter and easy to read. So we heartily publish his articles in our Kantipur Daily. This is the reason we have given him space in our daily newspaper. With the eyes of journalists, we can regard Buddhi Narayan Shrestha as the ‘Watchman of the national boundary of Nepal.’ His work is incomparable, so we must be grateful to him.

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As Sudheer Sharma recalled his memory of ten years ago while going for reporting on the Kalapani border encroachment area he said, border encroachment issue will not get substantive decision until and unless the state leadership is active. We are entangled into the internal boundaries, like the boundary of Federal States; by which the state agency who looks after our international boundary is ‘disabled and defunct.’

As a commentator on the book, Former Ambassador Hiranya Lal Shrestha expressed his comment that the first and foremost work to protect the national boundary of Nepal should belong to Nepali Army man. He opined that the former Maoist rebellions who have been engrossed in the Nepali Army contingent should have been deputed for the security of national boundary. Army should be involved in the Joint Boundary Committee. As it is known that Military Officers usually keep account about border security.

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He pointed out with a sharp criticism to the political leaders of Nepal that our leaders are mum even while the national boundary has been encroached and violated by the neighbours. He made a point that Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is the true border ‘Watchman’ without government uniform. He has been monitoring the border for its protection. He is a patriotic intellect to save the border. His present book has the holistic comparative study of the border problems.

We should formulate integrated border development program in the border areas. We should develop border towns and Ex-Army men should be inhabited in the frontier area. Frontiers on both the sides must be peaceful, stable, crimeless and free from terror to march ahead for prosperity. We should be careful against disintegration. We must be vigilant and self respectful for the security of our national border.

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Political leaders do not have time to look after the national border. But Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is the vigilant and fore runner on the border matter to create awareness to the civic society. His book ‘Sima Sangram’ is a lively document of border awareness. The speed with which Indian aggression is continuing, a day will soon come the Indian aggression will arrive at Singha Darbar, if the leaders are mum and apathetic.

Open border between Nepal and India has been misused. There are smugglings of goods and materials through the open border. So the border should be regulated and fenced for the betterment of both the countries.

The other commentator Prof. Dr. Surendra KC of Tribhuvan University History Department said, large country like India has encroached the territory of small country like Nepal. If there are open and unrestricted movement, privileges and trans-migration of these days; there will be a remarkable short fall in Nepal’s population.

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Expressing his worriness Prof, KC opined that there will be an alarm of Nepal nationalism due to the free and open movement of the people through the international boundary. He further said, 95 percent of the border demarcation between Nepal and India has been completed. The remaining 5 percent on the various spots of the border has alarming questions. Our border on various spots have been encroached. It is a question mark that what is the expectation of the neighbour ?

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Prof. KC said, Buddhi Narayan Shrestha is vigilant on border activities. Shrestha is worried about the border encroachments. He keeps information where there are border issues. Wisdom and specialities are the great elements. For this we have to congratulate Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. With him, we have to be updated ourselves on the condition of our frontier and the tendency of border encroachment. Actually, History Department of the Tribhuvan University should take up these matters. But the department is reluctant.

In the beginning of the program, Chairman of the publisher of the book or Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd Arjun Kumar KC welcomed all the guests and dignitaries who were present in the book release function, on behalf of book publishing company and his own.

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He said, we have published the book ‘Sima Sangram’ written by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. We are proud of him. He believed us and we published his book. This book has full of national sentiment to create the awareness on the current situation of boundary and border issues of Nepal with the neighbouring countries.

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At the end of the program, as the Chairman of the function and Managing Director of Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd Mohan KC said, we are the business men and intend to earn some money by publishing the books. This is the general nature of the book publishers as business men. We are aware of the professional ethics and responsibility. But we are committed to the nationalism and national integrity rather than to earn something. So we publish the books which have national feeling and sense of sovereignty and integrity of the nation.

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With this perspective, we have published the book ‘Sima Sangram (Border War)’ authored by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. We are happy for this publication. We don’t mind if we don’t get anything from this publication. But we think it will help to preserve and protect the national boundary of Nepal. This is great for us.

If the intellect persons write on the national issues in any theme, we print and publish it for the sake of nation. We believe that we have to provide national and sovereign feeling as an education for the future generation.

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The publisher of the book further said, British authors had written and put down on the paper whatever the subject matters they liked, concerning our nation as well. And we have obtained that as for our reading materials and we have gained some knowledge. Now, we the Nepalese must write ourselves in any of the subject matters about us and our nation, as it may be the history. That should be truthful and based on reality and it will provide a clear picture for the future generation. In this context, we are happy to publish the book authored by Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. We call the other intellectuals and researchers to write books on nationalism for the development of our nation. We are committed to publish that sort of composition.

Master of Ceremony of the program (MC) Thakur Belbase, senior Journalist of Image FM 103.6 Radio said, the book ‘Sima Sangram’ is published by the Ratna Sagar Publication P. Ltd. The price of the book is Rs. 300. But right now it is available at the cost of Rs. 200 only for the respectable guests and audiences of this program.

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At the dead end of the program, traditional snacks were served with pop corn, onion Pakora, rosted potato with pickle. The venue and snacks were provided complementary (free of cost) at Bhojan Griha by the owner Bharat Basnet. He is the Chair person of Explorer Group Nepal. The organizer and Buddhi Narayan Shrestha thanked Basnet for his generosity. Everybody knows Basnet that he has a Movement of Nationality and he is the main activist of ‘Prithvi Narayan Shah the Great, who started to unify Nepal.’ Prithvi Narayan Shah formally established Nepal as a Himalayan State and thus Nepal was born on 17 November 1769.

Prithvi Narayan Shah

The book launching program was attended by more than 250 invitees and guests, various facets of the society consisting from ordinary people to the former Minister, retired Commissioners, former Ambassadors, University teachers. human right activists, former Army men, Armed Police Force, renowned musicians, senior Journalists, Chair persons of various organizations and institutions. Some of the representative participants were as followings :

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Former Minister Marshal Julum Shakya, Former Chief Election Commissioner Bhoj Raj Pokhrel, Former Chief Commissioner of Commission for investigation of Abuse of Authority Surya Nath Upadhyaya, Former Secretary of Ministry of  Home Affairs Chandi Prasad Shrestha,  Former IGP of Armed Police Force Sanat Kumar Basnet, Former Army Major Kuber Shrestha, Former SP Dr. Chuda Bahadur Shrestha, Former Rector of Tribhuvan University Dr. Surya Lal Amatya, Former Ambassadors Dr. Mohan Prasad Lohani, Pushkar Man Sing Rajbhandari, Dr. Bishnu Hari Nepal, Former Consulate General Tamla Ukyab, University Professors/Teachers Prof. Dr. Rama Basyal, Prof Dr. Gopal Pokharel, Dr. Raj Kumar Pokhrel, Dr. Ramesh Dhungel, Prof. Dr. Uma Kanta Silwal, Dr. Hari Prasad Shrestha, Human Rights Activist Dr. Ram Dayal Rakesh, Former SOS Director D B Thapa, Former Survey Director General Toya Nath Baral, Former Chairman of Nepal Bar Association Biswo Kanta Mainali, Senior Lawyer Sindhu Natha Pyakurel, Past President of Nepal Mountaineering Association Aang Tshering Sherpa, Energy Activist Ratna Sansar Shrestha, Former Chairman of Nepal Airline Engineer Sugat Ratna Kansakar, Former Director of Nepal Airline P N Vaidya, Former Registrar of Supreme Court Shree Prasad Pandit, Greater Nepal Activist and Film Director Manoj Pandit, Senior Journalist Bhairab Risal, Capital FM 94.3 Radio Director and Journalist Byakul Pathak, Renowned Musician and Folk Song Singer Raamesh Shrestha, Chief Tax officer Bala Ram Sapkota, President of Border Concern Civic Society Chetendra Jung Himali, President of China Study Center Madan Regmi, President of JICA Alumni Association of Nepal Engineer Dilli Ratna Shakya, President of Nepal Council of World Affairs Tika Jung Thapa, ICCN Chairperson Dr. Anjan Shakya, Travelogue Writer Prateek Dhakal and so many other dignitaries and high ranking persons.

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(Collected from Kantiur Daily, Kathmandu Post Daily, Gorkhapatra Daily, Annapurna Post Daily, Weeky Telegraph, Video, Avenues Television, News24 Television, Image Channel Television etc.)           

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